Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/November 2005

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November 1[edit]

The French Encyclopedia[edit]

The date is was created and its hisorical impotance.

If you're referring to the famous 18th century work, see our article Encyclopédie. --DannyZ 02:03, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

Druids V.S. Columbus[edit]

Many say Christopher Columbus Discoverd'America..... I would rather think that The Druids were here first. Christopher Columbus didn't step on this land, he landed in Cuba I think. So, in either case, who was here first, Columbus, or the Druids?

    • A version of the Madoc story, perhaps? Shimgray | talk | 01:46, 1 November 2005 (UTC)
Nobody with a reasonable grasp of history believes that Columbus discovered America. He never even set foot on what is now called "America". He got as far as the Caribbean. JackofOz 01:51, 1 November 2005 (UTC)
Their religious affiliation is actually quite controversial, and it probably wasn't Druidism, but perhaps one of Kennewick Man's ancestors discovered North America. Maybe the Ainu?--Joel 02:04, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

You might be thinking of the Vikings, who made it to what is now the East Coast of Canada and the Northern US. Apparently they didn't think much of it, since they left after a while and didn't bother telling anyone in Europe about it. They likely thought it was just another big island, like Greenland. Columbus is usually given the credit for first letting Europeans know there was something worth exploring, which led rapidly to European colonization of the Americas. StuRat 05:27, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

Mixing up druids and vikings is like mixing up monks and astronauts. Although druids and vikings were both sort of northern european, they were separated by more than a thousand years, a completely different culture and civilization, completely different social purposes, mobility, etc... alteripse 11:55, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

I agree, but can't think of what other Northern European explorers who landed in the New World, the asker may have meant, if not Vikings. StuRat 17:34, 1 November 2005 (UTC)
I wasn't criticizing your answer, because I also guessed that Vikings must have been who the enquirer had in mind, just expressing amazement that anyone could confuse the two. alteripse 01:47, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
We have an article on the subject: see Pre-Columbian_trans-oceanic_contact and particularly Pre-Columbian_trans-oceanic_contact#Legendary_trips or Brendan for the Irish monk who just possibly may have visited America in the 6th century.-gadfium 18:43, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

I still cannot believe people actually think that someone other than the existing Native Americans "discovered" America. Come on guys. Its like saying that in 1492 no one existed in North, South or Central America. Either there were people here or there weren't. And on top of this, the school system still teaches that Columbus discovered America. What a farse!! We must stop this arrogance.

Believe it or not, the Constitutuion of the United States was formatted against the Constitution of the Iroquios Nation. Do the research.

smoking twins treated like gods by south east asian village[edit]

Can any one tell me the names and country of the 2 brothers, I think they were twins, who were treated like gods in their rural village in South East Asia? They were young brothers who smoked cigars or cigarettes. They had an explosive adult following, who exalted them to god-like status some where in south east Asia. They were in the news well over 5 years ago.

    • You rock. Thank you! :)
      • You're welcome; I'm tickled that I could help. Joyous (talk) 02:04, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

Rosa Parks question.[edit]

Who was the standing 'white man' on the Montgomery AL bus, that caused driver J.F. Blake to ask Rosa Parks to give up her bus seat in 1955? That is the one missing piece from the extraordinarily detailed info on Rosa Parks. -- 02:46, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

five phillars of Islam[edit]

The date is was created and its hisorical impotance.

You might take a look at our articles on Five Pillars of Islam and History of Islam. Also, this article might be helpful. -- DannyZ 03:15, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

is Absolutism one of these??[edit]

a political theory developed in England a theory of papal supremacy absence of any constitutional check on royal power

I don't like any of them, too simplistic. I suppose what you're really after is absolute monarchy, which may or may not be the same as political absolutism. The best asnswer is definitely the last. It did not originate from England, though the term may have, around the time of Thomas Hobbes (a proponent). Doesn't have to do with papal authoity, really. But only in the strictest sense would you say it cannot have a constitution. Historically, most non-absolute monarchies have had no constitution either. Dmcdevit·t 07:27, 1 November 2005 (UTC)


I am looking for current events that occurred in my fathers lifetime starting with 1935 through the present in increments of every 10 years (example - price of gas, cost of a stamp, current President, etc.)

Thank you

Have a look at 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s. It won't have prices, but you will find some events. Someone else may have an idea where to look for prices.. Like here? [1] - 04:57, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

also, learn to use google; this is where you should come after you used google, asking about specifics of what you could find. 19:31, 1 November 2005 (UTC)
This page could help Xil 18:29, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

What is the Forbidden city[edit]

Dates and historical importance??? Please help?

See Forbidden city (don't worry, the article isn't forbidden). StuRat 09:06, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

Canada: History[edit]

I read your page about Canada, but still have some questions.

1. Since when Canada is called Canada?

1791 the words Upper Canada and Lower Canada were mentioned. 1840 the word Province of Canada was mentioned.

2. What is the meaning of the word Canada?

3. How old is Canada? Since which year we count?

I believe the country gained independence from England in 1867. StuRat 09:03, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

Thank you.

  1. It's hard to say exactly as there are contradictory accounts of the origin of the name. It was first officially used in 1791 when Upper and Lower Canada were created, but it's clear that the name had some currency before that.
  2. There are contradictory accounts, but the most widely cited one is that it was a Huron or Haudenosaunee word picked up by Jacques Cartier in the mid 16th century. Apparently, Cartier got to some native village, grabbed the first native he found and asked, in clear, slow, loud French "Comment est-ce que vous appellez ce pays?" while pointing at the village. To which the native, not knowing French and assuming this hairy honky weirdo was a bit on the thick side, answers in clear, slow, loud Huron or Haudenosaunee "Village, you idiot, it's a VIL-LA-GE". Cartier presumed this was the name of the country and that's what he told his bosses in France. Alternately, the story occasionally circulates that it's Abenaki for "Go away, you hoser!", and that Cartier came upon the name in more or less the same manner as described above.
  3. Most Canadians count from 1867, because the modern institutions of the Canadian federal government have some continuity with those established in the British North America Act. When Canada became independent is a harder question to answer. It has enjoyed a codified legal existence as a semi-autonomous entity since 1791; the Union of Canada - the first unitary government to use that name - dates to 1840. The current institutions date to 1867. Canada did not have an independent foreign policy - usually one of the requirements for sovereignty - until 1909. Its status as an independent realm was not really fixed until the Statute of Westminster in 1931. There was no such thing as a Canadian citizen - one of the other requirements for sovereignty - until 1947. And, provinces could still challenge the constitutionality of Canadian laws before the Privy Council in London until the Constitution Act of 1982.
--Diderot 10:42, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

See also Canada's name. Ground Zero | t 14:47, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

I wonder how many North American placenames come from similar misunderstandings. Supposedly Tejas is from the Caddo word for friend. I suppose that westerners had frightened them enough that when some stopped to ask the Caddo what they called themselves they responded with friend. — Laura Scudder | Talk 16:19, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

It's really very hard to say. So few of those first contact stories survive, and so many Native Americans used very prosaic names for places anyway. The two groups I know fairly well gave almost everything a descriptive or, at any rate, boring name. But in other cases, its hard to say if they really used that name or if it was a misunderstanding because even their modern descendants don't know. The languages are lost, or undocumented, or full of names they adopted back from Europeans.
Generally, no matter how dumb they sound, Algonquian names documented after 1750 are probably reliable because by then hundreds of French traders spoke Algonquian languages fluently and didn't make dumb mistakes. But I wonder occasionally about Dene names. "Yukon" for example - "big river" - I can just see some Gwitchin telling an early beaver trader, "Dude, that's a big river!" --Diderot 17:57, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

Does Michael Moore run the political activist web site[edit]

You mean No, he does not, though he and the site certainly have complimentary viewpoints. Garrett Albright 15:11, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

Meyer Lansky[edit]

As Meyer Lansky was not Italian, what role did he play in organized crime? Did he head a crime family or comparable organization?

Try reading the Meyer Lansky article. His crime business is detailed rather well. Kainaw 18:55, 1 November 2005 (UTC)
Normally, I try not to pick on the premises of questions, but... do you really think only Italians are capable of forming criminal gangs? -- Jmabel | Talk 02:55, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Kibbutz Hama'apil[edit]

I worked on a kibbutz in Israel from mid-December 1971 to early May 1972. I think the spelling I've given is the correct one. The kibbutz was inland from Hadera, but is not listed in Wikipedia's "List of Kibbutzim", nor is it found in Google or Google Earth. Does anyone know if it still exists? Has it undergone a name change? It was small, only 500 residents, but at the time, was fairly wealthy. Thanks.

There was a Kibbutz named Hama'apil - famous for volleyball in the 70s. Kainaw 20:03, 1 November 2005 (UTC)
It still exists, albeit not as a communistic enterprise. See [2]. -- Mwalcoff 23:47, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

The Protestant and Catholic reformations[edit]

the Protestant and Catholic reformations. Who were the leaders of the Protestant Reformation? How did their doctrines differ from those of the Catholic Church? Why were they successful? Discuss the responses of the Catholic church. What impact did these events have on non-European societies?

See the articles on the Protestant Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, and do your own homework. —Charles P. (Mirv) 20:12, 1 November 2005 (UTC)

November 2[edit]

name Mexico[edit]

Who, when, where first name New Spain by the name Mexico ?

As it turns out we have an article on Mexico that answers exactly that, although it was Mexico long before it was anything Spain. — mendel  00:32, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
You might also be interested in our List of country name etymologies. Thryduulf 00:39, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

Help With the Federalist Papers[edit]

I am writing a paper, here is an exerpt:

FDR’s frustration that the judiciary was proving a major hindrance to the executive office’s attempts to solve pressing public problems by striking down crucial pieces of New Deal legislation is understandable, but his court packing scheme was preposterous. FDR was making massive changes to national economics in an attempt to remedy The Great Depression. If these changes were in the best interest of the nation is completely irrelevant, because the executive office does not have the authority to make them. A critical component of New Deal legislation involved transferring significant economic power from the legislative to the executive office. Perhaps the most notable example is the National Industrial Recovery Act, which gave the executive office the power to set working hours, wages and codes to ensure “fair competition.” This is clearly a violation of the separation of powers.

Can anyone point me to specific federalist papers that would pertain/defend my argument?

Federalist Paper #51 talks about separation of powers and checks and balances. Hermione1980 01:05, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

World War Two[edit]

Did Communism threaten America's internal security after World War Two?

              01:20, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
Yes. Especially after Ethel and Julius Rosenberg gave the Soviet Union the secret of the nuclear bomb. StuRat 01:52, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
They were hardcore communists, but I doubt they had access to nuclear bomb secrets. The circumstances and accuracy of the trial is rather fuzzy. They were executed hastily too, as the result of the growth of HUAC and McCarthyism. Much of the internal security fears (bomb drills under tables and so on) were a great way to frighten people, but didn't really have large reason to be scared. The anti-communist movies, many in the form of sci-fi done at the time also contributed to mass hysteria about the USSR. The focus on science education coupled with the space race was very convincing to many people; Americans feared that the Soviets would create a Moon base and use it as a "death star." No joke. This all contributed to internal security "issues", but many of them unfounded. The growth of American communism could have been put down even if the government condoned it, simply by nationalist individuals with nothing better to do.--Screwball23 talk 04:55, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
Anti-communism also threatened America's internal security during those years. alteripse 02:02, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
Whereas I would simply say, "no". There may have been a real external security threat, especially in the Khrushchev era, which seems to me to be the last time the Soviet Union was something other than a sclerotic empire waiting to die, but there was never a real internal security threat to speak of, and it was largely a trumped-up matter. -- Jmabel | Talk 05:46, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Closed session[edit]

What exactly is a closed session? - Ta bu shi da yu 02:44, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

If this is in reference to the U.S. Senate, it's a secret session...non-public deliberations. See [3]. - Nunh-huh 03:14, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
Do they/can they/have they had them in Australia? --Ballchef 13:30, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
Not that I'm aware of. Some Senate committees meet or are briefed in camera (in a closed session), but I've never heard of the entire Australian Senate doing so. -- Canley 02:45, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
Can senators leak information from the session? Do senators hold a security clearance? Are there laws regarding keeping closed-session information closed? Ojw 18:58, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
From the Senate Manual, I gather that all the senators can be told classified information, but if they leak it, they're subject to prosecution. Revealing non-classified information from a closed session appears to be against Senate rules but not illegal. -- Mwalcoff 22:50, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
Part of Rule 29, which Rule 21 specifies is cross-applicable, specifies that "Any Senator, officer, or employee of the Senate who shall disclose the secret or confidential business or proceedings of the Senate, including the business and proceedings of the committees, subcommittees, and offices of the Senate, shall be liable, if a Senator, to suffer expulsion from the body; and if an officer or employee, to dismissal from the service of the Senate, and to punishment for contempt." Superm401 | Talk 23:53, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

aleister crowley[edit]

i was just wondering if anyone knew what the sigillum sanctum fraternitatis a.a. is. im sure it pertains to aleister crowley because i found it on a symbol in a book about his magick but was unable to find anything about it in the book. i was also wondering if anyone knew what the symbol meant. it can be found at: thank you. -madir

You're probably looking for an explanation of the symbols? If not, "Sigillum sanctum fraternitatis" is just Latin for "Sign of the Holy Brotherhood" and the "A∴A∴" stand for "ASTRVM ARGETNEVM" or "Silver Star". There are books about it [4] - Nunh-huh 05:57, 2 November 2005 (UTC) As for the symbology, without knowing anything other than looking at it, you have a seven-pointed star, each point corresponding to a ltter in the word "BABYLON", probably as the Mother of Mysteries, and a mandorla (vesica piscis), some crosses and a lot of "7"'s in the center. The specifics of why they are there are probably not discernable without reading Crowley (and possibly not even then<g>). - Nunh-huh 06:11, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

The Tree of Life at Disney's Animal Kingdom[edit]

Is the Tree of Life at Disney's Animal Kingdom an African baobob tree (Adansonia digitata)?


It's a fourteen story sculpture made of concrete and fiberglass. I think they do say it's modeled in part on a baobab. “It is not a particular species of tree,” said the park’s chief designer, Joe Rohde. “It’s something like a baobab … It’s something like a ficus or a banyan tree with all those twisted roots coming down the side.” - Nunh-huh 05:58, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

gov. arnold schwarzenegger[edit]

see Arnold Schwarzenegger, and read the instructions at the top of this page. This is not a search engine, you need to ask specific questions to get a specific answer. Thryduulf 10:42, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

buffalo soldiers[edit]

The article doesn't specify, were the original/early "buffalo soldiers" slaves? Were they forced to partake in wars? --Ballchef 13:52, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

Look at the dates. The unit was formed in 1865 at the end of the Civil War. The good guys won. No more slaves. Besides, no modern army has had fighting units made up of slaves who were "forced to partake" so to speak. There are several examples of armies recruiting volunteer units made up of slaves, generally by promising them freedom if they won. An example was the British army during the American Revolution. I think the Confederates actually had a few small units made up of slave volunteers but I don't know what inducements they used. The Union army had several large units made up of ex-slaves and colored volunteers who distinguished themselves at Fort Wagner and other battles. alteripse 16:08, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

So does the bob marley song have any basis? the song says: "taken from the homeland... Fighting on arrival/fighting for survival" --Ballchef 02:06, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Marley, a Rastafarian, would view the black population of America as essentially largely still enslaved down to his own time. -- Jmabel | Talk 05:48, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

History Help[edit]

Where are some good resources for finding quotes and articles on how the Africans and/or Asians felt when Europeans invaded their region between 1450 to 1750 CE??

I bet Africa would be difficult here; Asia in general should not be, but I don't know my way around the literature. The first obvious question: what Asian languages do you read, or are you going to have to find everything in translation? -- Jmabel | Talk 05:52, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

winning a court case involving a SPEEDING TICKET[edit]

How can I win a speeding ticket case. I was given a speeding ticket by the CHP in California and am going to court to fight it. How can I improve my chances of winning?

