Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/October 2005

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What is this voting system called?[edit]

See Macau legislative election, 2005. Each person gets 1 vote. Vote of each party is divided by 1, 2, 4, 8 etc. It looks like a highest averages method but is not mentioned in that article. What is it called? Is it biased towards large or small parties? Is it used anywhere else?


I disagree, but check the Algeria article to be sure. AlMac|(talk) 01:35, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

Religion in Algeria[edit]

I read the "article of the day" about the war in Algeria. I understand that those who fought, and indeed, some who still are fighting the government after the cancellation of the election were and are Muslim. My question is: Are those who are in power Muslim, and therefore less fundamentalist than the guerillas? Do they practice a different form of Islam? Or do those who are in power practice a different religion altogether? Are they Christians?

  • Given that our article on Algeria states that the population is 99% Islamic, it is hghly likely that its leadership is as well. Our article on the President Abdelaziz Bouteflika does not say what religion he is but this article by him based on a speech to the Sorbonne confirms that he is a Muslim see [1]. Our article on the Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia is currently a stub. I have not been able to find any definitive information on his religion in a quick Google search but I would be most surprised if he were not a Muslim. I suspect that the Government is less fundamentalist than the guerillas and our articles would be improved by making that point. Capitalistroadster 09:27, 26 September 2005 (UTC)



Measured by what? Units sold? Units Sold per Unit Time on the market? Sales in $? Sales in inflation adjusted $?--inks 02:05, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
Most commonly used: Human sweat, which contains pheromones. Western cultures tend to suppress this with deodorants and then add perfume which contains animal pheromones.-gadfium 02:22, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
but...sweat isn't a perfume. For some interesting reading, see here. I suspect Chanel No. 5 may be a contender: it was introduced relatively early (1921) and apparently is still selling a bottle every 30 seconds. - Nunh-huh 04:02, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
Chanel_No.5 Chanel No. 5 is one of the best known perfumes in the world. The first fragrance from Parisian couturier, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, it was launched in May 1921. ≈ jossi ≈ 02:20, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

New York City / The Big Apple[edit]

Why is "New York City" called "The Big Apple"? Thanks, Michele

No one knows for sure. You can read about some guesses in Big Apple. - Nunh-huh 03:32, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

Where is Chartres located?[edit]

Chartres. -- 03:01, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

Art as a reflection of life or life as a reflection of art?[edit]

HI, I'm trying to write an essay relating to the question "is art a reflection of life or is life a reflection of art?" Is this a common philosophical question, or does it stem from a specific philosopher posing the question? For example, I know that Plato claimed that art is imitation, and Tolstoy also wrote about art's meanings. However, I'm confused about the specific origins of the previously mentioned question. Can anyone help? Thanks, 03:12, 26 September 2005 (UTC)Eileen

The source you're looking for is probably The Decay of Lying by Oscar Wilde. David Sneek 07:04, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
CYRIL. Well, before you read it to me, I should like to ask you a question. What do you mean by saying that life, "poor, probable, uninteresting human life," will try to reproduce the marvels of art? I can quite understand your objection to art being treated as a mirror. You think it would reduce genius to the position of a cracked lookingglass. But you don't mean to say that you seriously believe that Life imitates Art, that Life in fact is the mirror, and Art the reality ?
VIVIAN. Certainly I do. Paradox though it may seem--and paradoxes are always dangerous things --it is none the less true that Life imitates art far more than Art imitates life.

George Fosberry, VC[edit]

Did you mean George Vincent Fosbery, VC? David Sneek 07:08, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

romance films[edit]

what is the history of romance films?

While we have articles on Romantic comedy film and Romantic drama film, both articles still need a lot of work. Our Film article contains a detailed history so you should be able to find some information there. Capitalistroadster 09:37, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

Who has control in a Private Limited Company?[edit]

  • Our Limited liability company article contains more information. The short answer is who controls the most shares is normally the person who has control. Capitalistroadster 09:37, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
    • An LLC is an American thing. Private Limited company is (at least) a UK legal entity. I'm not familiar with UK law, but for LLC's the control is delineated in a document called the operating agreement. It can specify who has the control including the possibility of a silent partner that owns most of the company but has little or no say in how the business is run. I'm assuming Limited company's have similar. - Taxman Talk 15:18, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

Wilfred Owen's social & sexual literary environment London 1915-1918[edit]

Owen met Harold Monro, became embroiled in the London literary scene and came into contact with the literary circle/clubs/homosexual scene. Owen's reading was eclectic and appears coloured by writers who themselves were homosexual. Any light shed would be gratefully received. Barry Matthews


  • Barry,

Our article on Wilfred Owen ecplores this in some depth including his relationship with Vidal Sassoon Siegfried Sassoon. It would also be worth checking out the references at the bottom of the Wilfred Owen article for more information. Capitalistroadster 11:50, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

  • I think you meant Siegfried Sassoon there, a slight difference! The first studies on Owen's sexuality were done in 1965, published as Owen agonistes (searching on that might be helpful). In addition, he spent most of 1915-18 in the Army, and '17-18 at Craiglockhart War Hospital and Scarborough, not London.. Shimgray | talk | 12:03, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
  • Oops. Shimgray, thanks for pointing that out. Capitalistroadster 12:41, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
    I was starting to wonder if Owen was killed in WWI for his rather fetching perm ;) - Astatine 10:28, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

Church Pews[edit]

I found an article that talked about church pews not being normal furnishings until after the protestant reformation. My question is -- When did pew makers start putting book racks and communion cup holders on the bak of the pews. I am a Baptist pastor and believe it or not, I had a person ask that question yesterday. Can you help? He wanted to know specifically about the communion cup holders.

Standing and kneeling are the traditional postures for Christian worship, and sitting before your Lord was considered to be inappropriate. Pews really only became of fashion when lengthy readings and sermons became part of Christian worship, particularly in Protestant churches. I think the Reformed/Presbyterian tradition also began to introduce seated communion (around the Lord's table). The addition of book racks to pews is quite recent. To require a book rack, there has to be a general practice of giving congregants books. Hymn books, prayer books and Bibles were generally privately owned and brought to church before the 20th century. Also, communion cup holders are only relevent in those churches that adopted the practice of refusing to drink from a common cup, as has always been traditional among Christians. --Gareth Hughes 15:53, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
This probably isn't much help, but I was raised in a Southern Baptist church, and we had seats with the attached hymnal racks/communion cup holders. The seats were installed in 1964, not too long ago, but hey, it means that they have had those features for at least 41 years.Brian Schlosser42 16:15, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

Male urinating customs; standing vs sitting[edit]

I am in the process of toilet training my son. In doing so I am now aware that many mothers develop elaborate methods of teaching their sons to stand up while urinating; so elaborate in some cases that I've wondered if this is why a boy in the US tends to become toilet trained later than a girl?

In my own life, ALL the males I know sit--standing only to relieve themselves in public bathrooms or outdoors. My interest is simple curiosity. Is this a social custom that varies from country to country? Is there an historical perspective? What do primitive males do? Is one method considered more "culturally advanced" than another? Are American males the only ones taught to stand thus causing the war between men and women regarding the toilet seat? People from other countries tell me that the toilet seat war was something they heard about only when they got to the US. Is sitting vs. standing a social custom that varies from family to family? Are there religious dictates? Is it simply convenience or situational?

My main interest is in America vs. the rest of world, although America vs Western Europe would be a good start if the other is too much to tackle--or as I think about it maybe America itself is the best place to start.

I have done a google search but I wasn't able to find anything on this subject. Thanks

I would imagine that for a man to stand is more natural. Toilet seats are a relatively modern invention: if you didn't have one, you would stand. Without a toilet seat, the other option is to crouch, and it's far easier for a man to stand than crouch when urinating. --Gareth Hughes 15:46, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
  • I really like the juxtaposition of this and the previous topic. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 17:06, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
  • There's no difference between the US and western Europe. Why do you think there's scores of urinals here? I understand that some men put up the toilet seat in order not to soil it. I'm wondering though, why some still manage to hit the edge even with a clear shot at the middle of the bowl. There's French toilets that require crouching, so maybe it's different there. - Mgm|(talk) 21:55, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
  • On my recent trip to China, I saw a number of men's bathroom toilets that were little more than bowls embedded in the ground. Apparently, you really had to crouch to use those. I wonder if they're cheaper or more expensive than actual full-size toilets... ~GMH talk to me 20:51, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Elaborate rituals? Really? I though all you had to do was take off the diaper let him loose outdoors. I'm not a parent and I don't remember my own toilet training, but I would think that the only thing you really need to train a boy to do is how to aim (something a lot of grown men seem to have a problem doing). Guettarda 22:08, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
  • Without having done any research, but going on my thirty years on this earth as a male from the UK, I would say A) It is rare for males to sit when urinating, even at home. - - B) regarding "I'm wondering though, why some still manage to hit the edge even with a clear shot at the middle of the bowl", I think it's for the tricky tailing off period at the end of a jimmy-riddle when the last few drops lack the momentum to carry them beyond the seat edge, combined with a reticence to overcome that by standing astride the bowl or placing one hand on the back wall and leaning, body held straight, forward at an angle. - - C) elaborate rituals sound rather barmy to me, if anything I would have thought they're liable to induce some kind of terrible pissing anxiety. I think boys can easily be trained by just standing them in fornt of whatver you want them to go into and encouraging them to let rip, being understanding if they make a mess for the first few hundred times. --bodnotbod 20:26, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

The Age of Silly Putty[edit]

I recently purchased an "egg" of old Silly Putty along with the original box and I'm having a very difficult time trying to determine it's age. The egg is dull yellow on one half and grey/green multicolored on the other. The box is pink and white. Text on the box includes "Silly Putty Marketing New Haven 10, Conn." on two sides in small print. "Always put your Silly Putty back in it's egg or it will run slowly away" is printed on another side. And the fourth side reads "A Real Solid Liquid" along with a list of things to do with your Silly Putty.

I have done considerable research and have been unable to locate any information that might help to determine it's age. I have a link to a photograph but I'm not sure if that is permissible at Wikipedia. I will post it if anyone would like to see "The Putty."

I hope this is not an inappropriate question for Wikipedia. Any information would be greatly appreciated.

  • Our Silly Putty article says that multicoloured silly putty was first sold in the 1980's. You could try contacting the manufacturer to see when they started making that colour. Capitalistroadster 01:16, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
    • I think you misinterpreted the questioner. The egg is multi-colored. With an address with "New Haven 10", it's pre-ZIP code, so it's real early Silly Putty. I bet the box is unopened. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 01:30, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
  • To the questioner: You may post a link to the picture, but do not upload it unless you took the picture yourself. Superm401 | Talk 00:48, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

Silly putty was marketed in plastic eggs beginning in the late 1950s and zip codes were introduced in 1963. This pins this item to about a 4 year window. alteripse 07:19, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

history fair topic - kids who took a stand[edit]

I am looking for good relevant history fair topic possibilities for my 8th grade son. The general subject area is people who took a stand for or against something. I was hoping to find some possibilities and to offer him as he begins his work. And specifically I was hoping to find something relevant to him, like a kid who took a stand in history. Or something about kids -- like child labor laws. Ages ago we watched the movie Newsies and he really liked that. So, even something about how conditions were before the first child labor laws, who the people were who took a stand against those conditions, and what changes were wrought.

Thank you for any help you can give me.

The first thing that comes to mind is Ilana Wexler, who was 11 years old when she started her web site Kids for Kerry (apparently; I'm sure she had a little help) to root on John Kerry in the 2004 US presidential election. She even gave a speech at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. That might be a little politically charged, though, and clearly it had little effect. S.E. Hinton published the classic book The Outsiders when she was 16; is that still a "kid?" Garrett Albright 19:41, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
There's Craig Kielburger, who founded Free The Children, an anti-child labour group, when he was 12. He's quite famous in Canada, though we don't have much on him. - SimonP 21:29, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
Then there was Samantha Smith, the 1980s peace activist. --Metropolitan90 22:19, 26 September 2005 (UTC)
In reference to adults taking a stand against child labor, you might be interested in the movement to stop chimney sweeps from employing children. Most notable amongst those against the practice was perhaps Lord Shaftesbury (I guess that would be Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury) who finally succeeded in puttng a stop to it. — Laura Scudder | Talk 00:57, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
  • Joan of Arc might be a good example. She was only 12 when she started having her visions and by 17 was leading the French Army. Capitalistroadster 01:22, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

Hanseatic League, Papal decrees, Fish on fast days[edit]

Hi all you history buffs; This is a tough one . When I was in college a few millenium ago, I took a History of Religions course . In this course the professor told us that the Hanseatic trade league had persuaded( Bribed) one of the Popes to decree that on fast days meat was not allowed to be eaten and that fish should be put in its place. Fish was one of the main trading products of the league. We all know that fish are definetley part of the christian faith , ever since the loaves and fishes on the mount and Peters Gig as a Fisherman. My question to you is have their been any Papal or Church Bulls or decrees or treaties specifically made with the Hanseatic Trade League concerning fish trade and have their been any decrees by the Church requiring Christians to eat fish on Fast days? I have been trying to find an answer to this question for years and have only found one reference to Papal decree That christians should eat fish on Fridays and it had no specifific details. Thanks gang Dennis Nigrelli GOOD LUCK on this one:)

Nope. Pope Nicholas I decreed abstinence on Fridays, way before the Hanseatic League was formed. See Abstinence at the Catholic Encyclopedia (Go to the section DAYS OF ABSTINENCE), and fish is not considered meat for this purpose in the works of St Thomas Aquinas (Summa, II-II, Q. cvii, art. ult., ad 3 - according to the Catholic Encyclopedia). I heard your bribery story too, but I'm pretty sure there's no truth to it. --Diderot 19:25, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

Camp Douglas Union Prison[edit]

I am interesting in learning more about the types of illnesses, rates of illnesses, medical care/types of care and deaths from all causes that occured at Camp Douglas Union Prison during the years of the Civil War. Thousands of CSA soldiers died here and I can't seem to find their medical records. Any help?