Find a lawyer experienced in traffic violations. I would start by calling one of those guys who enhances the reputation of his profession by advertising on billboards that he can get you off a DUI charge. He will know the technicalities or the tactics that work in your area. I think if a traffic violation goes to court in most states, you win mainly if the issuing officer doesn't show up. Of course you can always fall back on proving that you weren't going that fast or that his method of timing you was grossly inaccurate, but I am guessing you won't be able to do that. I am also assuming the stakes are higher for you than the cost of a speeding ticket, or it would be far cheaper to pay it than to engage a lawyer. alteripse 16:22, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

It depends. If you were given it by an officer with a radar gun, you may be able to prove he was mistaken. If it was taken by an automatic camera, you have no chance, unless the image shows you going at less than the speed limit. Of course, you could try to find some lawyer who could argue that you have the God -given right, engraved in the constitution by your fore-fathers to speed, but this probably goes against the skills of even the best (or worst, depending on your viewpoint) lawyer. smurrayinchester(User), (Talk) 17:18, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
A few weeks a go there was a case in Australia where a lawyer argued that a speed camera could never guarantee that the car it had captured was speeding (something to do with the technology) and the client got off. If it was a speed camera, then I'll dig up the news story for you.--Commander Keane 18:18, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
You are extremely unlikely to get off if the officer turns up. The court will likely accept the officer's testamony over yours. Spin the wheel if you like, but also be aware that you can sometimes call the court and bargain with them. They will sometimes give you a discount on the fine in return for not turning up (it costs them a lot if you do turn up). Trollderella 20:39, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
In the UK, roads near speed cameras are marked with rows of lines 1 foot apart. These show the distance the car travelled in the time between the camera photos (generally 0.5 to 0.25 of a second). Therefore, from this the speed can be calculated. I don't know if California use the same system, but if they do, your case has no chance. smurrayinchester(User), (Talk) 20:44, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
This case turned on the verification procedures that ensured that the picture taken was actually taken at the time mentioned and that the vehicle was actually travelling at the speed claimed; for one thing, the hash algorithm they used was one that is theoretically vulnerable to attack. However, the main reason that the guy won his case was that the police couldn't organise an expert in the speed camera to explain why the ticket was indeed valid to turn up to the court. My honest opinion based on the limited evidence in the public domain were that the vulnerabilities discussed were highly unlikely to have made any difference, and if the police had have got an expert to turn up the charges would have suceeded. --Robert Merkel 02:43, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
Isn't there a case in the UK that is going to the EU Court of Human rights about about speed cameras? IIRC it hinges on all that they show is that the car is travelling that fast, and not who was driving. UK law gives the right not to be forced to give testamony against yourself, so the state cannot prove who was driving the car. Trollderella 21:05, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
Whilst I am not a lawyer, I believe the terminology for this defence argument is "playing silly buggers"... ;-) Shimgray | talk | 00:54, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
Well, even in the UK, you are presumed innocent, at least in theory, and the state has not proved that you were driving. It's not that silly. Trollderella 16:10, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
I think you're referring to a form that police send to the registered owner of a vehicle that was photographed by a speed camera, asking them to supply the name and address of the person driving the vehicle at that time. Some people refused, on the grounds that they couldn't be forced to give evidence against themselves (there's a paragraph about it near the bottom of Speed camera).
According to that article, their argument succeeded when they used it in court, but was thrown out by another court. It's not entirely clear why that second court thought that the Human Rights Act didn't apply.
In the UK, current theory on speed cameras is that
  • You can demand a calibration certificate for the camera that was valid on the date concerned, and if one isn't available, then the camera can't prove that its estimate of your speed is correct
  • Certain types of speed measurement equipment are intrinsically unreliable or inaccurate, or have features which leave them open to police interference, or generally can't be proven to be completely infallible.
  • For example it was demonstrated recently (on UK TV) that handheld laser detectors can give a higher or lower speed if the person using it so desires, by moving the point of measurement across the car. It wouldn't be possible to prove in court whether this technique was used or not, and software that's supposed to detect it happening can be trivially fooled, so data from handheld speed guns is very suspicious.
  • You can demand the photographs showing the car passing two points 0.5 seconds apart and calculate the speed yourself (then ask for proof that the camera's clock was correct)
  • You can say that you weren't driving, or that you're not going to say who was driving and
  • A numberplate identical to your own might have been attached to another car of the same type/colour -- plenty of people have received speeding tickets showing their numberplate attached to someone else's car. (Car cloning)
Of course, neither Wikipedia nor I give legal advice; usual disclaimers apply.
Ojw 19:25, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
  • We actually have a really silly and probably useless wikibook on this topic. --Fastfission 03:44, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
  • By the way, in California at least: if it is a speed camera, if you can plausibly argue that it wasn't you doing the speeding at the time (I don't know what kind of evidence they'd have about this), that is, if someone else was driving your car, they can't give you a ticket. Tickets are issued to people, not vehicles. At least, that's what a California lawyer I know once told me. --Fastfission 03:49, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
  • A good thing to do is to keep asking for date changes so that you annoy the cop and make him not want to show up. Broken S 02:40, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
I don't see why they don't make the cameras face the other way. That way, you could get a snap of who was driving as well! :-) smurrayinchester(Penny for the Guy?), (The Guy) 16:39, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
Not all states in the US require plates on the front of cars, only the back. — Laura Scudder | Talk 20:55, 4 November 2005 (UTC)


In Marco Bellocchio's movie L'ora di religione (Il sorriso di mia madre) a young woman, played by Chiara Conti, recites a poem. I would like to find it. She says it is translated from the Russian, and every stanza ends with words like "non è basta" ("it is not enough") or "ma tutto questo non basta" ("but all that is not enough"). Any ideas what poem this could be? David Sneek 17:29, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

Found it! But now I'd like to find an English translation... David Sneek 17:49, 2 November 2005 (UTC)
Sorry about all this. I had been googling for half an hour before I asked here, but somehow my searches only became effective afterwards... If anyone wants to read it: [5] David

Gang of 500[edit]

What is the Gang of 500? (Read about it in The Note.)

Hopefully, this page should be of help. It says that the Gang of 500 is "the 500 people whose decisions matter to the political news and campaign narrative we get from the major media." - Akamad 19:35, 2 November 2005 (UTC)

November 3[edit]

What's the title of this movie?[edit]

A made-for-TV movie from the 1970s about a morning radio talk show host who takes a call from a despondent teenage girl who threatens suicide (she has pills). He spends most of the movie trying to talk her out of it, but she is on the edge of going through with it. At the end of the show another caller reports that the girl has been found by authorities - can't tell if she's alive or dead - then the station cuts away to a news break over the objections of the host. He leaves the studio thoroughly pissed; I'm not sure if she lives, or if he quits his job. - anon

The best place to get an answer to a question like this is on IMDB's "I need to know" board at Jooler 02:03, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
I remember this movie. Specifically the talk-show host gets the suicidal call, and treats the caller with disdain. After she rings off another caller calls in and says the suicide threat sounds genuine. The host spends the rest of his show calling out to get his listeners to help find her, while persuading his boss to let him stay on the air to finish the job. Unfortunately I remember the plot better than the title. DJ Clayworth 18:11, 3 November 2005 (UTC)


Who was the Athenian General who set a trap for Xerxes army and his navy

Check out the Greco-Persian Wars. You might be thinking of the Battle of Salamis. — Laura Scudder | Talk 01:11, 3 November 2005 (UTC)


I couldn't find a place to make a comment so I am writing here: This site is unbelievable. What an incredible job you've all done. Amazing. Just amazing. Greg Sandell Marquette, MI

You too can join in making this site even better, see Wikipedia and Introduction. Akamad 02:37, 3 November 2005 (UTC)

who is the female singer who sings a song about jesus coming to bring Lazarus back to life?[edit]

Does anyone know this Christian song? It is a very pretty song by a female singer. It is about Jesus coming to see Lazarus who was sick and dies before Jesus gets there. Part of the lyrics read: "although he was 2 days late he was not late at all..." I would love to find out who the singer is and the title of the song. -- unsigned

Please read the rules at the top. We never email, and advise against posting email adresses here. -- Ec5618 02:27, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
The lyrics aren't quite the same, but this sounds a lot like "Four Days Late" by Karen Peck and New River. The last line of the chorus is "And isn't it great, when He's four days late, He's still on time". Full lyrics here... -- Canley 02:40, 3 November 2005 (UTC)

magic trick-crazy man's handcuffs[edit]

There is a magic trick I saw with two rubberbands that seem to pass through each other-it is close up magic and someone told me that it is called "crazy Man's handcuffs" can you tellme how it works? I cant find it anywhere

  • You probably didn't look hard enough. There's at least one page on the internet that explains this trick. Try googling it, or drop by your local magic shop and buy the effect. - 08:28, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
    • It's up to you but once you know how it is done you'll probably wish you didn't. It takes all the magic out of it. AllanHainey 11:33, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
    • It's generally considered very poor form for those who know how magic tricks work to reveal it to those who don't. If you're interested simply out of curiosity, then keep puzzling - as AllanHainey says above the magic's all gone once you know. If on the other hand you're interested in learning it to perform, then you'd be better off asking on a website for magicians. Also, a lot of magic tricks are very heavily copyrighted and protected by their creators. Noodhoog 18:55, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

Assorted international politics questions (take II)[edit]

I'm reposting the unanswered questions down here.

1. What happened to  Cape Verde's plans to introduce the €?
2. What happened to  Cape Verde's bid to join the  Europe? The last time I heard about it was sometime this spring, when a former Portuguese president launched a campaign for CV's membership in the EU...
3. What's the latest news on  Andorra's monetary agreement with the  Europe regarding the official introduction of the € and the minting of Andorran euro coins? They've been negotiating for over a year now...
4. After the successful referendum on unification in Kamchatka Oblast and Permyakia, what's the date on which Kamchatka Krai will come into existence? This seems to suggest 1 January 2007, just like the Krasnoyarsk Krai merger, but it's not definite, is it?
5. How strong is the Great Timor movement in West Timor to unite with  Timor-Leste?
6. When will  Timor-Leste introduce its own currency? I doubt they're planning to use the USD for too long, or are they?

Thanks for any information you might be able to contribute! Flag of Austria.svg ナイトスタリオン 12:30, 3 November 2005 (UTC)

Pink = Feminine[edit]

The following question has been copied from Talk:Pink:

does anyone know why pink should be regarded as a feminine colour? where does this symbolism originate from? --Cap 01:52, 13 Sep 2004 (UTC)

--TantalumTelluride 14:39, 3 November 2005 (UTC)

My guess is that pink is associated with feminism because it is a common color for flowers, symbols of natural beauty. Then again, there are some less beautiful pink things in nature, such as the tongues of many animals and the rear ends of some primates, etc. This is purely a guess; does anyone have anything else to add? --TantalumTelluride 14:39, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
Pink used to be a boy's color - a watered down red (which was a man's color). Girls wore the dainty blue. There are many references to this in the not-so-distant past.
"At one point pink was considered more of a boy's color, (as a watered-down red, which is a fierce color) and blue was more for girls. The associate of pink with bold, dramatic red clearly affected its use for boys. An American newspaper in 1914 advised mothers, "If you like the color note on the little one's garments, use pink for the boy and blue for the girl, if you are a follower of convention." [The Sunday Sentinal, March 29, 1914.]
"There has been a great diversity of opinion on the subject, but the generally accepted rule is pink for the boy and blue for the girl. The reason is that pink being a more decided and stronger color is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl." [Ladies Home Journal, June, 1918]
Pink as a feminine color didn't show up in catalogs until the 50s. I've read opinions that this was influenced by Germany. I don't see how Nazi choices in colors could have any influence on Americans. As for color choices, they are arbitrary. In China, white is for mourning and red is for purity. Wearing a white wedding gown in China then takes on a whole new meaning (perhaps more honest). Kainaw 14:51, 3 November 2005 (UTC)
I don't see how you can use the term "Nazi" as synonymous with the term "German". Valiantis 14:01, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
I believe that I made it clear I was referring to Germany before 1950, also known as Nazi Germany. Are you trying to rewrite history and erase any mention of Nazi Germany? Kainaw 20:27, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
Um... the Nazi party was the governing body of Germany until 1945. a) that means half the decade before 1950 was pretty Nazi-free; b) matters of fashion in clothing tend to be due to the populace, most of whom (history records) weren't Nazis, rather than the government. Using the term "Nazi" for "German" is unduly inflammatory, even if in a geopolitical sense it may have been accurate for that general timeframe, and is generally discouraged. Shimgray | talk | 00:21, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Wouldn't it be a hell of a lot easier if you assumed that I knew what I was talking about? The opinions that I briefly mentioned were that since the Nazi government used blue for men and pink for women during the Holocaust, the tradition carried over into the rest of the world after WWII. As I stated in my original post, I do not agree with that opinion. Kainaw 14:40, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Alternately, before getting very angry that people are complaining about your use of language, you might want to check that you're clear what that language is. You mentioned nothing about the Holocaust initially; a reference to "German choices" immediately segued to "Nazi" without explaining if that was because the holocaust bureaucracy used colour-coded indicators or if it was the hot new style of Spring '37 in Munich. To a user who didn't know what you knew, it did look like you were using the two synonymously; no information was presented to indicate otherwise, and it's (sadly) a very common thing in the English-speaking world.
But more to the point - what was the use of colours during the Holocaust, anyway? I was aware of coloured symbols for specific groups - Nazi concentration camp badges has a pretty exhaustive list - but wasn't aware of any general use of male-female distinction other than segregating them (although, as 99% of photographs are black-and-white...). Given the shortage of cloth and dyes during wartime, dressing people in coloured clothing sounds like something that would have been dropped by the beginning of the forties. Shimgray | talk | 15:09, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
(After edit conflict with Shimgray's last post). You didn't actually state any of that in your original comment which merely said "I've read opinions that this [pink as a feminine color] was influenced by Germany". Do you have a source for the Nazi regime using blue for men and pink for women "during the Holocaust"? In what way did they use it? Is there evidence that this was a novel use, rather than an established use in Germany? I appreciate that you said you don't agree with this opinion, but as you raised it as a possible explanation, I'd be grateful if you could flesh out the point. Valiantis 15:16, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
I am in no way an expert on the Holocaust. That is why I've tried to avoid the topic all together. I actually dislike the topic because I had a Jewish history teacher in high school. For "Western History 1500-present", we learned that everything was fine until the beginning of the Holocaust and nothing has happened since. So, I displace my dislike of that teacher to the whole topic of the Holocaust.
What I read is that males were marked with blue and women with pink when entering the camps. Then, they were assigned symbols. Gay men were given a pink triangle (because they were feminine). I disagree with the assumption that this influenced American's taste in clothing colors. I did a quick google to see if I could turn up anything and I found a rather exhaustive thread that begins with the two passages that I copied and pasted into my original post. I wish I found this first so I could just add a link to it. It contains a lot of quotes from others (some conflict with one another). [6] Kainaw 16:37, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Thanks for your response. To summarise what's in the Google Answers page you link to, pink was already associated in Germany with femininity by the 1930s and this is why the Nazi regime made gay men wear pink triangles as they (questionably) associated homosexuality with effeminacy. This page doesn't state anywhere that the Nazi regime itself used pink to denote women and blue to denote men; I think you've (mis)read between the lines. The symbols the Nazis used are delineated in detail in the WP article Shimgray already mentioned. What is particularly bizarre about the quote used in the Google Answers page is that it states in Germany (and other Catholic countries) blue was associated with the Virgin Mary (i.e. feminine), there follows an ellipsis, and then the quote continues with the info about pink being perceived as feminine by the 1930s in Germany. This is of course directly contradictory to the start of the quote; it would appear that the explanation of the shift in Germany was included in the omitted part of the quote. Valiantis 18:47, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Chinese bribes don't wear red to symbolize purity, but to represent vitality and vivaciousness. --Menchi 14:45, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
A fashion professor at the Art Institute of Chicago explained to me that the fashion for pink for little girls clothing and blue for little boy's clothing started in France and was popularized in the US by returning G.I.'s. She also noted that traditionally the Virgin Mary is depicted in religious art wearing blue, a tranquil, gentle, and peaceful color-- another reason that blue was previously considered a girl's color. Crypticfirefly 05:58, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

macedonia during alexander's reign?[edit]

On websites you can read all about Alexander III the Greats conquest and such but never does it tell me what life was like during his reign in the places he conquered and in Macedonia. So my question is what was life like in Macedonia and the places Alexander conquered? 19:50, 3 November 2005 (UTC)

Every couple of decades someone publishes a new version of "everyday life in ancient greece". Just check Amazon for the latest. I know greece and macedonia were not the same place, but I doubt that "what life was like during his reign" was much different. Macedonia was even more rural than greece and did not have cities with the size and history of Athens, but for most people, life was much the same regardless of who ruled. alteripse 00:09, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Flemish artist AD. ADRIAENSSENS[edit]

Does anybody know this 20 th century Flemish artist and if so, where to find his paintings ? I'm not sure if the name is written correctly...

Interview with the Vampire[edit]

I've been reading Interview With The Vampire lately, and I'd be interested if there's a name for the odd literary technique it uses - the entire story is told as direct speech, direct quotes of the titular vampire telling his story to the boy who's listening. e.g The vampire said "I did this, then that, and said 'something else'". It's not a frame story, is it? Sum0 22:22, 3 November 2005 (UTC)

  • I think it is. Unless there's a more specific name fitting the situations of the story. - Mgm|(talk) 09:02, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

November 4[edit]


Hey, Does anybody know Where some good resources for finding quotes and articles on how the Africans and/or Asians felt when Europeans invaded their region between 1450 to 1750 CE?? Please help me find this information, i could guess what they thought easily, but I need proof for school.

You won't find much googling for "European invasion of Africa". The powers (England, France, Spain, and Holland) were not interested in invading land. They were colonizing land. The Americas and Australia were invaded (the local people were kicked off their land and replaced by Europeans). Africa and Asia were colonized. The local people were put to work to produce goods for sale in Europe. Of course, I am being very general, but you need to understand the difference between colonizing land and taking over land. As for what they thought, most people were very poor. They went from being worked to death by a local landowner to being worked to death by a foreign landowner. They probably hated it both ways. Kainaw 00:21, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
Remember that attitudes probably varied. For example the British East India Company was invited into India by one of the existing rulers. Merchants and others probably welcomed the foreigners who could provide them with new trading oppotunities. Initially there was almost certainly a degree of cooperation with the new arrivals. DJ Clayworth 17:18, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

A thought you might consider re the paper you seem to be confronted with is that there was a local population in Africa and Asia and continued to be one. In N and S America, the existing population was very severly affected by diseases to which no individual had much immunity or inherited resistance. The Old World was, more or less, and increasingly more a single population with respect to disease. The New World was one also, but not for any of the new diseases brought in by those who discovered and colonized or captured as you wish the land. When de Leon came by, the Mound Builders of the lower Missisippi Valley seem to have been still there. They were gone in less than 100 years. The East coast of N America was settled by Europeans against little native oppositon because the natives had largely died off from diseases thought to be not very serious by Europeans. The effect continued across N America. When Seattle was founded, a local chief (Seattle, of course) made a very impressive speech noting that his people had been much more numerous in his youth, but were now reduced almost to nothing. His youth would have been something like 1820-30 and his speech as in the middle 1850's. See Plagues and Peoples by Wm McNeil and Guns Germs and Stell by Jared Diamond. The first is less readable than the second but well worth reading nonetheless.