We have an article on Camp Douglas (Chicago) which points out that the camp was rather unsanitary, but doesn't go into too many specifics. Garrett Albright 19:27, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

Russell H. Dorr[edit]

Three persons were originally appointed by Britain, France and the United States to the Tripartite Gold Commission, which had the responsiblity of deciding how to return treasure taken by the Nazis back to European victims and reintroduce these monies into circulation. They were Sir Desmond Morton, Jacques Rueff, and by the Americans, Russell H. Dorr. Why, given that the first two were very public persons with documented lives, is there seemingly no biographical information available about Dorr and his life? Given the high profile of the British and French appointments, it would be odd for the Americans to put forward a representative without pedigree.

Seaching online for the names of the original representatives, I have come across exactly one reference noting Dorr's name and that he was originally appointed to the Inter-Allied Reparations Agency (whatever that was).

I think an article about these subjects would be useful, since they affected monetary policy for a couple of generations as the commission apparently wasn't disbanded until decades later.

I found a couple of passing references on the web, but we do seem to lack any information on him. We have an article on Morton, but not the Frenchman, and that article doesn't mention the Commission. Something to look into... Shimgray | talk | 20:07, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

Thanks for your comment. Rueff has an entry under the French part of the site. I found it previously using google and the translation comes out surprisingly readable.


What are the various aspects of Wikipedia and what is available to the user?

I suggest you start by reading Welcome, newcomers and Wikipedia:About.-gadfium 22:28, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

Ruska Castle, near Cahir Castle in co Tipperary[edit]

Can somebody please help me to find any information at all regarding this castle. I have looked and looked and come up with nothing! anything at all would be something!! thank you

  • We don't have an article on "Ruska Castle" and there are no returns from Google see [2]. Are you sure that this is the name of the castle or are there alternatives. Capitalistroadster 01:30, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

mystics religious[edit]

(no question — user meditating)

Read our wonderful articles on mysticism and category:mystics. --Gareth Hughes 22:31, 26 September 2005 (UTC)

what were 2 changes made to the declaration of independence[edit]

Have a look here: Declaration_of_Independence_(United_States)#Differences_between_draft_and_final_versions --inks 00:40, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

Mandell Collection of Southern Caliofornia[edit]

Hi. I kept noticing that a violins, etc. played by famouse musicians are often loans from "Mandell Collection of Southern California." What is the Mandell Collection of Southern California? Also, who is this Peter Mandell person who collects stuff? How did he become a collector? Thanks.

Amish vs Mennonite[edit]

In Canada we have an Amish community. I would like to know the difference between Amish and Mennonite. I know that Mennonite is the main religion and Amish is a branch of it. (I think). If you could explain simply the difference I would appreciate it.

See Amish and Mennonite, especially the former. Ornil 02:02, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
Short answer: the Amish are a highly visible branch of Anabaptism because of their rather fetishistic beliefs about clothes, farming, electricity, cars and the German language. Mennonites are less visible, but at their most conservative are almost Amish - the Old Order Mennonites, for example, or the "Black bumpers". However, the bulk of Mennonites are indistinguishable from other evangelical movements and live little differently from other people. --Diderot 07:50, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
You are right in that Amish are a branch of the Mennonite tradition. In general Old Order Mennonites are more common in Canada than Amish. DJ Clayworth 17:36, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
My Grandpa always preferred to think of himself as a Mennonite, the Amish as non-Mennonite, but both as very much a part of the Anabaptist tradition. The distinction is purely terminological - the Amish and the non-Amish Mennonites clearly belong to something in common - but how it's designated varies. --Diderot 18:58, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

Violence in East Timor aginst Women[edit]

Do u have any articles that have to do with violences (rape, abbues etc.) on the women of East Timor 02:22, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

When, now or during Indonesia's occupation?
Our article on the History of East Timor doesn't specifically mention violence against women, and none of the other relevant articles seem to. Feel free to add material if you find something that you think is appropriate for our articles, or start a new one if you have some encyclopedic material that's not suitably covered in an existing article.
In general, our coverage of third-world countries is somewhat less comprehensive than I'd like it to be; there's still far too much imprint of the very limited perspective of the CIA World Factbook in our articles.--Robert Merkel 03:59, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
  • The Timor-Leste Scorched Earth article about the violence leading up to the 1999 referendum mentions nothing about violence against women in particular. Our History of East Timor article contains a quote from Noam Chomsky about 2,000 rapes. While I generally take anything from Noam Chomsky with a large grain of salt, it coincides with my memory. This article explains further about the situation on violence against women see [3]. It might be worth copying this inquiry and comments over to the History of East Timor talk page. Capitalistroadster 04:18, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

Foreign head-of-state security[edit]

The bodyguards of the US President are the famous Secret Service. But what about other countries? Do the various security details guarding the Australian Prime Minister, German President etc. have any specific name?

I'll start it off - in New Zealand they are called the "Diplomatic Protection Squad", although their protection is not limited to the Prime Minister alone.--inks 04:59, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
  • The Australian Protective Service protects the Australian Prime Minister and other VIPs such as the Governor-General as well as sensitive defence areas and foreign diplomats in Australia. Capitalistroadster 05:25, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
In Britain, it seems to be the Diplomatic Protection Group.-gadfium 06:30, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
No, they guard embassies. The Prime Minister is guarded by 'A Squad' of Special Branch whilst the head of state, The Queen, is guarded by the Royalty Protection Group. This is all, however, underreview and is likely to change in the medium term. Sapient 22:34, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

In Germany, the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) or "federal police agency" is responsible for these tasks. Within the BKA, a special ops group called "Sicherungsgruppe" / (SG) Protection Unit is organizing the protection of all important politicians in Germany. If a foreign head of state is visiting Germany, the BKA / SG is responsible for their security as well.--nodutschke 14:58, 27 September 2005 (UTC)


Who is God?

Games & Theory[edit]

What is "games & theory" anyway? Example of using: "-- I got Games & Theory. -- Games & Theory? That's Military Intelligence..."

12 hours day 12 hours night[edit]

What is the word given to 12 hours daytime 12 hours night.

Equinox is the title and it occurs twice a year on March 21 and September 21. Capitalistroadster 09:41, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

Well, around March 21st and September 21st. This year the autumnal equinox was on September 22nd. Brian Schlosser42 16:42, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

who is jose corazon de jesus?[edit]

I have answered this question above. He was a significant Filipino poet in the early nineteenth century. Capitalistroadster 09:48, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

how are monsoons a boon to indian economy[edit]

Our Monsoon article explains about monsoons. Our Climate of India states that they supply 80% of India's water so they enable crops to grow. Capitalistroadster 10:42, 27 September 2005 (UTC)


Why was the name Katrina designated to the very wicked hurricane? Was it because the name belonged to a wicked personality ? If so Who?