Guessing about how people thought in historical times might be right, but even for recent history has as remarkably bad track record. Caution and care are Good Things in these matters, as Martha would surely say. ww 23:10, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Did Hitler himself ever kill anyone?[edit]

I can't seem to find the answer to this anywhere. I know he obviously killed many, many, MANY people indirectly, but did he ever do it single-handedly? --Impaciente 00:51, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

  • Well, himself, at least, since he commited suicide. --Bob Mellish 01:03, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
He did serve in the front lines during WWI, being wounded and IIRC taking a couple of prisoners. He was a messenger not a combat infantryman, however, and so it's not likely he killed anyone in combat. There are rumours that he killed Geli Raubal (his niece, believed to have committed suicide), but these are probably nothing more than rumours - as you might expect, pretty much anything that can be imagined about Hitler's history has been rumoured to be seedier than it actually was. Other than this (and his own suicide), I don't believe there's much indication he did. Shimgray | talk | 01:14, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

Legally, yes. Laws consider the person who orders killings just as guilty, perhaps even more guilty, than those who carry out the orders. So, whether he actually pulled the trigger doesn't much matter. StuRat 02:01, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

Actually, under Geman law at the time, his actions were completely legal. However, Impaciente specifically said "single-handedly". No one here is doubting that he was responsible for the deaths of millions, or whether his actions were unethical. I too, however, am interested in learning the answer to the actual question asked(discounting himself). Superm401 | Talk 02:16, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
I wasn't talking about laws made by the NAZIs. Obviously those who make the laws may make them so that their actions are legal. I was talking about international laws, such as those used in the Nuremberg trials against the surviving NAZIs. I'm also interested in if he killed anyone personally, but just wanted to point out that it would have been irrelevant, had Hitler ever gone on trial. StuRat 20:42, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
There were really no international laws against it either. The Nuremberg trials weren't really based on any law or treaties that existed before the Holocaust, something that made the convictions controversial. However, I think the Nuremberg trials were mostly just. Superm401 | Talk 02:57, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
During the night of the Long Knives, ordered by Hitler, the Brown Shirts were eliminated, often by murder. Hitler went to the resort where ?? (name escapes), the leader of the Brown Shirts was, and there are reports he was alone with the fellow when a shot was heard. Suicide or murder? It's not been clear. But consider that there are accounts of his behavior immediately after the failed putsch in Bavaria that have him pale and fainting from the sight of blood, his, and the deaths of the leading rank of marchers earlier. See the most recent (2 vol) magesterial biography of Hitler.
Not much chance he personally did in Geli as he was rather far away at the time. But the Party covered everything anyway. ww 23:23, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Text art[edit]

What do you call the art that is produced just through the use of text? Theshibboleth 02:18, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

Ascii art. I think it's very impressive myself, especially when produced without a special program. Superm401 | Talk 02:20, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
And before ascii art was typewriter art, like these by Paul Smith, which are more impressive still! — mendel     #    23:59, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

Australian Government[edit]

I was wondering if anyone can tell me how much the Australian Government spends in total per year on schools in Australia ( both private and public).Thanks Ali K

The Australian Government's budget site states that:
"The $1 billion Investing in Our Schools Programme will directly assist schools throughout Australia over the five years to 2008-09. $700 million in new funding will be injected into state and territory schools throughout Australia to help repair, replace or install new items critical to the schools’ overall infrastructure needs. A total of $300 million in new funding will be provided over the same period to Catholic and independent schools through the Block Grant Authorities."
I hope that's what you are looking for. I would also imagine that more money comes in from the state governments. Akamad 10:34, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
For a total figure, you should go through the budget papers, not only for the federal government, but the state governments (if you want that information too) for instance, the Victorian government's budget paper 3 for 2005-6 has figures for the Victorian Department of Education and Training (you can download it from this page). Most funding for government schools comes from the states, rather than the federal government.--Robert Merkel 12:43, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
The federal government gives each state a sizeable portion of their budget for education, though. When looking for the total spending you need to ensure you don't count the federal grants twice. The total of the spending from the states should be the most reliable sum, as it incorporates the federal spending. Natgoo 22:03, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

Cambodian Civil War: Concequences.[edit]


we are making a site, and we need te know some information of the Concequences of the Cambodian Civil War. We really need this information for our Site, because else we are are going to fail for this Class... If you have any information, can you please send it to (email removed)? if you don't know what war we mean, the one with Pol Pot, about 1967 to 1975. our site is at the moment not yet really online, because we want to have it finished first. If we are ready, you can visit us at We really want to thank you because we used a lot of information of Wikipedia.


Joris Engbers en Johnny Gabraail

  • We've got tons of relevant information. See Pol Pot, Cambodia, Democratic Kampuchea and Khmer Rouge among others. Please note that the instructions at the top of this page tell you to check back for answers and that leaving your email here, might give you a lot of spam in return. Spammers harvest this page and mirrors that copy our information. - 13:59, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

Egyptian weather forecast[edit]

Ever since watching the scorchio sketches I always wondered whether countries like Egypt broadcast regular weather forecasts, or whether such things would be completely redundant? Shantavira 10:26, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

Indeed they do. See: Egypt], South Africa and Zimbabwe for example. I don't see why they shouldn't anyway. Surprisingly, Africa gets weather other than 'Scorchio'. smurrayinchester(Penny for the Guy?), (The Guy) 13:18, 4 November 2005 (UTC)


How is the Richest Indian

Very comfortable, I'm sure. Nelson Ricardo 11:42, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
And How High is a Chinaman. If you mean WHO is the "richest man in India", Googling the phrase suggests it's Azim Hasham PremjiShantavira 12:38, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
According to Forbes. See Azim Premji. He makes cooking oil and software. smurrayinchester(Penny for the Guy?), (The Guy) 13:01, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
Seems like a perfectly standard combination. :-) Akamad 13:26, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
They might also mean "who is the richest Native American ?". StuRat 16:12, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

or it might be somebodies i dea of a joke considering the native americnas in some areas said "how" for hello

I think that it means Who is richest indian it`s very easy to misspell word that has similar letters, specialy if word is three letters long. I`ve heard about man whose name is Lakshmi, I don`t remember surname, but he`s form India and is one of richest men in world, I gues he`s richest man who can be caled indian

Six Degrees to Kevin Bacon[edit]

I've just read the article and done a websearch, but does anyone know of any article or interview where Kevin Bacon makes any comment on the game he's given his name to?

He spoofed the game in a commercial, see Kevin Bacon. David Sneek 12:22, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
On an interview I saw on television a long time ago, he stated that at first he was offended. He took it as "who is this Kevin Bacon guy and why does he have any right to be in movies?" Then, he realized that the game works because he has been in so many films. Kainaw 18:47, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
"Bacon says, 'I am the only [actor] with a game! And I have to admit, I dig that.'" [7] The link isn't a full interview, but I found it by a search using "dig" because I remembered reading or hearing a longer piece with that comment from him. JamesMLane 02:52, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
When the November 7 issue of People Magazine asked several celebrities what their tombstones would read, Bacon's reponse was "No Oscars, but at least I have a game named after me." --Moriane 02:39, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Ozzy osborne[edit]

Which witch did ozzy osborne sing about in 1980?

Do you mean Aleister Crowley? It was in 1981 (on Blizzard of Ozz and Crowley isn't really a witch. Kainaw 20:43, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

Sherman Antitrust and Sherman Silver Purchace Act[edit]

Does anyone know if the Sherman Silver Purchase Act was supported by the same person who supported the Sherman Antitrust Act, John Sherman?--ViolinGirl 15:36, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

Yes, it was: [8]. And the Sherman tank was named for his brother, General William Tecumseh Sherman. Now I am wondering if Sherman Hemsley and Mr. Peabody "and his boy Sherman" were named after them, too. StuRat 17:21, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
Thanks so much! I appreciate your help.--ViolinGirl 18:07, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
You're welcome. StuRat 20:35, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

indian economy[edit]

did mixed economy bring about any development & progressin india?how?

Read the top of this page: Do your own homework. Kainaw 20:48, 4 November 2005 (UTC)

The socalist polcies subscribed to are now seen as barriers to development

That is probably the majority view. Nonetheless, if you want to look at where they seem to have had some positive effect, at least on things like literacy and mortality, you might look for information on Kerala. I suspect that there are other regions where something similar could be said, this is the one I most know about. -- Jmabel | Talk 06:01, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Indian history[edit]

In which ways did the socio_religious reform movements contribute to the rise of nationalism in india?

The text book you have for that class should be of help. Akamad 00:05, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

Astrid Lindgren[edit]

I am wanting to find out which languages was the book Karlsson on the Roof by Astrid Lindgren translated into? Many thanks, Mona

This site claims it has been translated into 76 languages. If you scroll down to the "Did You Know" section on the page, they go through some of the languages. Akamad 05:17, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

It`s surely translated in latvian. That page say that Mio, my son is called Mio, my Mio in french and polish. How it is caled in orginal language ? Xil 20:39, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

How does Europe generally feel about cosmetic surgery?[edit]

How do Europeans generally feel about plastic surgery? Perhaps breast augmentation more specifically. And France More specifically.

Thank you for your answers.

I think I heard on TV recently something about French women have more breast reduction surgery than surgery to increase size. But I'm not sure if that's statistically true. As for Europeans in general... well in the UK it's pretty much accepted as something some people do. Sum0 22:06, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
I find it interesting that you phrased the question like this, since cultural and ethical standards are not as homogenous in the  Europe as they are in the  United States... But I suppose you weren't aware of it. ::shrugs:: Anyway, I'd say that it's "generally" not regarded as scandalous, but still noteworthy. It's definitely not common-place, though. Flag of Austria.svg ナイトスタリオン 23:19, 4 November 2005 (UTC)
As against the culturally homogeneous United States?? Have you ever travelled in the U.S.? Just to stick with one ethnicity, the U.S. produced both Colin Powell and Malcolm X. Does that really sound homogeneous? Or maybe those terribly similar white Protestant leaders William Sloane Coffin and Pat Robertson? Or those terribly similar cities Boston, Massachusetts and Honolulu, Hawaii? Get real. -- Jmabel | Talk 06:21, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
Yes, compared with Europe, the US is culturally homogeneous. For a start virtually everyone in the US speaks as first language one of two languages (English and Spanish). Go and look at how many languages are spoken in Europe. Elected officials in Europe (not just candidates) range from the openly racist to the openly Communist. Food, religion, sports, television - compared with the US Europe is extremely diverse in all those areas. And finally there are still some places in Europe (though not many) where you can't find a Macdonalds. Need I say more. DJ Clayworth 18:16, 7 November 2005 (UTC)


Why can't people look up the complete unabridged copy of the Patriot Act as it was voted upon? It is not even recognized on any search engine I have found. RMH From Alaska

The text of the Patroit Act is here (PDF file). -- 22:54, 4 November 2005 (UTC) is a table of contents you can't get into. at least w/ my average comp. program. location [] claims not to exist. or mabye I'm not understanding it. Please help me if I'm wrong.

Try this site. - Akamad 04:55, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

I still don't think this is what I am looking for. What I want to see is the patriot act as it was voted on ( the complete unabridged copy ), w/o the editing I so often run into. every citizen should w/ the simplest means be able to read the exact document our represenatives read. in this copy i still see there have been items stricken, but I will continue to read. If you come across a more exact doc. please show. thank you for all the help

I assumed that this was the complete version that was voted on. But if you are unsure, perhaps it is best to write to your representative and ask him/her. Akamad 02:20, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
What makes you think parts have been stricken? Superm401 | Talk 03:01, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

take sec. 104 for example. this reads section 2332e of title 18 of the united states code (50 U.S.C. 1702) is amended... by striking 2332c and inserting 2332a and by striking 'chemical'. this is in the begining if the act and still does not actually tell what the new way is. And if every congressman and senator had to do their homework it would have taken longer than fourty-three days to pass it. especially since it supposedly wasn't even written until 9-12-01 but as I said mabye I'm wrong. And asking my state rep is a good idea.

That doesn't mean the Patriot Act is being modified. It means an existing law is being changed by the Patriot Act. I agree that is a bit complicated. The "secret" to the quick passage was that some (perhaps most or all) senators didn't actually read it in full. They got staff and colleagues to summarize it and passed it on their advice. Superm401 | Talk 19:21, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
Unfortunately, that's the way Congress works. In most state legislatures, the bills show the existing statutory language that's being changed. Not in Congress. You have to actually go back to the statutes and compare every section. The Congressional Research Services prepares summaries of each section, and the members may get summaries from their party caucus. But Superm401 is right -- it's highly unlikely that most members read the entire bill before voting on it. They rarely do; members of Congress are very busy people and vote on hundreds of pieces of legislation every year. -- Mwalcoff 22:39, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

How is tha prudent to the american citizens who don't rightly have the time to do all that reaserch? Isn't it supposed to be redily available for any one person who wants to learn it? And not so difficult as the articles, sub-articles, and sub article tabs?

November 5[edit]

Da Vinci Sleeping Schedule[edit]

It's been claimed by many (most notably on a Seinfeld episode) that Leonardo Da Vinci slept only 15 minutes every few hours. Is there any truth to this legend? if not, any idea the origin of the legend? --Alecmconroy 00:09, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

It's called Polyphasic Sleep.
True-- but is there any evidence Da Vinci slept that way?Alecmconroy 22:11, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
No idea on Leonardo, but Thomas Edison did. -- Jmabel | Talk 06:26, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

The 3/5 Compromise[edit]

Where did the "3/5" figure come from in the infamous Three-Fifths Compromise? Was it simply a random number or was it calculated from something?

This is the first time I have heard of this, but I suspect it has to do with the following: Notice 3/5 = 0.6 ~ 1/e. Now, where does this number come from? Let's use an example.
Suppose you are on a game show, and there are N rooms, all lined up on a wall. You are told that behind each room is a monetary prize, each of a different value. You can open a door at a time, and every time you open a door, you must decide whether to keep the prize or move on to another door. Assuming you want to find the room with the largest value, what's the best strategy to do this? (By default, you keep the prize in the last door).
First, find the number N/e. Let's call this number X. Open the first X doors, and keep track of the largest value within these doors. Then, keep opening doors until you find the next one with the highest value, and keep that one. Approximately 1/e ~ 60% you will find the largest prize. --HappyCamper 03:03, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
I suspect the question is about the U.S. government: that is, the decision at the Constitutional Convention reckoning slaves as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of taxation and representation. The compromise was between Northern states and Southern states and is part of the Constitution. ("Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.") That said, I have no idea how they came up with it except dickering. - Nunh-huh 03:35, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
According to this account, the three-fifths ratio had been kicking around for a few years, having been proposed as an amendment to the Articles of Confederation. Of course, that merely pushes the question back in time. The ratio was used for apportioning state-by-state taxes (back in those days before a federal income tax), so the compromise may have been based partly on a rough estimate of the economic productivity of a slave as opposed to a free person. JamesMLane 05:08, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Oh, I really doubt that. The North didn't want slaves to be counted at all, while the South wanted them to be fully counted (and were willing to accept the additional tax burden this would cause). The South got the best of this deal -- the 3/5 compromise gave them sufficient power in Congress and the Electoral College that in 12 of the first 16 elections, a Southern slave owner won. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 05:23, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

Hmm...silly me. This is after all the humanities subpage of the RD. :-) --HappyCamper 05:01, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
The Convention had several problems. The biggest was that the southern states were intent on preventing anything they thought might lead to being pushed around by the rest. By and large the North was a trading and increasingly manufacturing place and becoming urbanized, while the South was rural and agricultural and no one saw any prospect of that changing. Small states (population) were afraid of being overwhelmed by large states, and so on.
Much of this was addressed in a series of compromises. The South wouldn't leave the Convention in a bloc if the others wouldn't... Roger Sherman of Conn was the central broker in most of these. In some sense, he should get credit as the Farther of Constitution, instead he's forgotten. See Cunningham and Cunningham, Miracle in Philadelphia for a readable account of historical research (mostly from the 50s if memory serves).
Where the actual value comes from is something else. perhaps it was a legacy as suggested above? ww 23:42, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

World`s oldest book[edit]

What is the oldest book ever written?

This article claims the oldest existing multipage book to be over 2500 years old. Written in the extinct Etruscan language. It is a small manuscript which "contains six bound sheets of 24 carat gold, with illustrations of a horse-rider, a mermaid, a harp and soldiers." - Akamad 04:51, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Note that the claim is using "book" to mean flat sheets of (gold) paper bound on one side. So, it is ignoring scrolls and tablets. I would like to know what the oldest written book/scroll/tablet/etc... is. I know engravings in buildings (like the pyramids) are old, but you can't carry a pyramid around. Kainaw 16:51, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
According to this site [9] the earliest writting is a clay tablet found in Pakinstan, dating back 5500 years.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is in tablet form (take one daily) and is therefore portable, c. 4000 years old, and crucially; worth reading. MeltBanana 23:53, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

I've read that the I Ching is possibly 5000 years old (with major changes over the years), but I don't know if that's even halfway accurate. Any clarification? Ashibaka (tock) 06:13, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Heavy Metal in Scandanavia[edit]

In searching through WP, I seem to find a disproportionate number of heavy metal bands from Scandanavian countries. Am I wrong about this, or is heavy metal really popular there? If so, why? I read heavy metal music, but it didn't even mention Northern Europe; it mainly focused on the U.S. and England. What gives? Meelar (talk) 07:03, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

The Scandinavian metal bands tend to be sub-genre bands, try death metal and black metal. If you feel the heavy metal music page needs to be less focussed on the US and the UK, be bold! Natgoo 12:21, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Ah, just found Scandinavian death metal through death metal. Thanks! As for the fixing, I know very little about heavy metal; wouldn't really feel competent making major changes. Best, Meelar (talk) 16:20, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

melanie hampshire[edit]

Whatever became of Melanie Hampshire, 1960s UK fashion model, and contemporary of Jean Shrimpton et al?

Melanie appeared on the cover of Vogue and various other periodicals.

Along with others, she appeared in Antonioni's 'Blow Up'.

La Academia mexican television show[edit]

is this show a franchise? e.g. of the Star Academy, Operacion Triunfo or Pop Idol formats? or is it wholly original? seems nobody knows the facts, i guessed Star Academy originally, and added it to the articles, but now see it spawned its own international spin-off shows so does that mean its actually original? Niz 10:58, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

Four Fingers[edit]

I was recently made to alter one of my projects for the Japanese market because the characters had four fingers which is apparently a no no over there. What do the Japanese have against four fingers? I was thinking it had to do with the dragon claw thing or the yakuza pinky chopping deal.

Also, when cartoons such as the Simpsons or Mickey Mouse are brought to Japan do they get an extra finger?

Yubitsume may indeed be a factor, but it might not be the only one. More likely, whoever is making you do the alteration is wanting to make your work look less foreign, as pretty must all humanoid comic/cartoon characters created in Japan have all five fingers. An extra finger is not added to American cartoon characters. Garrett Albright 12:38, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
Four is a bad number in China and Japan because the word for it (sounds like "say") is a homonym with "death". (Chinese and Japanese are unreleated languages, but Japanese borrowed a lot of Chinese words nonetheless, and the superstition came with them.) Table place settings are sold only in sets of five; used-good shops are full of sets of four whose owners quit using them after one piece was broken; and restaurant tables are never pre-set for four, only three, until a party of four arrives (you see this in some Japanese restaurants in North America, too). But of course, cars have four doors and the year has four seasons and they seem to have no problem with that, so the question I'd ask is: did your project actually test poorly with Japanese audiences, or did some self-appointed localization expert grace you with their wisdom? Sharkford 20:07, 5 November 2005 (UTC)
I don't know about Chinese, but the Japanese word for "four" is actually pronounced as "shi" (or "yon," but "shi" is the one that sounds like death.) Garrett Albright 03:23, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
Quite right. I believe it is in Cantonese that "sei" is the four/death homonym. Thanks for catching that. Sharkford 17:14, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
for more on the four-fingered salute in Japan, see [10]. The most famous four-fingered cartoon character is, of course, Mickey Mouse; no adjustment was made in the number of fingers when he is used in Hong Kong Disneyland [11], so perhaps Japan doesn't mind so much anymore. See also [12] and [13] for a discussion of simulated four finger characters in Japan. - Nunh-huh 04:33, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

i need an email address for the adelphi theatre and theatre royal drury lane bcoz i need a work experience placement for arts management and cant get an adress could you help?[edit]

Try searching on AllanHainey 09:01, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

If you want anything from the theater department in Adelphi, you should talk to Prof. Nick Petron. He is the big man in the theater dept. You can email him, FRANK AUGUSTYN, MARGARET R LALLY, TREBIEN POLLARD, BRIAN A ROSE, or SEAN R.SULLIVAN, but remember, Petron is the big man. All their email addresses are on the Adelphi website under Faculty and Staff and then clicking Profiles. If you need an internship, you can go to the Center for Career Development too. Have fun!--Screwball23 talk 20:58, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
I think the poster means the Adelphi Theatre, London since they also mention the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Anyway, if you go to Google and type "adelphi theatre london address" (without the quotes) then the very first link takes you to a page which gives you the address and phone number of the Adelphi. The same procedure will give you the same information for the Theatre Royal, but it's a few links down the page. DJ Clayworth 18:35, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

The Four Humours in Relation to Shakespeare's Plays[edit]

I know that the four humours were a major piece of Elizabethan Society. I was just wondering if anyone could find quotes or specific instances of the four humour in Shakespeare's plays.

You may not find them all together, but references to the theory abound in Shakespeare's works (see [14] for one exposition). Hamlet's melancholy is probably the best-known instance; you can search for other examples easily enough. —Charles P. (Mirv) 18:21, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

Legality of posting song lyrics[edit]

(This question was returned from the archive due to an ongoing question)

I was wondering if it is legal to post song lyrics on to a web site without express permission from the copyright owner. I thought that maybe it would be considered fair use under the U.S. Copyright Law. I plan to use it on a wiki that would be a free resource for music. It would be much more complete if lyrics could be posted. If you know this please respond.

Thank you, Shardsofmetal [ Talk | Contribs ] 17:45, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Contemporary song lyrics are almost all copyrighted, and posting without permission is a copyright violation. Extensive quotation would almost certainly not have a fair use defense. -- Jmabel | Talk 19:33, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I know of a website hosted here in the UK that had extensive Bonzo Dog Band lyrics that later had to remove them. I'm certain it didn't actually go to court, but I'm sure the law is there to enforce such requests. At any rate, there are already SO MANY lyrics sites out there, it would be great if you could use wiki technology for something more original. --bodnotbod 00:35, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Would it be legal if the page that links to the page displays the record label? Also, the site would be educational, because it would display more than just lyrics. The site isn't intended to be based around lyrics, and it isn't a big deal if we can't display lyrics, however it would be an additional resource the site could provide if it is legal.

Thank You, Shardsofmetal [ Talk | Contribs ] 03:30, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Short answer: reproducing the lyrics of entire songs is probably not fair use in almost any context. If you were doing a sustained criticism or analysis of them, maybe, but even then, maybe not. A huge part of fair use is the amount of the work used — in the case of song lyrics, this means that quoting them in their entirety is likely not fair use. See our page on fair use for more information. Whether you link to the record label means nothing, though being educationcal can help in a fair use claim (but such would only be one part of the larger equation). However if you are quoting them in their entirety, it is still likely not fair use. --Fastfission 02:42, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

Just wondering, do most lyrics sites get permission from the record labels to post lyrics, or do they just do it illegally?

Illegally, I believe. Superm401 | Talk 04:32, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
How many songs are involved? If it is only the odd one or two I suggest you contact the publisher explaining what you would like to do and why. If it is educational (and especially if they think they might get some free publicity) they might well give you permission for free or for a modest fee. They are more likely to grant permission if you are not proposing to use the entire lyric. That's how it works in book publishing anyway. Shantavira 12:22, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

Thank you everybody for your help. You have all been real helpful. Thanks again, Shardsofmetal [ Talk | Contribs ] 15:13, 6 November 2005 (UTC)


Having been a big fan of the books as a youngster, I recently read one of Bernard Cornwell's Sharpe novels for the first time in many years, and hugely enjoyed it. It led me to thinking about the real-life examples of British army officers during the Napoleonic Wars who had been promoted from the ranks, something which was by all accounts an extremely rare occurrence, and when it did happen they rarely went very far. I definitely remember Cornwell being interviewed on BBC Radio 2 a few years back and mentioning that he had found one example of such an officer who had, like Sharpe, become a Lieutenant-Colonel by the time of the Battle of Waterloo, but I'd be interested in finding out more about officers who came up from the ranks. I've tried searching online, but obviously it's tricky as a lot of internet searches for this sort of thing simply bring you to Sharpe websites. So basically, can anyone recommend any decent books / webpages that give any coverage to real-life officers who were promoted from the ranks in the British army during this period? Many thanks in advance. Angmering 21:35, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

The book Redcoat (Richard Holmes, 2002, not the Cornwell novel of the same name) is a pretty good non-expert book on the army of the 1750-1850 period; there's a couple of interesting passages on "ranker officers" (summary: there were a lot more subalterns and so forth promoted from the ranks than previously thought; in 1756 two regiments alone promoted seven NCOs to officer rank between them), and some short summaries of individual officers given as examples. There's also an excellent long bibliography, and some directly cited references, which should keep you going if you want to drill down further. Shimgray | talk | 22:04, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

November 6[edit]

Photographers who have photographed dynamic laser imagery with an analog camera[edit]

Over twenty-five years ago from 1979-80 American photographer/artist Carl E. 'Djinn' Lewis with an analog Canon F1 (and no flash) ‘captured’ light illusions, twenty by forty foot jissereau (freeform) laser projections. These images, created by laserist Robert Mueller who played the argon-krypton laser like a piano, were refractions of the particulate matter with each hue changing in all aspects, configuration, hue, saturation, intensity, et al. Is there any one else documented as having done this?

Peter Jackson[edit]

I saw an interview with Peter Jackson concerning his new King Kong movie. Jackson has lost a lot of weight. Does anybody know if it's the result of dieting, or has he had surgery? User:Zoe|(talk) 05:04, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

The answer is all there in the Peter Jackson article. Happy reading. Cheers JackofOz 07:57, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
Duh. I should have read that first. Thanks, Jack. User:Zoe|(talk) 07:58, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

Felt made of wood[edit]

Why is the felt made of wool from the family's animals?

I have no idea what you're asking. Could to rephrase the question? And please read the rules at the top. -- Ec5618 09:17, 6 November 2005 (UTC)
See our article on felt. Felt making predates weaving and knitting as it requires very little equipment. Shantavira 12:29, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

Has the UK derogated from article 5 of the ECHR[edit]

I know in the past the UK has derogated from article 5 of the European Convention on Human Rights as is permissable in times of emergency - for internment during some Northern Ireland stuff. But what I want to know is if we are currently derogated (derogatised? derogatificated?) from article 5 and if the government has publicly considered doing so if we are not currently - for all this 90 days detention without trial business. Thanks. -- 16:48, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

I believe we are still opted out from article 5, though the legallity of that opt out is doubtful since 2004 when the Law Lords ruled that the act of detaining foreign nationals without trial was illegal under the act.[15]. I haven't heard a great deal about the ECHR in this debate so presumably the Gov just intends to ignore it until there is a challenge. Not sure whether it would specifically prevent the UK from holding suspects without trial either as in France I believe they can hold them for up to 2 years without charge for terrorism offences. Hopefully it'll be defeated in the Commons (& if not it certainly will be in the Lords) though. AllanHainey 16:15, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Common Japanese names[edit]

What is the most common Japanese given name? It may seem obvious but I can't seem to find the answer anywhere.-- XenoNeon 17:16, 6 November 2005 (UTC)

Please see article Japanese name. Grumpy Troll (talk) 19:55, 6 November 2005 (UTC).

The article doesn't note Taro Watanabe, the common placeholder name ("Joe Schmo"). Ashibaka (tock) 06:15, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

history of performing arts in miami, florida,1900-1980[edit]

seeking knowledge of pro-mozart society and successors to university of miami symphony which ended its perfomances in 1962

147th. US Army Airways Communication Service[edit]

Do you have any information on a radio/radar staion operated by the United States Army Airways Communication Service on Mount Alutom on Guam during WWII?

My father supervised 9 men at this station. I have pictures my father took.

Randy Clarke [email removed]

Not much luck finding anything this detailed. Reasonable starting place might be Battle of Guam. Also, consider Google search for "Mount Alutom". Perhpas an article on your father's division needs to be written?Gaff ταλκ 00:38, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

settlers and rennies[edit]

Could you please tell me, how to play Rennies and Settlers? It is very important, I would be grateful for an answer )

Rennies & Settlers are 2 types of indigestion tablets, don't know how you play them though.

History of Blacks in CA[edit]

6.5% of Californians are black. I've always wondered-- when and under what circumstances did blacks come to California. I don't think California was ever a slave state, so I don't imagine they were brought by slave trade. Did they accompany the original california settlers? was there a separate later mass migration after the civil war? and in general-- the current figure is 6% of the population-- what would that number have looked like 50,100,and 150 years ago?--Alecmconroy 12:42, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

I put a copy of this question down here since it was posted on November 8, all questions should be posted at the bottom of the page, this should happen automatically when you click "ask a new question by clicking here." Akamad 13:01, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
There have been blacks in Los Angeles, California since its founding. --Ancheta Wis 03:29, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

November 7[edit]

Humanities: Historic Occupations - Web Weaver[edit]

While I was doing genealogical research I discovered a number of people in the eighteenth and ninetheenth centuries have their occupation defined as "Web Weaver".

I am unable to determine what this occupation is, although I assume it something to do with textiles. Searches on Wiki and Google result in definitions which relate either to the Internet or to spiders!

-- Lawrence A Davidson

The original meaning of web is any woven fabric; specifically a whole piece of cloth in process of being woven or after it comes from the loom (OED), so a web weaver is a weaver of whole pieces of cloth (on an industrial scale rather than weaving individual items). Shantavira 10:46, 7 November 2005 (UTC)


What time period did the ancient australian aboriginals populate australia?

The article on Indigenous Australians states that they first arrived 40 000 - 50 000 years ago. Akamad 02:54, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
  • Do note, though, that there's still aboriginals there today, although in much smaller numbers. - 13:47, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
Today there are approx. 500,000 Indigenous Australians. On arrival, their population would have very very small I would imagine, but by 1788 (european settlement) there was estimated to be anywhere between 300,000 and 1,000,000. --Ballchef 23:50, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

How did muezzins call out the adhan in the past?[edit]

In Malaysia I happened to be a trip and I heard the adhan over a loudspeaker in the middle of a plantation in the jungle from a mosque at least 500-1,000 metres away. This sparked my curiosity about how it is done in the past. After all, I understand that in larger cities, it would be need to be heard by all (or most of the population) over a wide area in the middle of a bustling city in Saudi Arabia for example, before any type of electronics (or before Edison invented his phonograph, for that matter) allowed the use of amplification of the voice. The minaret is one thing, but is there a special vocal technique used by muezzins in aiding the carrying of the voice? I mean, I can't envision me calling out even at the top of say a building six-seven storeys high and someone 500 metres away hearing it clearly. -- Natalinasmpf 02:07, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Cities were geographically much smaller in the past. If you go to European cities you will often find landmarks (churches, etc) that used to be in a field on the edge of town and are now in the heart of the city. Not only were populations were much smaller in those days, but also the percentage of the population that lived in cities was much smaller than it is today. Urbanization, vast migrations of people leaving rural areas and moving into the cities, is a relatively modern phenomenon brought about by the industrial revolution. Before, most people were peasants in farms and only a relatively small number of tradespeople lived in cities. The automobile also contributed greatly to urban sprawl, the distances people routinely travel these days would have been completely impractical in earlier times. Most things would be within walking distance. Also, cities were considerably quieter in those days: there was plenty of talking and maybe yelling in marketplaces, but none of the pervasive modern hum of machinery (air conditioners, cars, etc) that drowns out faint faraway sounds. Finally there is undoubtedly a vocal technique to make voices carry farther. Opera singers are trained to sing loud enough not to need a microphone, it would be natural if the call to prayer also involved a certain amount of training and technique. And obviously a larger city could easily have a number of mosques, not just one... in earlier times when attendance at prayers was more or less mandatory for everyone, and architecture wasn't advanced enough to create today's very large buildings, the mosque itself would probably only be large enough to accommodate people from the local neighborhood anyway. -- Curps 05:10, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Rolling Stones Singles[edit]

The Wiki shows the Stones single Street Fighting Man being released with the same b-side(No Expectations) and at the same time US & UK. But the singles collection shows Surprise Surprise as the UK b side and released 2 years later July 1970. Anyone know the correct answer

Patricia Cornwell[edit]

Hi! I read somewhere that Patricia Cornwell does not sign on her books anymore. Is this true? This article also claims that this is the result of a signing incident at the Scranton Library in Madison, CT. Do you have any facts about this? Thank you very much.

The only evidence I have to the contrary is the signed Patricia Cornwell book on my shelf, signed October 2, 2005. Was this CT incident before or after the 2nd of October?

--Moriane 02:36, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Sailors, 1945[edit]

When did the Sailors come home, into NY Harbor, after V Day, 1945? I always see this in movies but can't find data to support names of ships, numbers of sailors, or exact dates of arrivals.

I appreciate your time.

Public reaction to the Apollo 11 moon landing[edit]

Can anyone provide any insight to the general public reaction to the Apollo 11 moon landing? Did this consume the mass media for the weeks and months to follow? Was this the kind of event that left an indelible lifelong memory of where you were when it happened? Thanks, Shawn 05:27, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

I certainly remember where I was when it happened - sitting in primary school listening to it on the radio. I think it was one of those events where a large proportion of Western people would remember where they were when it happened - like the Sept 11 attacks (which I heard on the radio when I first woke up, and my first thought was it must be a "War of the Worlds"-like play). For Americans, the assassination of Kennedy would be another such event, although I'm not sure whether the rest of the world would have been as involved. Sputnik might possibly have been an earlier one.-gadfium 05:43, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
The general public reaction was that nearly all of the US population and many others around the world were glued to their television sets as the landing occurred. Yes it was an indelibly big deal. It was the major media event in the summer of 1969. alteripse 05:53, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
Talking to my parents and teachers about that time, it was a huge deal here in Australia as well. One of my schoolteachers told us that he took photos of the television to record the event. I hope we land on Mars some time in my lifetime.--Robert Merkel 06:21, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
We have, many times. If you mean land a person on Mars, that could take a while, as manned missions cost many times more, and contribute less to science, than robotic missions (are those Mars rovers still going ?). If the cost comes down to a reasonable level, it might first be done as a publicity stunt, though. StuRat 19:12, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
Yes, the Mars rovers and the orbiters have been amazing (and the rovers are *still* going), and they're relatively cheap. But, considering the limitations of AI and the fact that Mars is many light-minutes away from earth, they have severe limitations. A small team of human geologists, even hampered by Martian conditions, could accomplish so much more than the rovers can. And if you want a publicity stunt, isn't that a much more impressive one than a half-built Skylab replacement, which costs a similar amount to keep going? --Robert Merkel 22:19, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
There's not a great deal of evidence that robotic missions contribute less to science -the debate is whether they're less cost-effective. Orbital work, obviously, is far better done robotically... but a day's work on one site for a rover could be done by a competent human geologist in about fifteen minutes. Shimgray | talk | 22:35, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

New Orleans Mint[edit]

Does anybody know if the New Orleans Mint has reopened yet?

It is operated by the LA State Museum. Their phone is 225-342-5414. Kainaw 16:12, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

50s Housewife Drug[edit]

I recall learning about some drug that was fairly common among housewives in the '50s. I think it had a color in its name. Something like Black Betties or something. I think they were downers. Am I just making this up? Thanks. --LV (Dark Mark) 15:44, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

You are probably referring to valium - which was described in a rather nice Rolling Stones song. Kainaw 16:03, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
That might have been what it was, but there was a specific "cute" name, not just the drug name. Any thoughts? --LV (Dark Mark) 17:01, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
The Rolling Stones song talks about "mother's little (yellow) helpers". See the lyrics here.
"A Rolling Stone gathers no moss...unless we're talking about Keith Richards." StuRat 18:39, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

The 1950s saw the introduction of the first antipsychotic drugs categorized as "tranquilizers" like Thorazine and Milltown (meprobamate). Tricyclic antidepressants came next. Anxiolytic benzodiazepine agonists like Librium and Valium date only from the late 1960s and early 1970s. Before that, the principal sedatives were barbiturates like Seconal and Nembutal, which had been available for decades. I suspect it is a barbiturate you are thinking of, but don't remember the "street names". The whole idea of "street drugs" and recreational drug taking dates to the late 1960s and represents a different social setting and different interpretations and functions. alteripse 18:29, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

According to the article on Seconal, it was referred to by the names "Reds" and "Dolls". There are no nicknames listed in the article for Nembutal. Shawn 25px 19:02, 8 November 2005 (UTC)


I am researching the life of my great great uncle Edward Hoare (fondly referred to as Edward the biscuit) who was born in Gloucester and fought with Garibaldi and was awarded a commendation scroll in 1861 for his services. All written in Italian and badly faded. I am very curious to know how this country gentleman from Siddington Gloucestershire joined the artillery and fought in the Italian Wars. Can anyone shed a light on this and perhaps let me know if there were many English soldiers fighting with Garibaldi and how they became involved. Are there any records anywhere of the men who fought? Sadly I feel he fell upon hard time after returning to England and was separated from his wife and children and died in 1885 of epilepsy and D T's in Thavies Inn House in Holborn and is buried in Camberwell Old Cemetery, I am currently attempting to locate his grave but have a funeral card of his burial. Any help would be gratefully appreciated.