I have a hurricane question[edit]

I see from the Lists of tropical cyclone names that we're on List III at the moment in the North Atlantic hurrican naming convention (or whatever it's called). And so we had Hurricane Katrina, and then Hurrican Rita a few weeks later. But what happened to Hurricanes Lee, Maria, Nate, Ophelia, and Philippe? Proto t c 11:17, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

Never mind, I've just answered my own question. 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Proto t c 11:20, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

which animal did vasco da gama document while he was around the east african coast?[edit]

Human. According to Round Africa to India,

"On the day after we had cast anchor, that is to say on Thursday (November 9), we landed with the captain-major, and made captive one of the natives, who was small of stature like Sancho Mexia. This man had been gathering honey in the sandy waste, for in this country the bees deposit their honey at the foot of the mounds around the bushes. He was taken on board the captain-major's ship, and being placed at table he ate of all we ate. On the following day the captain-major had him well dressed and sent ashore."

"They are of tawny complexion. Some of them have big beards and long hair, whilst others clip their hair short or shave the head, merely allowing a tuft to remain on the crown as a sign that they are Christians. They also wear moustaches. They pierce the ears and wear much gold in them. They go naked down to the waist, covering their lower extremities with very fine cotton stuffs. But it is only the most respectable who do this, for the others manage as best they are able. The women of this country, as a rule, are ugly and of small stature. They wear many jewels of gold round the neck, numerous bracelets on their arms, and rings set with precious stones on their toes. All these people are well-disposed and apparently of mild temper. At first sight they seem covetous and ignorant."

If you are interested in doing your own homework, see Vasco da Gama for more information. Superm401 | Talk 00:41, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

  • So would the answer be a bee or a human? alteripse 00:45, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
    • Damn it. I was looking for an unambiguously sarcastic quote. I'll go back and get a better one. Superm401 | Talk 00:51, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

President Bush Speech Writers?[edit]

Who makes up the team currently writing President Bush's speeches?-

  • According to this blog entry [4] [from Michael Barone, President Bush's current chief speechwriter is Bill McGurn and his deputy chief speechwriter is John McConnell (speechwriter). Michael Gerson was his former Chief Speechwriter until recently. David Frum is his best known former speechwriter. Barone states in relation to a recent speech delivered in New Orleans. "Of course it bears most of all the imprint of Bush himself, who reportedly tells the speechwriters pretty much what he wants to say and actively edits multiple drafts until he gets what he wants." Capitalistroadster 03:40, 28 September 2005 (UTC)


I am trying to find out if a Taniwha has an apple or a baby, and if so, what the Maori word is for a Taniwha's child or baby is. I have read some of the legends of Taniwha, but have been unable to ascertain whether Taniwha's have children or babies. 14:30, 27 September 2005 (UTC)

Early American History[edit]

How should Columbus' expedition be viewed. As a success or a failure?

  • Depends, he was trying to find India which he failed to miserably. But he did manage to sail across the Atlantic which was certainly successful. Most ships went around the south of Africa as people where afraid to fall of the edge of the earth. - Mgm|(talk) 16:22, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
Naw, everybody knew the world was round. They were afraid of bad currents, sea monsters, and just plain getting lost. --Diderot 16:41, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
As I understand it, the prevailing opinion at the time was that the world was indeed round, but large enough that getting to Asia (as Columbus was trying to do) would take too long. Columbus thought the world was small enough to make the trip. As it turned out he was wrong, but lucked out in finding another continent. DJ Clayworth 17:32, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
  • For whom, and by what metre? Columbus died rich, and nuttier than Christmas fruit cake. So, if you attribute his wealth to his expeditions (which is pretty well documented) it was a stunning success for Columbus. If you attribute his lunacy to his expeditions, then perhaps not. Spain was rich - arguably the wealthiest state in Europe - when Columbus set off. Afterwards, it acquired huge assets in gold and silver that... ruined the value of those minerals and bankrupted the state in extraction costs, opening the door to the Dutch, French and English who stored their wealth in things other than gold. On the other hand, Spanish is spoken on several continents and Spanish culture is secure and thriving. So, it might have been one small step backwards for Spain, but a giant leap forward for Spanishkind. For the rest of Europe... well, they'd probably have made the trip anyway soon enough. But Columbus did bring them wonders like corn, potatoes, tobacco and syphilis - bringing on single crop subsistence which caused overpopulation and poor nutrition for centuries to come; and causing countless cases of drug addiction and heart disease, all while messing up sex for millions of Europeans, ultimately leading to that extinguisher of a good lay, the condom. So for Europe... still maybe just so-so. For Native Americans, of course, it was the vector of lethal plagues and epidemics that destroyed their societies and led to their conquest by outsiders. On the other hand, they have casinos now. --Diderot 16:41, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
    • If we are judging success by self evaluation, then it should be noted that the expansion of Catholic Christendom was far more important to those involved than the spread of the Spanish language and culture. If we are asking whether Columbus' expedition was a success or failure for humanity as a whole, then you should read the Perceptions of Columbus section in Christopher Columbus and see related articles such as destruction of American indigenous peoples. - SimonP 02:01, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
And of course, as it says at the top of the page do your own homework. The point of a question like this is to investigate the plusses and minuses of what he did. DJ Clayworth 17:29, 27 September 2005 (UTC)


Who is president of Samoobrona Polska LEpper and is it truth that Samoobrona is now biggest opostion party in Poland

  • Our article on Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland states that it is the third largest party in Poland with a 10.5% vote in 2005. It further states that although it was officially an Opposition party it supported the Government on key votes. Andrzej Lepper will be their Presidential candidate in elections later this year. Capitalistroadster 03:21, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

Molestation Laws[edit]

What are some molestation laws in other parts of the world?

Which parts of the world and other than what? Each country has its own laws, so unless you are more specific you are unlikely to get a useful answer to such a question. Shantavira 16:58, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

hopefully, it's illegal everywhere, so don't try it. --Ballchef 03:27, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Many countries make it a crime to molest a child even if it is done overseas to prevent sex tourism, too. — ceejayoz 14:30, 2 October 2005 (UTC)


  • Paper what? - Mgm|(talk) 20:24, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
    • Paper or plastic? <g> - Nunh-huh 02:39, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
      • Scissors. Ojw 18:54, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
        • I was reading that article. It says, "When rival auction houses Christie's and Sotheby's agreed to play rock-paper-scissors to determine the rights to a highly valuable art collection, Maclean's father Nicholas, a Christie's employee, asked her for advice. As later told to reporters, her strategy was summed up thus: "Everybody knows you always start with scissors. Rock is way too obvious, and scissors beats paper."". Does anyone know that story(if it's even true)? Superm401 | Talk 20:18, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
          • The story is true, both Sotherbys & Christies bid to auction something & the seller couldn't decide between them so made them play stone, paper, scissors. It was in the paper here several months ago so I don't remember any details. AllanHainey 15:16, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

what hemispheres is russia located[edit]

(plus the great lakes question)

Per the instructions at the top, do your own homework. Feel free to check out Russia or Great Lakes, however. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 21:47, 27 September 2005 (UTC)
At first I thought the answer was obvious, but then I actually had to stop and look at the map and it's not what you might first think of. Ornil 01:44, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
  • All of Russia is in the Northern hemisphere. Most of it is in the Eastern Hemisphere and it is generally not considered to be part of the Western hemisphere as commonly defined as the Americas. However, the island of Big Diomede which is part of Russia is only a few kilometres from Little Diomede in Alaska. If Alaska had remained as a Russian colony rather than being sold to the US in 1867, it would have clear status as being a member of the Western hemisphere as well. Check out our articles on all three hemispheres listed for further clarification. Capitalistroadster 02:06, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