Valerie Ryan (nee Hoare) valryan85a(at)aol(dot)com


Dear Wikipedia I'am a new Muslim I have some question I woulk to ask about the muslim men. I hope you can help me .

Why some Muslim men wear their wedding ring in the right hand and some in the left but in the third finger?

See this article: 21:07, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
Probably also a good idea to ask those men themselves. Akamad 00:16, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

King George III's insanity ?[edit]

Are the original doctor's notes concerning King George's insanity available for reading by the public? If so, can I acess them on the computer?

According to this article [16] there are written records still in existence in the Royal archives in Windsor in London. I could not find any transcription on the web and suspect you might not get easy access there. A book has been published (Ida Macalpine and Richard Hunter, George III and the Mad Business, 1969) that might be your best bet for finding a transcription or at least excerpts. alteripse 18:15, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
Keep in mind that "doctors" at the time bore little resemblence to modern doctors. Most of their diagnoses were just wild guesses and their treatments were no better. StuRat 18:26, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
Oh, come now, that's doesn't make them too different from modern doctors, does it? ;-) --Fastfission 00:53, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
Do let us know if you still can't see the difference when your health maintenance organization refers you to a barber-surgeon, leech, or doctor of physick. - Nunh-huh 08:04, 8 November 2005 (UTC)


There is an African mythological creature that looks like a very short man who has such a large penis that he has to carry it around his shoulders. It was in a book I read a long time ago called keffir boy. I can’t remember what the creature is called. Does anyone know? Its is important to know that this book is mainly about a mans life during the apartheid not about mythology. The book only says the word (creatures name) ones and does not talk about what the creature is.

Sounds like a male fertility figurine. Female fertility figurines are shown with huge breasts and butt. StuRat 18:05, 7 November 2005 (UTC)
There is a belief in such a being, called a Popobawa, on the Island of Zanzibar, part of Tanzania, although in this case the short statured, well endowed creature, only has one eye. He is a form of Male Incubus, who sodomises men in their sleep. Not sure if thats what you are referring to, but its a good story. --Dumbo1 16:45, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Totnes History[edit]

Did you search? For Totnes perhaps? then look for the word history? Then you will see that we actually know very little about the history of totnes, sorry. perhaps a web search would assist click here!!! --Ballchef 23:32, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

Internet advertising[edit]

I'd like to find a list of websites which sold the most online advertising in 2004.

President Eisenhower[edit]

What were price supports for agriculture and how were they affected in the 1950s?

This appears to be a homework question. But either way, U.S. Farm Policy: The First 200 Years (PDF) might be a good place to start. Akamad 00:44, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Public records on NYC homes[edit]

There would like to know more about a certain property in NYC. There must be a history kept with documents of the deed/lease/title info kept about the home. I would like to know exactly where these public records are kept. If possible, I'd like to see them on the internet, if the public records are available online as well. I thank you for any advice/help you can give me in my search. Thank you!--Screwball23 talk 23:59, 7 November 2005 (UTC)

The Department of Finance is concerned with city taxation. Deeds are normally filed with the County Clerk and available for public inspection. There are private companies that will do a title search for a fee. I doubt that the stuff is online; there's just too much of it. NYC includes five counties. If the property is in Manhattan, the records would probably be at the County Clerk's office at 60 Centre Street, New York, NY 10007. JamesMLane 10:58, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

November 8[edit]

mayoral salary[edit]

What is the salary for the mayor of the city of new york?

In section 4 (in chapter 1) of the New York City Charter (PDF), it states that the "salary of the mayor shall be one hundred and ninety-five thousand dollars a year." Akamad 06:49, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
$195,000 is the official salary, but the current mayor, Mayor Bloomberg, takes $1. There are higher paying jobs in the city government structure: the Schools Chancellor makes $250,000. His foe, the teacher's union president, makes $262,848 plus expenses. - Nunh-huh 22:57, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
Is the teacher's union president a City employee? That strikes me as odd. - Bantman 21:24, 18 November 2005 (UTC)


I'm having a tough time finding anything out about the artist Emi Singer...not the singer emil chou. I ahve an berlin by emil singer. I'm not really smart enuff to keep up with you're smart lingo talk on this web site so any plain california typr language to school me would help. I've seen some of his work auctioned on ebay for 5000 and some for 99.00. why? I might not find my way back hee so please email me at (e-mail removed). thank you tami

You might not want to post your e-mail address on here - you will get flooded with spam. As for finding your way back here, you can always bookmark this page (CTRL+D if you're using Internet Explorer).
To answer your question, I wasn't able to find much on Emil Singer, but a Google search showed me pretty quickly that he was, for instance, born in Austria in 1881. Quite a few art galleries seem to displaying his work. And as to why some of his work is sold for more money - well, it might be a larger work, in better condition, more well known, more beautiful... I can think of any number of reasons.
I hope that was sufficiently plain californian :) — QuantumEleven | (talk) 11:39, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Sofie Rosqvist[edit]

Hi! I´m student from Sweden and I have som questions that I wonder if you could help me with. I think it`s difficult to find the right information. About the British parliament: is it considered to be in need of further reform? of what kind?

In what way are private free-paying schools important or influential in British society today?

What is Asches? some kind of cricket team? what is its history and why has it became such huge event in England this particular summer?

It would be very kind of you if you could help me with this. Thanks,sofie

Asches is probably The Ashes, which is an inscrutably-named cricket contest. The rest of your questions don't really have set answers. Some people think Parliament has need of further reform, others think it has had quite enough reforming. Some can't quite see what needed reforming in the first place. Others will chime in.... - Nunh-huh 08:01, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
The ashes was such a major event in England because England won it this year, a very rare occurrance. There is disagreement over how important or influential fee paying schools are in Britain (In England they're called public schools but not in Scotland) but it's perhaps significant that most top politicians (famously including Tony Blair) & lots of the higher end of British society/educational & financial attainment send their children there. Curiously though there is a bit of a backlash with some public school pupils (& their parents) claiming that they find it harder to get into the top universities as so much pressure is on them to take state school pupils. On Parliament there are periodic calls for reform, more frequent now due to the decline in voting (less than 50% voted & Labour party got about 30% of the vote of those eligable to vote), such as proportional representation (This is largely opposed by the 2 main parties as the current system suits them fine). There has been some 'reform' (though I always thought reform was a change for the better) with the extension of postal votes & the change to the sitting times of the HoC, cutting Prime Ministers Questions down from 2 nights to 1, removing all but 95 hereditary peers from the House of Lords, etc. Whether it is considered to be in need of more depends on your view of what is a reform & how Parliament & the country should be run; there are a wide variety of views but I would say most agree something needs to be done to increase representation & electoral turnout, though they disagree on what. AllanHainey 08:19, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Capital Account Liberalisation[edit]

What is capital account liberalisation

the capital account is the flow of funds, loans, investment, etc. in and out of a country's economy (vice the current account, which measures the flow of goods and services in and out of a country). many countires impose strict controls on investments by foreign entities, outflow of capital, lending by foreigners, etc. liberalization is the relaxation or ending of those controls. see and see also for why it is necessary, in some cases, to give up trying to control capital flows. Binkymagnus 04:27, 14 November 2005 (UTC)

History of Blacks in California[edit]

6.5% of Californians are black. I've always wondered-- when and under what circumstances did blacks come to California. I don't think California was ever a slave state, so I don't imagine they were brought by slave trade. Did they accompany the original california settlers? was there a separate later mass migration after the civil war? and in general-- the current figure is 6% of the population-- what would that number have looked like 50,100,and 150 years ago?--Alecmconroy 12:42, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

I moved this question down here, because it was intially posted in the November 6 section. Akamad 12:57, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
The U.S. Census Bureau has a chart here (.pdf file) which shows the racial breakdown of the California population from 1850 to 1990. From the 1850 to the 1940 census, the population of California was never as much as 2% black; on a percentage basis, the biggest increase in the black population occurred during the 1940s, with additional increases in the 1950s and 1960s. (Specifically, the percentage of the California population who were black people was 1.0% in 1850, 0.7% in 1900, and 4.4% in 1950.) I don't have information specifically stating why the black population percentage in California increased during that time period, but the significant expansion of job opportunities there (aircraft manufacturing, shipyards, etc.) is likely to have been a factor; see also Great Migration (African American). --Metropolitan90 02:52, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
  • Actually, there was some slavery in the years before statehood, but I don't believe it was more than a few hundred individuals at most (that is, I don't think it's what's responsible for current population levels). But I believe the majority of the African-Americans now in California came as a wing of the Great Migration. The maps on this page seem to indicate that most of the migration to California started in the 1930s but really took off between 1930 and 1960. --Fastfission 02:47, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
  • Note: this map reminds me of an important point, which I had forgotten: most of the African-American movement to California was during World War II as manufacturing jobs opened up in the west. (So I was sort of right above though I forgot why). Many were also assigned there for military work as well. One rather prominent issue in World War II race relations which might be worth highlighting is the Port Chicago Mutiny. --Fastfission 02:50, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
Military work will have been significant - effectively all the logistics support for the Pacific (half a war!) was handled through California, specifically the major ports, and the policy of keeping combat units whites-only meant that logistics units were very heavily black. No statistics to hand, but that'll have accounted for a lot of individuals being sent there, and as places to stay after the war went, it wasn't bad. Shimgray | talk | 03:42, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

Did Alexander make Northern Indian people look the way they do now?[edit]

Beautiful Northern Indian people. Either in Bollywood. Or in Northern Indian society. It has been said that Northern Indian people look different than Southern Indians.

Did Alexander influence this trait by encouraging Mixed Marriages? Is he responsible for the racial purity or impurity of Northern Indian peoples?

Just curious. No offence intended for anyone.

Though it's partly true that the greeks mingled and married locals their population was way too small to significantly affect the population's colours. North Indians are generally from the Aryan race as against the south indians who are dravidian and there is even the disputed Aryan Invasion theory as to how and why the division came about. But it is generally accepted that the fair coloured people (of the north) owe their origins to ppl. from Persia and places from Central Asia. The Dravidians are thought to be the original inhabitants of the subcontinent. Much like Whites and Indians in USA; only that in India it took place 1000s of years before. Hope that answers you. --Idleguy 14:02, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
Note that the comment above is about the real aryan ethnic group. That is not the same as the mostly fictional propaganda that Hitler and the white supremists refer to as the "aryan race". StuRat 18:21, 8 November 2005 (UTC)


what places did he conquer before being conquered himself!

The World War 2 article would be a good place to start. Akamad 14:00, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

SSBN 730 Henry M Jackson[edit]

I was trying to research the Submarine Henry M Jackson. I understand it was to be named the Rhode Island before it was named it's current name. But before that it was to be named something else. Can you guide me in the right direction? Thanks

According to our page, the Jackson was to be named Rhode Island when the contract to build her was originally awarded - I'm not sure you can really talk of her going to be named anything before that, but... hmm. I'd advise contacting the US Navy Historical Center; they don't answer reference queries by email, but apparently do so by post -
Washington Navy Yard
805 Kidder Breese Street SE
Washington Navy Yard, DC 20374-5060
If anyone knows, it would be them, I guess. Shimgray | talk | 15:31, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg[edit]

Why are they executed? while some others who leak the secret of atomic bomb did not get execution. roscoe_x 16:07, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Klaus Fuchs confessed and implicated Harry Gold. Gold confessed and implicated David Greenglass. Greenglass confessed and implcated Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. They didn't confess, didn't implicate anyone, and were executed. Our article about Morton Sobell isn't detailed enough to explain why he wasn't executed. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 17:56, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
Richard Rhodes' excellent book Dark sun: the making of the hydrogen bomb discusses these folks at great length. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 18:08, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
  • It should be noted in the case of Fuchs, whose information was far more useful than anything Greenglass could have given, that his conviction was very mild (14 years, was released after 9) in comparison because he gave his secrets while the USSR was actually an ally with the UK/USA. This distinction was not present in US court rulings, which treated it the same as having given secrets to an enemy power. As for Sobell -- he was given a lower sentence (still 30 years -- nothing short!) because the prosecutor requested it; I don't recall exactly why that was, though. But yeah, as Finlay McWalter said, the death sentence was more about them not confessing than it was anything else — if they had confessed to it, it is virtually assured they would have gotten off with a lighter (non-death) sentence. --Fastfission 02:39, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

The US govt code and cypher agency, the NSA, had a long running project, VENONA, devoted to attempting to decrypt intercepted Soviet messages from the WWII period. It began during the War at predecessor agencies. it was a good cypher, the one time pad, and theoretically unbreakable (as proved by Claude Shannon of Bell labs), except that the Soviets made some mistakes in their procedures. A few thousand messages, out of several hundred thousand, were ever actually decrypted in whole or part. Some of them made clear the Julius Rosenberg was an active spy, and his wife was mentioned. None o fthis could be mentioned in public, whether in court or not, but there are claims that the prosecutors made clear to the Judge that there was intercepted evidence of their guilt. If so, it may have contributed to the severity of sentence. Since, if this happened at all, it was pretty legally questionable, there is unlikely to be good evidence for or against it. The Judge's behavior throughout the trial was apparently questionable, at least by more recent standards. Compare the Sacco-Vanzetti trial judge, and the Chicago Seven trial judge. Raises interesting questions, doesn't it.

There was another, known, high level scientific spy at Los Alamos, Theodore Hall, who was never charged and died only recently in Britain. At least one, still unidentified scientist at, or close to Los Alamos was mentioned in the decoded material. ww 00:06, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

Clive Dunn British Actor - Dad's Army[edit]

Can you tell me if Clive Dunn is still alive.

In which country is he now living, if he is alive.

How old is he?


Yes, he is still alive. [17] Our Clive Dunn page says he was born in January 1920, so he's 85 years old. 'Don't panic, Mr Mannering, sir!' Proto t c 16:57, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

  • And back in 1992, he was living on the Algarve, in Portugal [18]. He may be still there. Those fuzzy-wuzzies, they don't like it up 'em. --Bob Mellish 17:08, 8 November 2005 (UTC)

Playboy short story[edit]

In the late 1950s or '60s Playboy Magazine (I'm pretty sure but perhaps Esquire) published a story of a mobster's son who was kidnapped by his father's rivals, deprived of sight and sound and slowly, to keep him alive, dismembered; his survival reaction was to meticulously plan and construct, in his mind, a yacht; in the end, his father "rescued" him.... I'd like title, author and, if possible, availability of the piece.

Jack K

Sorry, but I never actually read any of the articles. StuRat 19:41, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

It reminds me the graphic novel, and recently a movie starring Viggo Mortensen and directed by David Cronenberg, "A History of Violence". Not the same story though, but the main character has a dark background, including a long lost and prisoned by the mob friend. He also dismembered and tortured slowly. But not imagined anything, or so. uguroz71

Expressionist drama, in English?[edit]

Can you direct me to any examples of Expressionist drama, other than Strindberg and Georg Keyser? Ideally, I'd like to find an example of Expressionist drama contemporaneous with Strindberg but in English. Just a name, title, and year (if possible) would be wonderful. Many thanks. -Roger Wilco

  • Have a look through the Wikipedia Expressionism article and see if that helps (it should). Harro5 04:55, 15 November 2005 (UTC)


name a kind of greeting that requires no words, other than a handshake

Instead of answering, I'll just tip my hat to you, nod my head, salute, slap you five, and move on. StuRat 18:34, 8 November 2005 (UTC)
Whatever you do,please don't give me the finger. :-) Dismas|(talk) 07:14, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
I give this thread two thumbs up, and since I'm in Japan, a humble bow as well. See also our Gesture article. Garrett Albright 14:51, 9 November 2005


And don't forget the obvious wave and smile.

alexander hamilton four major reports to washington[edit]

who can i find the four major reports issued by hamilton to president washington.

Library of Congress may have them,if not they should know where they are. You might need a bit more detailed description though. AllanHainey 12:38, 9 November 2005 (UTC)


  • Check the contact page on the Library of Congress web site for addresses, phone numbers, etc. --Metropolitan90 02:32, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Public Policy Development in Canada[edit]

What is the process for developing public policy in Canada? Is there any difference in how human resource, education, learning, or workforce development policies are developed?

How are workforce development policy decisions are made? Are there any current government policies designed to alter the decision making process?


Does Government of Canada not answer your questions? Garrett Albright 14:47, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
It's worth mentioning that some of these are Federal and some are Provincial responsiblities. DJ Clayworth 15:47, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

November 9[edit]

Iubdin of the Faylinn[edit]

Dear Wiccans,

Your Wikipedia is an excellent source of knowledge and I thank you making it available to everyone

My question is this...I am trying to do research on Iubdan .He is the historical King of the fairies in Ireland and is know as the King of the Ulster fairies..however..I can only find source which says this and I can find no other source to confirm that this is who Iubdin was....and I am writing a paper on this name so I was wondering if you might know, perhaps, if my inforamtion on Iubdin is historically correct?

You are all quite wonderful for sharing this wealth of knowledge in your Wikipedia with the rest of the world.

I have come to equate Wiccans with bearers of knoweldge and I thank you for gathering so much knowledge in the Wikipedia.


  • Ummm, the 'wiki' in 'Wikipedia' is derived from the Hawaiian word for quick and bears no relationship to Wicca at all. The vast majority of wikipedians are not wiccans (although we do have articles on wiccan subjects). As for your question, I couldn't find any information on Iubdan in wikipedia at the moment. Perhaps you could add an article when you have completed your research? Check the 'Community Portal' pages for guidance as to how this works. Oh and thanks for the complement. Lisiate 02:14, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
    • A lot of people are beginning to imagine a Wicca connection. I wonder if that will help or hurt our's hard to say. As for the question, I found some "information" on another wiki, Acadine Archive. It's under the GFDL, so we could take it if we wanted to, but I don't think it would fit very well in an encyclopedia. Superm401 | Talk 06:06, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
Personally, I find being called a wiccan frankly insulting… Anyway, if we really were, wouldn't we have named the place "Wiccipedia" or something instead? Garrett Albright 14:47, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
LOL! --Dumbo1 16:58, 10 November 2005 (UTC)


Does anybody know what would happen to a person that follows the practices of Jainism if he or she kills a living thing? Would they be "excommunicated" or would something else happen. RENTASTRAWBERRY FOR LET? röck 02:18, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

That's a very serious offense for Jains. I believe the punishment is death. ;) Superm401 | Talk 06:07, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
Fortunately Superm401 is joking. Jains recognise that it is impossible not to kill some tiny creatures simply by breathing and by walking, and they take great care when doing so. Traditional Jains even wear a face mask and sweep their path as they walk. They atone for any unknown carelessness with daily prayers and ritual. As far as I am aware, punishment has no place in Jainism. Shantavira 08:49, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

Diagon Alley and Bedknobs and Broomsticks[edit]

Someone on helpdesk-l has claimed that Diagon Alley first appeared in Bedknobs and Broomsticks, and predates Harry Potter. Can anyone verify this? Alphax τεχ 02:52, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

  • Shouldn't they be verifying themselves? Anyway, if it is the case, I think we can have a dab note at the top of our current Diagon Alley article as it's the most likely thing people will search for. - Mgm|(talk) 09:38, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
I've never read Bedknobs and Broomsticks, and it's decades since I saw the film. However I would think that if the name Diagon Alley had been used in B&B then we would have heard something about a legal dispute by now. At the very least it would be mentioned on many of the thousands of websites discussing Harry Potter trivia. My memory is that the magical items in B&B were bought in Portobello Road. DJ Clayworth 15:43, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
While I can't find "Diagon Alley" in Bedknobs and Broomsticks, I'm certain that JK Rowlings is not the first person to realize that you can split the word "diagonally" into "diagon" and "ally". Then, with a little "e", you get "Diagon Alley". Kainaw 15:49, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
I was struck with the thought that the claim has been misread. It isn't that a location named "Diagon Alley" is in Bedknobs and Broomsticks. It is that a location similar to Diagon Alley is in Bedknobs and Broomsticks. Such a location, Portobello Road Market is in Bedknobs and Broomsticks, but it is not called Diagon Alley. Kainaw 00:52, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
I think every magical fantasy book since the dawn of time has had a seedy market-like place where magical items can be bought. DJ Clayworth 18:40, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Transcendentalism and Objectivism[edit]

Despite the two being virtually idealogically opposites of each other, I can see some similarities in some of their belief systems.

Some interesting comparisons between transcendentalism and objectivism and/or anarcho-capitalism.

What else? I'm not really looking for 101 aspects where the 2 ideologies are opposite of each other, but rather what can be found in both. Thanks.
-- Миборовский U|T|C|E 04:18, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

Venezuela and Guyana dispute[edit]

I cant seem to find any information about this:

All official maps of Venezuela include a large portion of Guyana (or maybe all of it?) labled as a "disputed" region. Essentially, a region that may belong to Venezuela.

Ive never seen this refernced in non-venezuelan maps.

Heres are examples:

Does anybody know the history to this? Does anybody else recognise this "disputed area"


According to [19], the dispute has its origins back to the colonial period, when England ceded its dominion over the territory and allowed the nation to become independent; however, Spain at the same time claimed dominion over it too. Garrett Albright 14:44, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

Thank you for the information.

Does Honduras still claim the territory of Belize, or has that dispute been settled? User:Zoe|(talk) 03:19, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

Billy Walker[edit]

Information please about Billy Walker, one-time heavyweight boxer aka The Blond Bomber, inc. current whereabouts/activities.

how to learn playing violin[edit]

i'm raghu and i'm 19 yrs old. i want to learn how to play a violin. can wikipedia help me in this regard... can you find free and easy-to-use software for that?

Hi Raghu, in my experience, the feedback of a teacher is essential to learn to play an instrument like the violin well. Wikipedia can't watch you play and tell you what you're doing wrong and how to correct it. The violin is also more difficult than a guitar, for example, because the violinist has to judge the pitch, rather than tuning it beforehand and then taking advantage of the frets.
It also depends on why you wish to learn the violin. You're probably starting a little late if you don't already know an instrument and wish to become a professional musician (unless you've got an exceptional natural talent that just hasn't had the chance to develop yet). You can certainly gain enjoyment out of learning to play at any age, though. But get a teacher if you possibly can, and if you can't you might want to choose an easier instrument (maybe guitar or keyboards).--Robert Merkel 12:57, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

employee rights[edit]

Can a UK employer make staff work night shifts when they have been employed to work day shifts?

It would depend on the terms of your employment contract. If your contract specifies day shift then no. I would also suggest that if your employer if trying to get you to work at times not previously agreed you speek to your union's shop steward who'll be able to give you a lot more info & help than us. AllanHainey 12:35, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

regional politics[edit]

and your question is? --Goshawk 13:42, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

Lee Kuan Yew while Singapore was part of Malaysia[edit]

I'm interested in obtaining quotes from Lee concerning the Malaysian avowed policies of dividing the people using communal politics and propagating "Malay rights". His Wikiquote article has a few already, but they've only piqued my curiosity for more. These quotes seem quite succint and brilliant, and I would love to find more. Online sources are preferred, but if the only sources are extant in print alone, that's okay. Johnleemk | Talk 14:00, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

Who is this man?[edit]

Image:Http:// It's part of a question and I have no idea who it is. Any help would be appreciated.

He is a Movie Studio head from the forties or fifties. I cant remember his name.

Louis B. Mayer. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 20:18, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

gold standard[edit]

On all places I've looked (including Wikipedia) it's said that the gold standard has been given up in 'almost all countries'. As far as my information goes the gold standard has been removed for every physical currency the world knows today. Am I correct or not? If not: which countries still adhere to the gold standard in one form or an other?

  • Have a read of the very comprehensive Gold standard article. The last line of the introduction states: "Despite having advocates, the gold standard is no longer used in any nation." Harro5 05:00, 15 November 2005 (UTC)

Succession Law[edit]

Under the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975, if a child does not have the mental capacity to make a claim, how does he claim if both his parents have passed away. Can his sister who looks after him make the claim? If so, what is the relevant law that authorises her to do so?

Many thanks.

Please note: this is not legal advice, and I strongly encourage you to contact a solicitor or your local Citizen's Advice Bureau.
(For future reference, it helps if you say what jurisdiction you're talking about - I only realised this was the UK because of the way the name of the Act was phrased). "The Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975 contains provisions enabling the courts to order financial provision out of the estate of a deceased person for his or her family and dependants.". Hmm. Note that this only applies in England and Wales - there's a similar rule in Northern Ireland, but not Scotland.
According to Whitaker's Almanack (full 2004 ed'n, pp599, look in your local library) this can only be done within six months of the grant of probate or letters of administration and can be done by:
  • the spouse, or a former spouse who has not remarried, or someone who has cohabited for two years
  • a child of the deceased, or someone treated as a child of that family (eg an adoptee)
  • someone maintained by the deceased
I don't have access to the actual legislation... no, wait a second, I do, my university has a law school and it has databases... hmm. The law merely says that "that person may apply to the court for an order under section 2 of this Act". It doesn't qualify that. I can't find anything in the law discussing peoples representatives... but it seems generally likely, to me, that someone with an appointed guardian would be treated as an infant for such issues, though I don't know the explicit statutory provision for that. Again, contact a legal professional. Shimgray | talk | 18:19, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

What is a medical doctor[edit]

A doctor trained in the healing arts. I assume you are claiming that "medical doctor" and "doctor" are the same and that "medical" should be dropped. A doctor of computer science is a doctor, but not a medical doctor. --Kainaw 19:18, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
How about a nutritionist or physical therapist with a PhD ?

They might be asking where the line is drawn. For example, are psychiatrists or veternarians with PhDs considered to be "medical doctors" ? How about nutritionists or physical therapists or chiropractors with PhDs ? StuRat 19:28, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

William Vale maker of silver bear items[edit]

Could you please give me any details you can on William Vale and an item I bought off ebay.. I bought a mother of pearl with silver Bear teething ring. Hallmarked Brimingham 1909. (Ebay item #6569618344.) with maker stamped William Vale. Any Details on item And how I can find out who William Vale was in Englands History. Would be greatly apprecated. Marty Bronson, [address removed], Chesapeake, Va. 23322. USA. Email [email removed] Thank you, Marty Bronson

Firstly you could start with the Birmingham Assay Office who should have records of any silversmith whose work they have assayed. If it has been assayed by them there should be a small hallmark of an anchor somewhere on it. Alternatively there a re a number of books which give details on silversmiths in the UK. AllanHainey 08:44, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Renaissance Punishment[edit]

We are looking for sources of information about punishment during the Renaissance. Can you direct us? please respond to: [email removed] thank you Sara McKay

Well as you'll see from reading Renaissance, that term is not as specific as you may have been thinking, and you may need to define what you are looking for more specifically. I didn't see much more about punishment specifically in any of the Renaisance times, but some of the individual articles linked to from that main one may have some. Punishment practices are likely to have varied from area to area and over time. The punishment article has some possibly useful background. The practice of being Hanged, drawn and quartered happened in England during the time frames of the English Renaissance. And oh yes, the Spanish Inquisition happened during Renaissance times, and that article led to Auto de fe which has a few more links that may be helpful. That's all I could find about it, but we may have more. - Taxman Talk 16:10, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

history of mancala[edit]

hello, i'd like to find out more about the middle eastern history of the mancala game. I know that it's history is rich with african tradition, but i'm interested in going farther back than that. Can you give me any book titles or web sites or interesting information that would be useful? thank you [email removed] chanahrivka

  • I removed your email address to help you avoid getting tons of spam emails. To answer your question, have you looked at our mancala article? There are many links at the bottom of the article that might help you. Joyous (talk) 00:58, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Current world population exceeds total of all previous humanity.[edit]

Does the current world population of humans exceed the total of all generations of humanity in recorded history? --Larry

According to Population Reference Bureau, approximately 100 billion people have lived on Earth, compared to the 6.45 billion that live now. claims approximately 60 billion people have lived. Either way, the answer to your question appears to be no. Akamad 05:51, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
This is an interesting fact to those who believe the dead walk the Earth as ghosts. With that many dead people, the planet would be positively clogged with ghosts, especially in cities which have had large populations for thousans of years. StuRat 19:24, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

French Literature[edit]

What was the first piece of literature called that was produced by a woman in France, and when did this happen. ---smouse

I'm guessing Marguerite of Navarre (ex vertice capitis anyway). alteripse 00:52, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

List of French language authors has Marie de France from the 12th century but the majority of literature written at that time was in Norman French and she may have been in Normandy, Britain or a little in both. MeltBanana 00:54, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

Charlies' war[edit]

I recently came across a comic called Charlie’s' war could you tell me something about this comic? I know It takes place in world war one but that is pretty much it. With hopes of a quick answer.

Hjálmar Hinz

  • I think it was a serial in one of the English comics of the eighties or so. I remember reading it as a child. From what little I remember Charlie was a young soldier in a pals battalion in the trenches. I can't seem to find an article here yet but have a hunt around in British comic and related pages and see what you can find. Lisiate 00:01, 14 November 2005 (UTC)
  • Oh, a bit more of a search ahs revealed that 'Charley's War' (note spelling) originally appeared in Battle Picture Weekly and then the Eagle(comic) in the 1980s. Hope all this helps. Lisiate 00:10, 14 November 2005 (UTC)


What are the prospects for UK's special relationship with USA?

I have a feeling the answer to this question will depend on the results of doing your own homework.
That said, you might want to consider how to refine the question a little - do you mean over the next 18 months, 5 years, 20 years, 100 years? And what aspects of the "special relationship" do you mean? Just the military ones, or other aspects?--Robert Merkel 07:25, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
We have an article on the Special relationship. I presume you've read it. If not there is a search box on the left of this page. DJ Clayworth 18:25, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
I think having a "special relationship" is almost inevitable between any two nations with the same language. So, unless American English and British English diverge to an extent where they become different languages, I think it will last, as will relations with Canada, Australia, New Zealand, etc. StuRat 19:17, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

First Supreme Court Case[edit]

Pure curiousity: What was the title and subject matter of the first case to be decided by the US Supreme Court? Google says it occurred in 1792 (under Chief Justice John Jay), but I have been unable to discover anything else about this historic event. Dragons flight 22:23, 9 November 2005 (UTC)

The first decision reached by the court was an injunction in the case of Georgia v. Brailsford (2 U.S. 402). In 1792, the court ruled a Georgia circuit-court marshal could hold on to money that was at issue in the case. The court's second decision, reached in 1793, was to keep the injunction in effect until the next term. Finally, in February 1793, the court made its first judgement on a case: Chisholm v. Georgia. -- Mwalcoff 22:48, 9 November 2005 (UTC)
Here's a PDF of the dates of the first 105 years of the Supreme Court; and here's a source for Volume 2 of Supreme Court decisions, which goes back to pre-Constitutional days: -- pretty interesting in a history-nerdly way. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 23:00, 9 November 2005 (UTC)


Who is Frederick W. Taylor?

Did you mean Frederick Winslow Taylor?--Commander Keane 00:48, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

November 10[edit]

Colonial Education[edit]

Can you tell me now many students were in a normal colonial school and what subjects they learned? Thanks --Lindsey

Which particular colonials, and in which era? For example, do you mean British colonial India in the Victorian era? And do you mean a school for the children of the colonists, or a school for the children of those colinised against? Notinasnaid 11:09, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Dec. of Ind.[edit]

Can you tell me how Great Britain and Europe reacted to the United States Dec. of Ind.?


You mean other than refusing to grant independence to the colonies, refusing to recognize them as the United States, and sending their military over to beat the colonists into submission? --Kainaw (talk) 01:16, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

actully i kinda knew that but,thanks.I am doing a project and I need some help.... I can't find this info anywhere... But do you know how France and all the other European countries reacted???

The French upper classes and intellectuals reacted with glee and support. Within a few years, the French court was bankrupting the country to help us. alteripse 01:31, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Thanks a bunch.... But what about Spain?.... I know they were neutral for most of the war, but did they like it???

See Barbara Tuchman's book, The First Salute. She gives a nice overview of european reactions. Generally the countries that were not close allies of the English were hesitantly to enthusiastically supportive. Spain was in the "hesitantly supportive" category because of its alliance with Bourbon France and because it was hoping to recover Gibraltar and Minorca from Britain. The Dutch were in the enthusiastic support category and I think gave first diplomatic recognition. alteripse 02:05, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

6 degrees of separation[edit]

Is the 6 degrees of separation thing true or not....Just wondering


See small world phenomenon. --Robert Merkel 03:01, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
I remember a couple of years ago a television entertainer tried to prove this rule by tracing a route of social connections to someone chosen at random (who turned out to be a peasant in a remote part of China). He succeeded. This isn't mentioned in the above article and I can't recall any more details. Does this ring a bell with anyone? Shantavira 09:12, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

Who was the girl in the 1964 "Daisy" ad?[edit]

If anybody knows of a reference for the name of the girl in the 1964 Daisy (television commercial), or for any interviews she may have done, I'd appreciate a pointer. Thanks. --Josh

I believe it was the flower that was the daisy, not the girl. Could be both, though.
-- Миборовский U|T|C|E 03:21, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

I'm familiar with the ad--I'm asking for the name of the human actress that appeared in the ad, if anybody knows it, or for pointers to any interviews with her. Sorry if that wasn't clear. --Josh

Why not try asking Tony Schwartz here, if he's still alive? (He would be 82 now...) Lupo 09:58, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Calling all serious Bible scholars[edit]

Can anyone supply a definition of the Hermeneutical Rule of Notaricon?-- 03:20, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

It is a Kabbalistic method of interpretation involving acrostics: either the letters of a given word in the Biblical text are taken as the first (or last) letters of the words in a new sentence, or else the first (or last) letters of the words in a given sentence are taken as a word. It was also picked up by some Theosophists, apparently. See [20] for an explanation and some examples. —Charles P. (Mirv) 06:21, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Mock Murder Trial[edit]

Hi! I have a nice easy question for all those bored third year law students (and anyone else). I'm in Yr 10, and want to dazzle my audience with a brilliant defence in our coming mock murder trial. this is the handout we got with the info of the cas.
Things that have struck me: There doesn't appear to be any body found, none of the statements say anything about where the body was found. An autopsy is also lacking. No statements apart from the ones made by the accomplice say that Peter was even there. Perhaps he is lying and Peter eloped to South America with the stuff they stole. :-) It's also suspicious that the accomplice changes his story more than a month after the event took place. Point to is that he is an old man, and when he fired the shots, he was carrying a torch in the other hand while carrying a heavy shotgun in the other. It doesn't seem likely to me that in such circumstances the accused could accurately fire a shot intending to kill.
Anyway, hope someone is interested and can give me their input on a defence. Thanks! --Fir0002 10:52, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Can you give us a dazzling rebuttal of the proposition that this would be in breach of the Wikipiedia policy stated above, viz Do your own homework? Notinasnaid 11:07, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
That's a total misinterpertation of the rule. Please, be less abrasive. Neutralitytalk 04:52, 17 November 2005 (UTC)
The lack of autopsy etc. may well be an artifact of the moot court, and you need to check with the judge beforehand that this is really the case, otherwise the judge may simply stipulate that there's a body and that there was an autopsy. The problem with your old-man-cant-shoot theory is that he fired three times and hit three times, in the dark and with a torch shining in his face, and that at least one target was moving. Cook had a torch, but there's no indication that Brett did (it's easy enough to shoot at a light in a dark room, but Brett seems to have been shot first). All in all that's good shooting, which doesn't seem like the work of a scared old man acting in panic, using a gun that wasn't his. The prosecution is likely to say that he was really "lying in wait", with the torch propped up or lying down. It's probably pretty cold in September, so they'll say the old guy was sitting by the fireplace to keep warm. Your defense probably will center around the "what else was he doing to do" line - he's an old man in an isolated place (there's no-one to help him, and no realistic chance of summoning help). He's upstairs, and has no means of escape (I'm guessing Australia isn't a "stand your ground" jurisdiction, which means he can only use force if escape wasn't practical or safe). You can defeat the "lying in wait" case by pointing out that he had no way of knowing that there was going to be burglary.; You can say the shells were kicked around in the melee, and point out that they're quite bouncy (for a bit of perry masonism, throw the three shells into the air when you're cross-examining the forensic guy - they should bounce around and end up under furniture - "accidentally" kick them when you go to retrieve them - you'll have "shown" that dropped things don't end up where they started. You can attack Cook by reasoning that he has every reason to lie, and is an habitual criminal. To try to prop up the "old man can't shoot" argument (in the face of his excellent marksmanship) you can point out (ideally get the forensic guy to say) that shotguns fire shot in a wide cone, and that's it's pretty difficult NOT to hit someone when firing at fairly close range in a confined space. The "torch in the breakfast room" that Cook thinks he sees can easily be a reflection of his own torch from a window, mirror, cabinet, glassware, or from all that junk that's lying around. In summation you can say (even if the prosecutor doesn't point it out) that the only way this can be murder is if the defendant was lying in wait, and that this is a far-fetched theory for which there is no evidence at all. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 11:34, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
That's sound like v. good avice. Our SOSE teacher is pretty hopeless (we learnt zero in the way of criminal war before this trial) so I'm appreciative of your support. How about hanging the whole murder on the accomplice. It doesn't say anywhere in the material where the body was found so I can make it up (I assume!), also there's nothing that says I can't bring in my own witness - with a carefully prepared story :-) We're in a little school so this is by no means a serious assesment task so I can pretty easily get a bit of flexibility. I could get a witness who says something like that at the local pub the accomplice was boasting about the "job" (note also the material doesn't specify if there was anything stolen - we can say that there was) and the smoooth work he did framing the "old codger" for the murder (note also it doesn't say . It'll work ;-)! --Fir0002 07:13, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
Also note the metal ladder. This helps the "bouncy shellcase" theory (more than if the shellcases were falling onto wood or carpet). -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 11:40, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
That's a good point --Fir0002 07:13, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
...and you can get the forensics guy to explain a drunkard's walk, whereby stuff tends to get moved from open spaces to corners and crannies. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 11:50, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
...and the fact that Cook was shot twice and yet could run to a "nearby" (half a mile?) farmhouse shows that neither injury was at all severe. This shows that he was at the edge of both blast cones (he'd have received far worse injuries had he been at the centre). So Wright wasn't really aiming with deadly accuracy at him, just blasting away in his general direction. Oh, and remember that Cook can claim for compensation for a criminal injury if Wright is convicted (i.e. if he was the victim of a crime) but not if Wright is acquitted; that's a great reason for him to lie. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 12:00, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
That fact could help out also in pining Cook as the murderer. Anyway it certainly is a good piece of evidence to back up the self defence claim. I think I'll choose not to remind the prosecution of Cook's claim for compensation! Do you think it would be a good idea to call up Wright as a witness? I think it could be beneficial - especially if we could doctor in some facts - (confirming things were stolen etc. - maybe even add that he is in fact a lunatic ;-) ! Nah). Anyway thanx again for all your help Finlay. --Fir0002 07:13, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
  • All good points, but I can't seem to get over the fact it was a light that scared him. If he was burgled 6 or 8 times recently, surely he would've know they were burglars with no intent to kill him. I don't see how he needed to defend himself. I think he was defending his possessions and if you want to denfend the accused to the best of your abilities, you'll need to know whether he really said the "shoot the bastards" thing. If he did say it, it may well prove he had the intent to kill them. - 08:43, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