The Duprees[edit]

Can anyone make an artical on the doo wop band "The Duprees"? I don't know much about them, but i'm interested

  • I will add The Duprees to our requested article list. For the meantime, I will add a link to the article see [5]. The articles starts that they had 1 top 10 US hit and three US top 40 hits so they definitely meet WP:music. Capitalistroadster 02:10, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
  • I have created an article on the Duprees. Capitalistroadster 10:15, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

What's the meaning of the word "cahoot"?[edit]

I've made some searches but I couldn't find anything! Kieff | Talk 02:25, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

  • Kieff,

According to this definition, the word usually plural is used to define a partnership or league usually formed for shady, unethical or illegal purposes see [6]. The word is slang from the southwestern US. Capitalistroadster 02:31, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

yes, it typically means an unethical or secretive alliance and is usually phrased "in cahoots" for example "the drug dealer was in cahoots with the police in order to maintain his position as the only dealer in town". -Drdisque 02:46, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

Ah, I see. Thanks Kieff | Talk 04:06, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
Interestingly, the OED lists older usages in the singular: "18.. Chron. Pineville (Bartlett), I wouldn't swar he wasn't in cahoot with the devil.", not showing up as cahoots until the 1860s. The etymology is from the French cahute meaning cabin or cabinet. --Bob Mellish 00:31, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

who was john marshall[edit]

John Marshall was a Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court for 34 years and a leading figure of US constitutional law. The other John Marshalls with article include John Marshall (archaeologist) and John Marshall (British captain). Capitalistroadster 03:31, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

Copyright expiration[edit]

I own a book that I think has passed into public domain, and might be a good source for the (currently somewhat light) engineering section of Wikipedia. It's Mechanics of Materials by Laurson and Cox, 2nd edition (the Wiley & Sons edition, not the Chapman & Hall Amazon is selling). I went here and looked through the renewals for 74, 75, 76 and 63, 64, 65 (since the copyright dates listed are 1938 and 1947), and couldn't find it under the title or either of the authors' names. Is this enough effort to consider it expired, or should I do more? Secondly, how can I begin the process of digitizing it? Anyone out there with a flatbed scanner and lots of free time? The USPS book rate is pretty cheap. Thanks in advance, Joel 03:50, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

Just a comment regarding scanning/digitizing - there have been several extensive discussions on Slashdot about the best way to scan a book, and what format to do it in. I think that for small projects, the concensus was that it was far faster, cheaper, and better to take the book to a Kinko's or similar, and have them do it. Scan as PDF, OCR the text and insert into file to make it searchable. Their machines can scan double sided much faster and with higher quality than human operators, especially those with a home scanner.--inks 04:01, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
I also considered temporarily undoing the binding and running it through a sheet-feeding scanner. It seems that putting a book back together is relatively straightforward if you know how to sew and can handle paste, but maybe I'm underestimating any rate, the book wouldn't lose any sentimental value in the process. But letting a machine handle the whole book sounds nice; would it be around the same cost as a photocopy, or more? Would I have to pay for a CD, or would they email/upload the data for me? I looked online, but they didn't mention any such service.--Joel 19:28, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
  • I would check with the relevant copyright body and get an explicit ruling of whether or not the copyright has expired before I did anything. I would also suggest posting a copy of this to Wikipedia:Copyright issues so that users with a greater understanding of or interest in copyright law can give you some advice. Capitalistroadster 04:20, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
  • Joel, It would also be worthwhile posting a copy to Wikipedia:Copyrights. Capitalistroadster 04:26, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

Listed & quoted companies[edit]

Could someone please explain the differernce between a company that is listed on a stock exchange and one that is quoted.


-- There is no difference, the 2 terms mean the same thing, if a stock is quoted it means its price is quoted on a stock exchange (which it is listed on). AllanHainey 15:21, 5 October 2005 (UTC)


What happend to a real person upon which is based Robert De Niros charachter in the movie Goodfellas,is he out of the jail is he even alive(if yes,he is probably over 80?? Thanks

He died in prison in 1996 at the age of 64; if he were alive today, he'd be only 74. For more, see Jimmy Conway. Chuck 18:37, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

GWB and the popular vote[edit]

IS it truthy that president Bush jr. got less vocies then Albert Gore back in 2000 and is that means that he cheated the election? Also,is Governer Jeb Bush next republican nominee for the president of the United States?

As our article on the U.S. presidential election, 2000 explains in great detail, Bush got less votes than Gore on a nationwide popular vote, so in that sense he did get fewer votes than Gore. However, Presidential elections in the United States are not decided on the nationwide popular vote tally. Instead, they are decided by who gets the most votes in the U.S. Electoral College. To greatly simplify, whomever gets the most votes in each state gets their nominees as the electoral college voters for that state. The number of people in the electoral college from each state is decided by the number of people in that state, but it is not truly proportional, so small states have more electoral "power" per voter than large states (notably including California and New York, both of which Gore carried). In terms of state by state results, the result in Florida turned out to be the crucial one in deciding the election; it is a large state and the result was very finely balanced. The original count by the Florida electoral authorities had George Bush ahead by an infinitesimally small amount (a few dozen votes in a state of 25-odd million people). It is possible that recounts may have produced a different result, as you can read about on the presidential election page. However, in the end the recounts were stopped by the U.S. Supreme court in Bush v. Gore, an exceptionally controversial decision. So, ultimately, as far as the US legal system is concerned Bush got more votes in Florida, and thus in the electoral college, which is what mattered in the end.
As to who the Republican candidate will be in the next presidential election, you can have a look at a summary of the speculation at U.S. presidential election, 2008. A supplementary page, Talk:U.S._presidential_election, 2008/Lists_of_potential_candidates notes that Jeb Bush has stated that he does not intend to run. However, it is a long time between now and when serious campaigning starts. Jeb wouldn't be the first politician to change his mind on such a topic.--Robert Merkel 11:30, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

French modern painters[edit]

Hello! I would like to know some famous french modern painters lived in 1800th. I desperately need the information for my schoolwork so I would be extremely pleased if you sent me the information as soon as possible.

Please don't post your email on this page, as spammers monitor it to collect email addresses. As to your question, have you had a look at our article on French art? --Robert Merkel 11:30, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

British society during the Napoleonic Wars[edit]

What role did George III play during the Napoleonic War?

Was Ed Sullivan born in 1901 or 1902?[edit]

Wikipedia has it as September 28, 1902 but a lot of reputable other sources say 1901. Which one is it?