Austria and the Iron Curtain[edit]

My history textbook (In search of history, grade 12, Mulaudzi et al.) has a 1949 map of Europe, which shows the Iron Curtain going through Austria, and Vienna (on the East side of the curtain) divided into Soviet and Western zones, like Berlin. However, the whole of Austria is coloured "not Communist", and I can't find a mention of this division anywhere else. Did the Iron Curtain really go through Austria, and if yes, what was the story? --Taejo | Talk 11:16, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

In the early postwar years, the Russians had troops in Vienna, as did the Western Allies. They never achieved control of the government, and all forces were eventually withdrawn, leaving Austria free to side with the West. By the Yalta agreement, Stalin had conceded dominance in Austria to the West. alteripse 11:21, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Well, well, these "early postwar years" lasted until October 25, 1955! See Austrian State Treaty, and for some pretty good maps of both occupied Austria and Vienna, see Besetztes Nachkriegsösterreich even if you can't read German. Lupo 13:28, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
Do note however, that in Austria itself, the Iron Curtain is never regarded as having gone through Austria, but always along its eastern border. This is really the first time I've ever heard of the Curtain having gone through Austria. ::shrugs:: Flag of Austria.svg ナイトスタリオン 09:47, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
When Churchill made the famous speech in '46, he explicitly mentioned Austria as being on the far side: "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere" (Iron Curtain Speech) Shimgray | talk | 12:38, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
Just shows what you can find if you look properly: there is an extract of the speech (including those three sentences) on the same page as the map. --Taejo | Talk 15:11, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

what is the possible benefits of branding the product for consumer?[edit]

what is ths possible benefits of branding the product for the consumer -- 12:44, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

What are the possible benefits in doing your own homework? Thryduulf 13:32, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
And, seeing we're such generous people today, we might suggest you have a look at the article at brand. --Robert Merkel 17:05, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
You make people feel more familiar with product by adding imaginary characteristics to product. Like i.e. your product is "water" you can advertise it as something that only certaint kind of people drink, after a while people who will want to be considered belonging to this certaint kind will start to drink "water" because you have made them to belive that thats what certaint kind drinks, afterwards you can start producing other products i.e. gloves branded "water" and this certaint kind will buy them... Well, that`s very simpified exemple, but you should see what benifits you get - 1. consumer will buy your product ("water") not just any drink, because a). he need it to identify himself as certaint kind or/and b.) he will think about your product as something familliar not yust any product 2. You don`t need to advertise other products (i.e. gloves) branded "water" as much as new product, you just need to tell that now there is new product with that brand and then you can carry on advertising your brand not two or more products: It means that you get loyal consumers who will buy new product just because it has brand that they know and you spend less money advertising only your brand not many diferent products. I sugest you to read some books if you realy are interested or if you can`t get idea from article on brand Xil 22:51, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

Dominican Republic peso[edit]

In Dominican Republican do they still use Peso?

Political questions[edit]

  • Can anarchism exist in today's economic globalisation without a return to precarity?
  • Why do free market advocates (neo-liberals) believe a truly free market can improve the state of poor countries when liberalism intrisically impoverish some at the benefit of others?

Thank you, --anon 19:46, 10 November 2005 (UTC).

In response to your second question, the basis of free-market theory is the mutually beneficial exchange. You can find more elaboration at Free trade#Arguments for free trade. JamesMLane 11:08, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

Antony and Cleopatra[edit]

What's the correct spelling of Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra? All books and study guides, etc. I've seen call it Antony and Cleopatra, but my English teacher insists the correct spelling, and the one Shakespeare used, is Anthony and Cleopatra. Any ideas? --Sum0 19:54, 10 November 2005 (UTC)

In the First Folio it is indeed spelled with an h. —Charles P. (Mirv) 19:59, 10 November 2005 (UTC)
Of course, you could point out to your teacher that the First Folio memorializes the spelling of John Heminge and Henry Condell, not Shakespeare :) - Nunh-huh 21:06, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
The standards for becoming a teacher are pretty low these days. As long as you know the truth, just put down whatever will get you a good grade. There's no use arguing with someone of lesser intelligence as they will believe their false reasoning is correct. Nelson Ricardo 16:41, 14 November 2005 (UTC)
Whatever the historical reasons may be, the fact is that the title has become set in stone through 100% acceptance by the English literary world over a number of centuries. If it happens to contain what some consider to be a mis-spelling, that has long since become irrelevant. It is quite legitimate to debate the spelling of the English version of Marcus Antonius's name, but it is not appropriate to unilaterally change the accepted spelling of the title of a book, play, film, opera, or whatever. JackofOz 00:19, 19 November 2005 (UTC)

1950's Loyalty Oath for Government Employment Including US Army[edit]

Where can I get a copy of the Loyalty Oath which listed so-called subversive organizations which had to be signed and attested to that you belonged to none of them in order to obtain Government employment including the armed services. Your help will be appreciated.

Norm Yeszin Akron, OH

Hopefully, this is what you're looking for. Akamad 00:18, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
That's just the University of California's loyalty oath, not the same thing at all unfortunately. --Fastfission 00:51, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
Ahh yes, thanks for pointing that out. It shall be stricken. Akamad 06:46, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

November 11[edit]

Name That Movie![edit]

A few years ago I seen a movie that I don't remember a lot of but I would like to find out what it is. It had a pitbull killing someone or maybe it killed a bunny or puddle. The pitbull at least was biting on a rope and spinning around. I might be confusing it with Saved by the Bell because I lead actress sort of looked like Kelly and the lead actor looked liked Zach. I also remember them riding in a car, someone having a beard, and maybe the movies conclusion happened at a terrible amusement park owned by the villain. I was high at the time so maybe I just had a weird dream but I think it was a movie.

curriculum studies[edit]

please tell me how technology influences the curriculum in schools.Thank you.

It makes people post their homework questions on internet forums instead of doing them themselves :) QuantumEleven | (talk) 09:40, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

Moving house --- Filipino customs and traditions[edit]

What are Filipino customs and traditions about "moving house"? When is the best time to move to a new house --- beginning or end of the week, month, year? What are the things that should be brought first to the new house?

What is the history of goverment of Northern territory Australia?[edit]

The Wikipedia article on Northern Territory has a link to A Brief History of the Administration in the Northern Territory. Akamad 06:56, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

Apple Computers[edit]

I've been researching the history of Apple and among its many innovations and ongoing triumphs, I really can't find the top 5 or top 10 that really innovated the computer industry and put its competitors in the dust. To make things even more interesting, I remember reading about Apple's Netscape, which was considered a better program than the original Microsoft Internet Explorer, but it was defeated by a monopolization of the business. If possible, maybe someone more business-oriented could tell me 5-10 innovations that Apple computers made that were very unique to the computer industry and made history and blew away the competitors.--Screwball23 talk 04:46, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

I'm not sure what you mean by Apple's Netscape; those are two different companies. Apple made a web browser called Cyberdog that was pretty good, and nowadays makes Safari which I am using right now, but the only company that made a product called Netscape was Netscape. Anyway, some Apple innovations:
That's all I can think of off the top of my head, but there are many others. Hope this helps. Garrett Albright 07:26, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
    • You sure about "practical computer multitasking"? I seem to recall multitasking was around long before Apple existed. Perhaps I'm not clear on "practical". Also, there were Unix based desktop computers long before OS X. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 08:40, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
    • Yes, extremely practical multitasking (and for multiple users at the same time) was in UNIX (and predecessors) long before Apple existed. Also many vendors have been selling desktop UNIX systems for many years, with considerable commercial success (though not in the home sector). I think Apple's strength hasn't been first level innovation, but in bringing technologies to market. Notinasnaid 10:22, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
  • HyperCard is probably the single most innovative program I've ever seen. A database, a visual programming environment, a multimedia system, an application development platform, and a personal web years before the world-wide variety. Apple's failure to do anything with HyperCard is emblematic of their lack of insight, particularly in the Sculley years. If they'd added web functionality to HyperCard as the web developed there would be no Netscape, no IE, no javascript, and probably no DOM. And programmers everywhere now-a-bed shall think themselves accurs'd they never knew HyperCard. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 11:08, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
Well, by "practical," I meant that you could see more than one application at a time. As far as I know, this wasn't possible on purely CLI operating systems, UNIX or otherwise; you could run more than one, but you had to switch between them to see their respective output, or use one as a shell (is that the right terminology?) for another. But please correct me if I'm wrong. As for other companies selling UNIX desktops, you're right, but by "to the desktop" I was including home systems; only hardcore nerds were buying UNIX systems for home use.
Also, to go along with what I said earlier about popularizing the graphical user interface, in doing so they helped give rise to the ubiquitous computer peripheral, the mouse. Could you imagine surfing the web or playing modern computer games without a mouse? Also, without the Macintosh, the desktop publishing explosion in the mid-80s would have been delayed at best. Garrett Albright 18:43, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
Both GNU Screen and GNU Emacs can split the screen in multiple regions and run a different program on each one. You can see their respective outputs in real time, without having to switch between them. --cesarb 21:25, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
Here's some more… We can't forget Apple's more recent acts. Digital audio players were devices of nerds and techies until Apple's iPod made them cool for the general public. And Apple's iTunes Music Store is by far the most popular online music store to date. Like with the GUI, these are two things that existed well before Apple made one, but came nowhere near to matching the success of Apple's version. Garrett Albright 01:48, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

planting oak trees for use in 500 years at New College Oxford[edit]

Is it true that oak trees were planted when the hall was built at New College in Oxford (1379?) so that they could be used for repair when the beams needed replacing in a few hundred years? And if so, were they really used to replace beams when needed in the 19th century? Thanks, Beth

I've heard this story repeatedly, though occasionally for a different college - it strikes me as unlikely, in that in the fourteenth century there was no great shortage of good oak. However, part of the story is eminently plausible - that the College land contained the necessary trees, and that some forester had had his eye on them as good for roofing beams "when we need them". Shimgray | talk | 11:40, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
In a similar line, I heard a radio program recently which suggested that in Spain certain trees had been planted (long ago) to be trained into curves for making the large curved timbers for big ships, because the supply of naturally curved trees was limited. The largest timbers would have taken hundreds of years to grow. Notinasnaid 17:35, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
There is a similar story in the South Carolina lowcountry claiming that the early plantation owners planted oaks for wood and that is the reason there are so many old oak trees. The problem with this story is that many of the "hundred year oaks" are 20-30 years old. The Spanish moss on them makes them spread out very quickly (for an oak) in an effort to out-grow the moss. The end result is a large oak that is actually a very poor source of wood (something about growing fast and getting holes and cracks inside the tree). --Kainaw (talk) 23:33, 12 November 2005 (UTC)
On reflection, and rereading what I posted, I think the surprising thing is that we find this surprising. Our ancestors would not have done so, but we have moved into an era of instant gratification. Anyone who plants a tree is thinking many years ahead. Even with commercial softwood forestry, the planters are thinking perhaps 40 years ahead to when the trees are ready to harvest. People planting much commercial hardwood, or large ornamental trees for parks and gardens, know that they will not see the final result in their own lifetime. It is a very small extension from this to plant for far future generations. 500 years ago, I suspect the idea of planting trees for decoration was unknown: they were a crop plant, just like corn, but requiring longer cycles. Trees are the same, but attitudes have changed. Notinasnaid 10:50, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

largest country in asia[edit]

largest country in asia

Russia -- Xil - talk 18:56, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
If you mean "the nation which is at least partially in Asia, with the lagest land area", then yes, Russia. Russia is normally considered to be a European country, however, as the majority of the population is of European descent, and part of the country is in Europe. If you want either the largest population, or largest land area of a nation completely in Asia, then that would be China. StuRat 19:01, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
According to Asia, if you are referring geographically, Russia is in Asia. If you are referring politically, it is not. So, will they be politically moving Brazil off the coast of Portugal next? --Kainaw (talk) 19:14, 11 November 2005 (UTC)
The majority of the land mass of Russia is in Asia, while the majority of the population is in, or very near, Europe. So, this can be a problem for classification. StuRat 19:27, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

Dmitru Nabokov[edit]

Dmitri Nabokov, Vladimir Nabokov's son and translator, also wrote/writes fiction under an alias. What was/is Dmitri Nabokov's pen name?

Legal question - american marrying a russian[edit]

I'm hoping someone with real legal knowledge will reply here, that would be more helpful than even thoughtful but ungrounded opinions.

I am engaged to marry my russian girlfriend. We have lived together for 3 years, none of that time in the USA. It is not a scam, we are truly living together and ready to marry. We have no current plans to live in the USA, and currently live in a European country (Netherlands), we both have residenence permits, I have a contract and work permit, and she is a full time graduate student.

If I understand what I have read on the internet, including on the US Embassy site, but also elsewhere:

1) A fiancee visa (to the USA) is only necessary or relevant if the couple is wanting to relocate together to the USA. It is a type of immigrant visa.

2) If there is no intention to immigrate, and the fiancee wants to visit the USA and then return to where they permanently live, the appropriate visa would be a non-immigrant visitors or tourist visa...for example to go to the USA over the holidays.

3) If a person is in the USA on a tourist/visitors visa legally, and fully intends to leave, and has no plans to live in the USA in the foreseeable future...then there is nothing to keep the couple from applying for a marriage license, at least not in a state that has no residency requirements (Washington State for example), and after the appropriate waiting period (3 days), then being married by an appropriate legal agent. Then leaving the country, man and wife.

Can anyone give me solid information about whether there is a fundamental flaw in the information or reasoning here? (One free wedding invite for the most useful contribution...) Thanks if you can help.

  • IANAL. (2) of course is correct; except for (1), nobody at Immigration cares that she's your fiancee. You guys want to come as tourists, and leave as tourists, as long as there's no attempt to cheat, you're fine. And (3), nobody cares what nationality your bride is. Just getting married doesn't provide her with any particular immigration status -- there'd still be a ton of paperwork to do to get resident status. The thing to be careful of is appearance of hanky-panky, so don't get loose tongued at the point of entry say you're coming here to get married; that could lead to, at the least, hours of questioning to determine your real intentions. But -- why not just get married elsewhere? --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 21:11, 11 November 2005 (UTC)


Why were the British soldiers who died on the beachs of Normandy or in the main overlord operation not returned home to be buried in their own homeland. ~~ JT

I am going to assume that it is the same reason that Americans are buried at Normandy. There is a special government group, American Battle Monuments Commission Operations, that is in charge of overseas burial grounds for American troops (Normandy is not the only one). There are two types of American graves at Normandy: Those with a body and those acknowledging a person who was never found and assumed killed in action. As to why they are buried at Normandy, it is more of a political issue that anything else. The French that live there have a constant reminder of what Americans did for them. Unlike the Statue of Liberty (which is supposed to remind us of what the French did for America during the revolutionary war), a field of grave markers tends to create a powerful emotional reaction.
It is important to note that not all those buried at Normandy died during the invasion. For example, President Roosevelt's son is buried there and he did not die during the invasion. Also, there are also German cemeteries. I believe it is good that there are cemeteries for all involved. --Kainaw (talk) 01:49, 12 November 2005 (UTC)
In many cases the cemeteries are reburials - people were buried essentially as they fell, and later reinterred in the war graves. Note also that this was sixty years ago, and it was generally far less common for bodies to be "brought home", partly for logistical reasons, but also cultural ones - people didn't expect dead soldiers to have their bodies returned. It was the way it was. Political effects are essentially secondary; it's a cemetery, and you have to put them somewhere. Shimgray | talk | 01:55, 12 November 2005 (UTC)
Not a reason but significant anyway is the opening lines of The Soldier (poem) by Rupert Brooke which says
If I should die, think only this of me:
That there's some corner of a foreign field
That is for ever England.
Yeah, that's a pretty good indication of the idea. He knew that if he died he'd be buried there; "bringing the bodies home" is a very modern thing, really. For the US, it began a hundred years ago -
As aptly stated by Quartermaster General M. I. Ludington in 1899, the return of Spanish American War dead from Cuba and Puerto Rico for private burial by their relatives, or for reinterment at public cost in a national cemetery, was probably without precedent in world history. [21]
and returning bodies during wartime, as is done now, instead of reinterring them a few years later, began with Korea -
The decision to return the remains of American deceased to the United States during hostilities was arrived at only after the Quartermaster, Far East, completed an intensive study of the problems involved. Never in the history of the United States, or any other nation, has there been a mass evacuation of the remains of men killed in action while hostilities were still in force. [22]
- and I suspect it began for the UK around the same time, since I believe the CWGC stopped filling the war graves in 1947. Would have to research that one further, though. Shimgray | talk | 02:21, 12 November 2005 (UTC)
Re: British dead during the Falklands War - Most of the dead were returned to Britain after the war had ended. This was the first time ever that the British Government had returned the remains of service personnel killed over seas. Until the Falklands War all remains of British servicemen killed overseas remained in whatever far off country they had fallen. 23 bodies did remain in the Falklands and are buried at the " Blue Beach" Military Cemetery at San Carlos not far from where 3rd Commando Brigade had its headquarters until the breakout. Jooler 19:57, 12 November 2005 (UTC)
The CWGC policy was changed in 1968 following the Borneo Confrontation, when it was deemed too difficult to establish and maintain remote cemeteries. Geoff/Gsl 03:24, 13 November 2005 (UTC)
This is mostly my speculation, but for the couple of hundred year up until WWI British soldiers killed overseas tended to be thousands of miles from home, which given the lack of refrigeration meant there wouldn't really be a lot of point bringing a body back home. For WWI I expect the sheer number of bodies would have defeated any attempt to bring them back to Britain, and for Normandy (and Africa and the Far East in WWI) the amount of shipping available was one of the major limiting factors on the war effort. DJ Clayworth 18:20, 14 November 2005 (UTC)

Gospel of John[edit]

Who wrote the Gospel of John?