You must be looking at an old version of the page--the current version says 1901. The page's history shows that it has said 1901 since August 24. However, for future reference, questions about a specific article are better handled on the talk page for that article, rather than here at the reference desk. Chuck 21:29, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
Looking at it in more detail, there are a lot of reputable sources that say 1901, and a lot that say 1902; it's far from clear. I'll take it to Talk:Ed Sullivan. Chuck 21:41, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

list of loksabhas till date in india[edit]

Old Man of the Mountain and Daniel Webster[edit]

I am a research assistant for a professor at my college who is writing a paper on anamorphic faces in landscapes. In her article she uses the quote by Daniel Webster which is also used in the Wikipedia article on the Old Man of the Mountain. The quote is, "Men hang out their signs indicative of their respective trades: shoe makers hang out a gigantic shoe; jewelers a monster watch, and the dentist hangs out a gold tooth; but up in the mountains of New Hampshire, God Almighty has hung out a sign to show that there He makes men." I need to find out where in Webster's writings or speeches this quote came from for a footnote for the article, and I haven't quite been able to do it yet. I was hoping someone here might know.

Thanks a lot,

Since the Old Man is no more does that mean that God has gotten out of the man-making business? Or has He simply withdrawn the logo pending the outcome of future market research?Brian Schlosser42 19:49, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

horse track racing[edit]

what are the positive things about horsetrack racing?

When you skip studying for a university examination, go to the Melbourne Cup, back the winner, celebrate with champagne, take the exam the next day and still ace it :)
Seriously, it can be a fun recreational activity. At the Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival, Melbourne's young and single population converges for afternoons of dressing up, drinking (sometimes to excess), checking out the representatives of the opposite gender, and incidentally cheering on a horse or two. --Robert Merkel 23:37, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

The main public benefits are a safe and fair recreational outlet (fair through the use of Parimutuel betting and a great amount of tax revenue for the local governance -Drdisque 07:06, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Are Cossacks Khazars?[edit]

 are Cossacks Khazars?

Sent from Answers

History of Cossacks

Early Cossacks history:

The name is derived from the Turkic word quzzaq, "adventurer", "freeman". The term is first mentioned in a Ruthenian document dated 1395.

<The name 'Khazar' seems to be tied to a Turkic verb meaning "wandering".>

Cossacks should not be confused with the Kazakhs (Kazakh is spelled Qazaq (Казак) in the native language).

"Cossacks" (Kozacy) was also the name given to a kind of light cavalry in Poland-Lithuania regardless of ethnicity.

Cossacks came to existence in the territories of today's Ukraine around 13th century, as a result of early medieval migrations of peoples in Europe.

Byzantine writers of the 10th century first mentioned the Cossacks and described them as a separate people who lived on the river Don. In 1261 these people living in the area between the rivers Dniester and the Volga were described for the first time in Russian chronicles.

In all historical records of that period the Cossacks society was described as lose federation of independent communities, often merging into larger units of a military character, entirely separate and mostly independent from any other local countries (like Poland, Russia or Tatars).

In the 16th century these Cossack societies created two relatively independent territorial organisations:

Zaporizhia (Zaporozhie), on the lower bends of the river Dnieper, between Russia, Poland and the Tartars of the Crimea, with the center, Zaporizhian Sich; Don Cossack State, on the river Don, separating the then weak Russian State from the Mongol and Tartar tribes, vassals of Ottoman Empire.


The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. The name 'Khazar' seems to be tied to a Turkic verb meaning "wandering". In the 7th century AD they founded an independent Khaganate in the Northern Caucasus along the Caspian Sea, where over time Judaism became the state religion. At their height, they and their tributaries controlled much of what is today southern Russia, western Kazakhstan, eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and the Crimea.

The Khazars were important allies of the Byzantine Empire, and were a major regional power at their height. They fought a series of successful wars against the Arab Caliphates, probably preventing an Arab invasion of Eastern Europe. By the end of the tenth century, their power was broken by the Kievan Rus, and the Khazars largely disappeared from history. The possible Khazar contribution to the bloodline of modern Ashkenazi Jews is politically sensitive and has been the subject of much discussion, but most geneticists now believe that it is not substantial.

The first significant appearance of the Khazars in history is their aid to the campaign of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius against the Sassanid Persians. The Khazar ruler Ziebel (sometimes identified as Tong Yabghu Khagan of the West Turks) aided the Byzantines in overrunning Georgia. A marriage was even contemplated between Ziebel's son and Heraclius' daughter, but never took place.

(Many cultures still call the Caspian Sea "Khazar Sea"; e.g. "Hazar Denizi" in Turkish, "Bahr ul-Khazar" in Arabic)

What does "Sent from Answers" mean? Is the above text copyrighted from somewhere? User:Zoe|(talk) 05:31, 1 October 2005 (UTC) is a Wikipedia mirror that Google provides links to on searches. — ceejayoz 14:28, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

"Thematic Elements" in MPAA rating system[edit]

In the description of film contents that accompany the letter ratings put out by the MPAA film rating system used in the United States, they often caution against "thematic elements". What are thematic elements exactly, and why would children be bothered by them?-- 18:46, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

At least one columnist has speculated that, due to the generally bad quality of current movies, viewers should be warned if a movie attempts to convey any distinct theme whatsoever. :) That said, the above is correct -- it's just an obscure way for Hollywood to say "this would cause someone to start a protest if we were honest about it." — Lomn | Talk / RfC 20:22, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
I think 'thematic elements' are used when the film is about something disturbing, even if there is no actual depiction of sex, violence or language. So a film whose major theme was a man hunting down someone in revenge for the rape of his wife might get a high rating even if neither the rape nor the killing were shown. DJ Clayworth 20:41, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
  • I was going to suggest The Elephant Man (movie) as a film that isn't explicit but, due to the themes of abuse, disfigurement and suicide (albeit joined with those of altruism, kindness and humanity) would be given a rating preventing children from viewing it. However, I see the DVD is given a PG (under 15s can see it if accompanied by an adult) on the DVD release here in the UK. --bodnotbod 22:09, 2 October 2005 (UTC)


What is Fidel Castros references(if any)about Che Gevara after his death and also is Raul Castro really a prime minister of Cuba? The first question I do not understand. The second quesion the answer is no. Cuba does not have a prime minister. Like the U.S. it has only a president, the current president of Cuba is Fidel Castro. Raul Castro is Fidels brother, the specific offices he holds is vice president, and minister of defense. Raul is also on the politburo of the Cuban communist party. For serval years after the revolution Cuba had both a president and Prime minister. The presidentcy was only cerrimonial. Prime minister during those years was Fidel Castro, who held the real power.