Have a look at Gospel of John. The traditional view is that John the Evangelist wrote the gospel. However, a modern moderate approach is that the New Testament Johannine literature was produced by an early Christian community with links with the historical John. --Gareth Hughes 22:18, 11 November 2005 (UTC)

November 12[edit]

Musical scales - science behind major/minor sound, or our perception?[edit]

Do we hear major scales as sounding 'happy' because there is a scientific reason why a semitone increment between the third and the fourth, and the seventh and the eigth, sounds happier, or have we simply been brought up to 'hear' these as being happy? In other words, if someone who had never been exposed to music before were to hear the major scale, would he/she identify it as being happy in the same way that we do? The question also applies to the minor and other scales. Your help is much appreciated! --HighHopes (T)(+)(C)(E)(P) 09:37, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

I've debated this very question with friends for a long time. I still don't know the answer, and perhaps there isn't one. As someone said to me recently, "I don't know the answer, but I admire your question". JackofOz 00:25, 19 November 2005 (UTC)

who started the concept of a university?[edit]

Some would argue that it was Plato but that doesn't really tell the whole story. Have you read the University article? Dismas|(talk) 14:47, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

under the history of university,it's suggested that buddhism has a role to play on paragraph 4.

The famous Nalanda University had been established at India by the 5th century BCE and the Buddha is believed to have visited it.

but,does that prove that buddhism is the first to create the concept of a university?

    • two earliest known universities, taxila and nalanda, were known to be buddhist centres of knowledge. --Tachs 12:01, 16 November 2005 (UTC)

who started the concept of Democracy?[edit]

Have you read the pages on Democracy and History of democracy? Dismas|(talk) 14:36, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

yes, i have. thanks for your help.

Wills Law[edit]

Is an executor the same thing as a trustee?

Wills Law[edit]

Is an executor the same thing as a trustee in English Law?

  • The short answer is no. While one person may perform the roles of executor and trustee in respect of a deceased's estate, they are separate positions. The function of the executor of an estate is to collect in all the deceased's assets, pay all debts and expenses of the estate and distribute any surplus in accordance with the deceased's will. Many wills contain provision for a trust to be established form a part of the deceased's estate and the trustee(s) will administer that trust in accordance with the will. Often the executor is also named as the trustee hence the possible confusion. However, this is not required and so you may find situations with separate executors and trustees. Moreover, many trusts aren't created by wills at all and yet still have trustees. Lisiate 23:21, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

Mississippi Riot[edit]

What is the Mississippi Riot that happened during the civil rights act

the obstacle[edit]

why is it customary to the guys to pay when they go out with their gf's??

This dates back to a time when a man was expected to be the breadwinner and to be able demonstrate that he could support someone financially. These days, at least in western cultures, it is quite common for partners to share expenses or take it in turns to treat each other. However, it is customary for a boy to treat the girl if the date was at his invitation, especially at first. But if a girl expects her boyfriend to pay out for everything even though she is earning as much as him, it doesn't bode well for the relationship. Shantavira 18:36, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

Decendent of Rome[edit]

Is there anyone alive to day who can trace their ancestry (reliably) back to one of the Caesars, or more specifically to the family of Augustus? Jooler 19:27, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

There are a number of genealogies in western europe that go back to some of the nobility of the late Roman empire. There may not be anyone able to trace to Augustus because the only people whose lineage was recorded were those who stayed prominent and notable, and few families managed to (1) be prominent and notable, (2) be prolific of offspring, (3) survive all the vicissitudes of being prominent and notable through centuries of dynastic wars, and the succession of overturned empires and kingdoms. Keeping your head down helped survival but made it less likely your offspring would make a publically recorded marriage. alteripse 19:38, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

The "record" for a documented descent to a modern person is from Afranius Syagrius, Gallo-Roman Consul, 381. Descents that bridge the gap between ancient and modern are termed "descents from antiquity" or "DFAs", and are all speculative, tending to use prosopography as evidence. There are few people interested in them, as they are so speculative (remember, in addition to the problems enumerated by Alteripse, that even when parentage is documented, the high incidence of non-paternity (a recent study suggested that one in 25 men is unsuspectingly raising a child not his own) multiplied over 40 generations (to get to Charlemagne from modern) and another 50 or more makes any chain of paternity quite uncertain!) Some names of people who do this sort of thing, if you are interested in looking them up: Christian Settipani (« Nos ancêtres de l'antiquité »), Francesco Doria, and Don Stone. Just Google them with "DFA" and you'll see. - Nunh-huh 21:43, 12 November 2005 (UTC)
I am amazed-- you named the exact "nobility of the late Roman empire" I had in mind. I found him in the genealogy of an early governor of New Hampshire several decades ago and was amazed that anyone had a "unbroken" pedigree that far back-- he may be the earliest that a lot of English lines go back to. And you are correct about the uncertainty that a son has his father's Y chromosome-- I considered mentioning that, but refrained since genealogical pedigrees and "bloodlines" are based on legal paternity, not chromosomal paternity, no matter how uncomfortable that notion makes us. And I guess that would probably make Afranius Syagrius some sort of "arch-lizard" from David Ickes's perspective.
It's worth noting, in passing, that David Icke is also quite interested in descents from antiquity—though perhaps for reasons other than dispassionate scholarly inquiry. :) —Charles P. (Mirv) 22:44, 12 November 2005 (UTC)
There was a popular book made a long time ago titled something like Pedigrees of Descendents of .... (I forget the whole title). The reason I mention it is because it traced many family trees back to British, French, and Turkish royalty (among many others). That was actually the purpose of the book - to take vague names and link nearly everyone alive in Europe to royalty (gotta get a lot of sales on that idea!). I mention it because the book has been heavily discredited, but is still used by people to claim that they have royalty in their distant past. It claims that I come from Norwegian and Turkish royalty. Woohoo! --Kainaw (talk) 16:28, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

Because of the destruction and the lack literacy that happened subsequently to the fall of Rome it would difficult to trace a person to antiquity.

questions about life during the renaissance[edit]

hello my name is shelley curran. i am a senoir at boonsboro high school. i was assingned a project in english class to create a poaster asvertising the pilgrimage to Canterbury. we started reading The Canterbury Tales. I need information about what kinds of food people ate, what kinds of activities they did etc. if you could help me that would be great. Thanks.

You need to decide which period you want to cover. The Renaissance is usually considered to have begun in the 16th century in Northern Europe, while The Canterbury Tales was written in the 14th century and that places it firmly in the late Middle Ages. I think you will get a lot of information about everyday life from the Tales themselves, and your teachers will look most kindly on things in the poster that reference the book. So I would start there; you may not need anything else. Good luck! Notinasnaid 20:51, 12 November 2005 (UTC) is a good website for medieval food (overlapping into the Renaissance). And it contains a guide to food in the Canterbury Tales [23]. - Nunh-huh 21:51, 12 November 2005 (UTC)
You might also want to look into what a pilgrimage was at that time period. Usually it involved paying a past "debt" to a saint. If I were sick, for example, I might say "St. So-and-so, if you save me, I'll make a pilgrimage to your shrine". If I got better, I'd be obligated to my previous promise. Canterbury Cathedral was the shrine of Saint Thomas à Becket, so you might want to look into what he did and would be known for. You might even look at his hagiography if you can find it (a list of his miracles). "Got Gout? Pray to St. Thomas, make the pilgrimage to Caterbury, be absolved of your sins!" or something along those lines. --Fastfission 19:20, 15 November 2005 (UTC)

question about literature in the fifth centary[edit]

what are some famous and important writings that were written during the fifth centary besides Aeschylus's Oresteia, anything by Sophocles and Herodotus's Histories?

Our article is at 5th century BC, but doesn't give an obvious answer. - Nunh-huh 22:23, 12 November 2005 (UTC)

Recently in Missouri, I received a letter from my auto insurance company, State Farm Insurance. The letter informed me that a new feature had been added to my automobile policy; i. e., in the future if I bought an additional vehicle that it would automatically be covered by my policy for a period of 30 days in order to allow me to sell the vehicle it was replacing. In the past, I had always been told that a replacement vehicle was automatically covered only if it was acquired by trading my old vehicle in on the replacement vehicle.

This new feature was to allow the policyholder to sell the vehicle he was replacing on his own should he desire to do so. However, friends (who once sold insurance on a limited basis) said that this feature was always in place and that the company was just appearing to give me a new feature.

Are my friends correct (which I doubt), or is this indeed a new feature?


The answer to that is going to entirely depend on the particulars of your insurance contract. The only definitive way to find out is to read the small print on your insurance, before and after. You could also try asking your insurance agent point blank whether your old car would have been covered before. It's unlikely they will tell you an outright and verifiable lie. DJ Clayworth 18:13, 14 November 2005 (UTC)

November 13[edit]

Native History[edit]

I've been assigned to find "the effects of Jesuit missionaries and fur traders on the Ojibway tribe" and, likely because of the narrowness of the topic, have been unable to find any real answers so far. Hopefully, you might be able to find one for me. Specifically, the assignment is to find what impact the European fur traders and/or Jesuit missionaries had on the Native American Ojibway tribe (e.g. the impacts of disease, religious instruction, loss of language, or loss of land, etc.). If anything comes to mind in relation to this, I'd be very gratified. Thanks, EK

One of the pages linked to from our Ojibwe article seems to have some useful information about the French arming certain tribes, and about the depletions of beaver all of which affected who wound up living where. - Nunh-huh 05:15, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

You might want to read the novel Black Robe by Brian Moore, which is fiction, of course, but certainly gives a good depiction of the Jesuit influence on the First Nations of Canada. User:Zoe|(talk) 22:21, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

I don't have anything in particular, but the Ojibway nation remain pretty organized, you could probably contact them directly and they could aim you at the literature that's out there. -- Jmabel | Talk 06:03, 14 November 2005 (UTC)

An amazing artist but nothing online[edit]

Okay so my father has this amazing piece of artwork - I will attempt to desribe it -

It is a picture of a mountain - This picture is one of a kind. The reason is because the artist works with wood - he uses multiple abstract pieces of wood to puzzle together the picture of the mountain. Now I recently spoke to my father and he said that the artist died in the 1960's and only had a few pieces of this type of art. He told me that the artist is Dutch and that his name was Willie Grallie (not sure if the last name is spelled correctly) This is driving me nuts - the picture is so amazing each piece of wood fits perfectly next to each other and they are not "simple" puzzle peices but more abstract and weird shaped - Please if anyone has seen anything like this or knows the type of artwork - I thought that it might be handcrafted inlaid wooden pictures but I simply cannot find anything remotely close to this piece of work, and I cant find anything online relating to the artist.

thank you for your help


Something like marquetry? - Nunh-huh 08:13, 13 November 2005 (UTC)
Well, we have no pictures in that article.... use Google Images for "marquetry". - Nunh-huh 08:15, 13 November 2005 (UTC)
Also, Emile Gallé did some marquetry. He was French, but this page shows some of his marquetry sold through Sotheby's Amsterdam. - Nunh-huh 08:18, 13 November 2005 (UTC)
Some more nice photos at's gallery and International galleries. Marquetry was very popular in the Soviet republics, and the usual pieces looked much like the ones on the Czech site Nunh-huh linked. Unfortunately this artform has declined in popularity there because it doesn't fit the fashion sensibilities of the modern era. Pity, it really is a magnificent and clever art. --Avijja 04:24, 15 November 2005 (UTC)

The Kansas School Board[edit]

Since october has passed, I'm assuming that the Kansas School Board has voted on the whole intelligent design issue by now, but I haven't found any news of it. What happened? Did a bunch of FSMists turn up? How did the vote go? Any consequences? - anon 11:28, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

Common sense lost, I'm afraid.[24]-- Ec5618 11:33, 13 November 2005 (UTC)
On the bright side, wouldn't you love to be a biology teacher and have this handed to you as the core of a lesson on what is science and what does it mean to people outside a scientific context? I hope this will occur to most of them. alteripse 12:15, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

Re in English Cases[edit]

In English cases you often find for example the case stated as: Re Smith with no mention of any other parties in the case.What does Re stand for/mean?

re means "in the matter of". In contrast, R. vs Smith would mean "Regina" (or Rex, the crown) vs. Smith. (source). re is also used in other legal systems, including the US one. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 13:08, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

Jackson State University events of May 14, 1970[edit]

I use your site for reliable information on events, and cannot find anything related to the events at Jackson State University on May 14, 1970. I have searched by name and date. Have I missed an entry? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs)

We have an entry on the Jackson State killings. (If you can suggest more helpful keywords to help people find it, or pages it should be linked from, please do, and I'll try to ensure it can be found better. Shimgray | talk | 13:42, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

The Calendar[edit]

Hello, I'm new to this site, I logged in a few minutes ago and I was wondering whether anybody could give me an answer to any of these questions.

  1. When was the last year there should've been a leap year but there wasn't?
  2. What is the rule for skipping a leap year?
  3. How does the leap year system work in the Hebrew calendar?
  4. If my English birthday is May 17th, when would my Hebrew birthday be?

If I didn't do something correctly, sorry, I'm new. I'll figure it out (Hopefully).


Leap year and Hebrew calendar should answer your questions. [[Sam Korn]] 15:48, 13 November 2005 (UTC)
some of them, but certainly not all the questions. There's no answer for the last: May 17th can correspond to several dates in the Hebrew calendar: you need to specify a year if you want to convert between the two systems. (And don't forget, it depends on the time of day you were born: Hebrew days start at sunset, Gregorian days at midnight.) As for the 1st question, you probably are asking "When was the last time the Julian calendar had a leap year but the Gregorian calendar didn't?" (Answer: 1900, the last year divisible by 4 and by 100, but not by 400), though the question "when was the last time that the rules prevailing in a place specified that there should be a leap year, but we screwed up and didn't have one", which is more interesting. The worst screw-ups were when the Julian calendar was first introduced in 45 BC. It took a while to get the rules straightened out. More recently, Sweden screwed up when it made an abortive attempt to change gradually from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar by omitting leap years, correctly omitting the one in 1700, but forgetting and having leap years (which they had planned to omit) in 1704 and 1708 - to fix things, they had to stick a February 30th in 1712, and then didn't change calendars until 1753. - Nunh-huh 04:32, 14 November 2005 (UTC)
  • May 17, 1900 = 18 IYR 5660
  • May 17, 1910 = 8 IYR 5670
  • May 17, 1920 = 29 IYR 5680
  • May 17, 1930 = 19 IYR 5690
  • May 17, 1940 = 9 IYR 5700
  • May 17, 1950 = 1 SVN 5710
  • May 17, 1960 = 20 IYR 5720
  • May 17, 1970 = 11 IYR 5730
  • May 17, 1980 = 2 SVN 5740
  • May 17, 1990 = 22 IYR 5750
  • May 17, 2000 = 12 IYR 5760
  • May 17, 2005 = 8 IYR 5765
The Swedish example is notable. However, the general answer to the question "When was the last year there should've been a leap year but there wasn't?" is never. A calendar is an inherently imperfect way of modelling the motion of the earth. There is no "right" calendar, and there is no "wrong" calendar. Some are more accurate in representing reality than others, but none of them is absolutely accurate. If a calendar says a particular year is not a leap year, then according to the rules of that calendar, that year is not a leap year. JackofOz 00:33, 19 November 2005 (UTC)


What does "form" mean in art? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs)

    • a work of art comprises of its content and form. Guernica (painting) will tell you that in this famous painting, picasso attempted to portray the guernica bombing (the painting's content) and used cubist (cubism) treatment (it's form)--Tachs 12:11, 16 November 2005 (UTC)

world's coolest cities[edit]

Do you know of any reports documenting the world's coolest cities circa 2004/05? Thanks —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs)

Trying "coldest cities in the world" in Google, I get Coldest Places in the World. --Kainaw (talk) 19:30, 13 November 2005 (UTC)
Or if you want "coolest" rather than "coldest" then check out some of these sites. --hydnjo talk 19:42, 13 November 2005 (UTC)

The worlds Coolest City is Boston.


Please let me know how much was 5,ooo pounds (English money) worth in 1865 in American dollars? Thank you! —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs)

About $38,500 at the time, which is about equal to $400,000 in current dollars. Shimgray | talk | 00:17, 14 November 2005 (UTC)
That's cool! Can you find out how much 1865 currency was worth in today's dollars too?--Sc