this is in pennsylvania

My boyfriend's mother died in 2002 in The Philadelphia Protestant Home via hospice. He is the older brother at 55 years old . His younger brother is 52 and a lawyer for the federal government in D.C. According to the younger brother, my boyfriend has $300,000 in stocks in the inheritance in a trust or portfolio of some type. The younger brother is executor of the will. She had no land but plenty of money and he has received $70,000 in bonds so far. He has asked the younger brother at least 3 times over the past 18 months about the money and he said that the brother never responds. We are beginning to wonder if he invested it and lost it or if he just plans on keeping it. My boyfriend says he has never seen the will and gets the same blank response when he asks about it. We live in Philadelphia and are wondring what the laws are on how much time he has to give John his share or if he is legally obligated to give him anything at all. The brother also stated that the mother told him if John wanted the money for anything that he would have to decide for John to see if the reason was worth giving him the money or not. He has no living relatives on his mother's side except the brother. Can we legally go into the records here in Pa. without the fee of a lawyer or find out some way to actually see what the contents of the inheritance is? -- 21:32, 28 September 2005 (UTC)Patricia Thompson

email removed per common sense
Wikipedia is not a lawyer, which is what you should be pursuing here. It seems to me that the relevant costs are justified if you're looking at gaining $200,000+ as a result of this action. Also, posting your email publicly invites additional spam and scam email, so I've hidden it for you. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 02:28, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
This is not legal advice and you should consult an attorney, as Lomn says it is probably worth it--especially from a financial aspect, but better would be to be very clear with the brother that he wants the details and to know what is going on first. Avoiding involving attorneys beyond simply asking general advice would be best to avoid hard feelings. Generally beneficiaries have a legal right to see the documents governing any assets that they are the beneficiary for, unless the document says otherwise. That would be the first step after simply asking for the document--put in writing a letter requesting all documents pertaining to the inheritance. As for the timing, if it is a trust, the documents can specify almost anything including he never gets the money except in hardship etc etc. Also if it is a trust it does not have to be filed anywhere. Now all this is based on MI practices, so it could vary for PA, another reason to ask an attorney there. There's probably nothing bad going on, just the brother is busy and doesn't want to think your bf is only interested in the money, but if he is trustee, he does have duties to the beneficiary. We have lots of articles on this to get a general understanding of the issues which could allow you to ask an attorney the right questions and thus save time and money. For $200-300 for an hour's time of an attorney, one hour could get you all the answers you need if you know what to ask. See our article Trust (property), and as many articles it links to as you need, including fiduciary, beneficiary, and trustee. In case it is a will instead, read Will (law) and then you could go to the jurisdiction where the will was probated (or whatever the process is called in PA) and get the records and documents. That was long, hope it helped. - Taxman Talk 18:08, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Cuban-American relations during World War II[edit]

What was the relationship like between Cuba and the United States during World War II?

Cuba was allied with the United States during World War II. For more information, see Allies of World War II. Bart133 (t) 23:43, 28 September 2005 (UTC)

who won ww2[edit]

tell me straight. Who did the most in defeating germany in ww2, russia or the u.s?

Impossible to say with certainty. Would the allies have prevailed without the heroic resistance of the Russians when the Germans invaded, which sapped German morale and resources? (and does that count towards "defeating Germany" or "defending Russia"?) Do you have a simple measure, like "number of Germans killed" to decide this?--inks 23:56, 28 September 2005 (UTC)
Since you ask, I'll say Russia (or, rather, Soviet Union). By just about any measure you can think of. US, however, probably did the most in defeating Japan. Ornil 00:03, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
And you really shouldn't forget the Brits either. Ornil 00:10, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
inks is on the right track -- Germany kept 75-80% of its troops on the Eastern Front even after D-Day. By December 1944, Eisenhower had about 60 divisions on the Western Front, while the Soviets had around 500 on the Eastern (granted, I have no idea the direct comparison of combat power, particularly once you add in US/UK air power). However, with all that said, imagine that Germany conquers Britain, bottling the US in the Americas and preventing Western aid from reaching Russia -- Russia would almost certainly have fallen. Stalin is generally described as being desperate for the western allies to open ground fronts, even the comparatively minor ones in north Africa and Italy. "More" is simply too simple a term to encompass the solution. As for the Pacific Theater, similar numbers can be applied: 90% of the Japanese army was in China for the entire war (though, granted, army size isn't relevant to fleet battles). — Lomn | Talk / RfC 02:04, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
Oh, and, yeah, Germany wasn't the only enemy power in World War II, and their defeat didn't actually end it. --Fastfission 15:33, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Can one hold multiple U.S. federal offices at once?[edit]

Not that any of these scenarios are desirable, but is it legally possible in American law for a person to be both the Vice President and a Supreme Court Justice? How about serve in both the Senate and the House of Representatives at the same time? Are there any historical examples of this happening?

From Article I, Section 6 of the U.S. Constitution (available at Wikisource):
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office... and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.
As positions in Congress, the Supreme Court, and the Executive branch are all referred to as "offices" within the Constitution, this would seem to rule out both examples you propose (as well as, for instance, John Roberts retaining his lower court judgeship while on the Supreme Court if confirmed, and so on, and so forth). — Lomn | Talk / RfC 01:58, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Lord Lauderdale Letters[edit]

Hello I found a book dated 1794 with "Lord Lauderdale Letters" on the spine in my mothers basement. The inside page says "Letters to the Peers of Scotland by the Earl of Lauderdale" London: Printed for G.G. and J. Robinson, Paternoster-Row.

The book has numerous errors in spelling on every page of the book. Could you please assist us in getting in touch with the Earl of Lauderdale family or the printers of the book. My mother seems to think it is valuable and we are not sure how to go about finding this information.

Any assistance would be much appreciated Alex Finzi (Canada)-- 00:57, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

At a quick guess, the publisher won't exist any more; they don't show up in the British Library catalogue after 1800 or so. I have no idea why you would want to contact Lauderdale, but the current Earl is Patrick Francis Maitland, 17th Earl of Lauderdale; if you write to him c/o the House of Lords they'll likely pass it on. The author would have been James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale, a political troublemaker of the Regency period - he seemed to spend a good bit of time bickering with Edmund Burke, for what that's worth. Borderers, eh?
You'd do better with the following address for the Earl:
The Rt Hon The Earl of Lauderdale
10 Ovington Square
London SW3 1LH
The Rt Hon The Earl of Lauderdale
12 St Vincent Street
Edinburgh, Scotland
though I agree with those who don't see having the book as a reason for contact. (On a side note, what seems like mispellings today might have been perfectly passable at the time of publication). - Nunh-huh 07:25, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
(The following is not a valuation of your book, or an offer to buy - ) The book is not, it seems, worth that much in the market; list a copy for £60, and another for £100 [7]. This is, of course, very dependent on condition - a tattered copy might only go for maybe ten, twenty dollars - and these are retail prices, so not what you'd get if you sold it to a dealer. I'm afraid your mother is going to be disappointed if she expected great riches, but there does seem to be some value in it. (The market for any given old book is a lot smaller than people tend to think, unless there's something remarkable about it). My advice would be to hang onto it; two-hundred-year old books are always a nice thing to have on the shelf.
As for the spelling errors, hmm, 1790s... there were still some strange practices around then that hadn't quite solidified yet. Could just be a variant spelling, or possibly the long s, which always ſerves to confuſe the modern reader... Shimgray | talk | 02:06, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Jules Verne[edit]

Is it true that Jules Vernes never mentions Capitans Nemo nationality in the book?

What book? --Ballchef 03:50, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea presumably. Our Captain Nemo article discusses it in some depth. It states: "In the initial draft of Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea Nemo was a Polish noble vengeful because of the murder of his family during the Russian repression of the Polish insurrection of 1863-1864. Verne's editor Pierre-Jules Hetzel feared a book ban in the Russian market and offending a French ally, the Russian Empire. He made Verne obscure Nemo's motivation in the first book. It's in the sequel (Mysterious Island), where Nemo presents himself as prince Dakkar, the Hindu son of an Indian rajah and nephew of Tippoo Sahib, having a deep hatred of the British conquest of India. After the Sepoy mutiny, he devotes himself to scientific research and develops an advanced electric submarine, the Nautilus." Capitalistroadster 05:17, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Immigration before and after September 11, 2001[edit]

Did the number of legal immigrants admitted to the United States increase or decrease from 2001 to 2002? Wiwaxia 04:35, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

  • According to the 2002 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics [8], the number of immigrants to the United States at the end of 2002 (1,063,732) was almost exactly the same as the number in 2001 (1,064,318). Canley 00:33, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

a bike was first known as a hobby-horse[edit]

Yes, according to Hobby horse (disambiguation),
The 'hobby horse' was one the earliest two wheeled vehicles made by Johnson in England [1818]. It was uncomfortable and contained no pedals or brakes.
See also dandy horse.-gadfium 06:04, 29 September 2005 (UTC)


I'd like to know out of curiosity, what the hell were the russians doing before ruruik capyured novgorod in 864? when did they emerge as an ethnic group etc......

Serbian Leader Vojislav Šešelj[edit]

Is president os Serbian Radical Party Vojislav Seselj currently in Heague and was he a witness on Milosevic trial?

Highest Ranking Nazi after World War II[edit]

Since Hitler,Himler,Gering,Gobels all commited sucides,who was the higher ranking Nazi that did not commited sucied?

Well, in a sense Karl Donitz was the highest-ranking Nazi who didn't commit suicide, as he was nominally in charge of the German government at the time of the final surrender. However, Donitz was never actually a member of the Nazi Party, so perhaps you might not count him. Before Hitler named him as his successor (and committed suicide), he was commander of the German Navy. --Robert Merkel 07:30, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
  • Karl Dönitz formerly a Grand Admiral of the German Fleet was appointed President by Hitler after his death and according to that article served in that position for 20 days although he was never a member of the Nazi Party. Hermann Göring only committed suicide a few hours before he was due to be hung and was the highest ranked German at the Nuremberg Trials. Rudolf Hess was Deputy Leader of the Nazi Party when he flew to the UK in 1941 to negotiate peace but Hitler immediately removed him from that post. Joachim von Ribbentrop, the Foreign Minister was hung so he was probably the most senior figure at the end of the war not to commit suicide. Our article on Martin Bormann shows that he committed suicide when facing capture and his body was found in 1972 in Berlin and confirmed by DNA tests. Capitalistroadster 07:42, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
  • In summary, your options are von Ribbentrop or Hess as highest ranking Nazi depending on the timing of when the rank was held or highest ranking German as Dönitz. Capitalistroadster 07:44, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
Wouldn't it be accurate to say that after the war, the possible ranks were:
  • Prisoner awaiting trial.
  • Prisoner awaiting execution.
  • Prisoner sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Former Nazi on the run.

AlMac|(talk) 01:44, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

Why the apostrophe in 'pataphysics?[edit]

We don't even have an explanation in the article, but we do have a somewhat request for it on the talk page. Well, I googled about it but all I could find (several, several times) is "the apostrophe is there to avoid a simple pun" (no mention to it). A few results later someone mentioned the pun is "patte physics", what doesn't make any sense to me and doesn't strike me as extraordinary.

But I could find bits saying it's there because of the subject. Maybe it's just a play saying "you can never know the pun" or "it lookes like there's a letter missing, but we can never know". But I can't be sure...

I'd be glad to have this explained and furthermore added to the article. ☢ Kieff | Talk 06:16, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Apostrophes indicate omitted letters. Just look at the French article on pataphysique. Jarry contracted a Greek phrase cited in the article to make the neologism. alteripse 11:18, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Didn't help. I can't read french or greek, and the translators returned nonsene. ☢ Kieff | Talk 02:20, 30 September 2005 (UTC)


fermin jaudenes autobiography

Your article also said that Hess commited suicied in the 80,but thank you a lot on all the info

So I guess it is Ribentrop then

Who won the *hundred years war*???[edit]

It doesn't make sense to say that anyone won it really. It was a long series of more or less related skirmishes between England and France whose history went back long before the period we call the Hundred Years' War. The first conflicts began with Edward III of England laying claim to the throne of France, but he and his successors never came to rule it, so the French might say they won. On the other hand, the 'fighting' mostly took the form of English armies plundering and laying waste to France, (there was very little fighting in England; just a few coastal raids really) and it's certain the French suffered more and the English gained more (materially) out of it, so England might have a claim to be the victor too.

For much of the time, big chunks of France were under English control. But by the end, the map looked pretty much like it had at the beginning, and the french king was in a much stronger position politically in his own kingdom than he had been at the beginning. You'll have to decide for yourself whether you think there was a winner :-)

We do have an article: Hundred Years' War. Hope that helps ~ VeledanTalk + new 11:59, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

The aim of the English monarchy was to back up a claim to the French throne by defeating the French monarchy. It failed in this aim so this was undoubtedly a defeat for "England". Quotes because talking of nation states is perhaps anachronistic.

In fact, had the English king succeeded, it is likely he would have moved his court to Paris (France had 4 times the population of England) and it would have been "England" that would have lost its independence. English kings of this era styled themselves "King of France, England and Ireland" (note the order). In which case I would probably be writing this in French. And we'd have decent food.... Exile 15:23, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

do the illuminate really exist[edit]

See our article Illuminati and judge for yourself. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 10:36, 29 September 2005 (UTC)


Why is the United States flag displayed backwards on military uniforms, the president's helicopter, etc?

If memory serves, the idea is that it always look like it is being carried forwards. When flying, the staff is on the starred side - so if you're walking forward carrying a flagpole, then anyone looking at the flag from your right will see it "backwards", with the stars to their right. If displayed correctly, then from one side it would look as though it were retreating... There's a brief discussion of this on Talk:United States Army. Shimgray | talk | 14:33, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

South American shoreline[edit]

How long (in miles) is the South American shoreline?

South America has a total area of 17,818,508 km² (6,879,762 sq. mi.). If South America were a circle, bear with me, then it would have a circumference of 14,964 km (5,778 mi.). Of course, you could be talking about the southern USA... --Gareth Hughes 16:45, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
I went to the CIA World Factbook and looked up the coastline for South American countries and territories. For the purposes of this question, I am treating Panama as not being part of South America; however, note that the line between North and South America is drawn at different points by different authorities, and some of them consider all or part of Panama to be part of South America. For more on that question, see Countries on two continents. Also note that this includes islands: both nations or territories comprising islands only, as well as islands within each country.
  • Argentina: 4989 km
  • Bolivia: 0 km (landlocked)
  • Brazil: 7491 km
  • Chile: 6435 km
  • Columbia: 3208 km
  • Ecuador: 2237 km
  • Falkland Islands: 1288 km
  • French Guiana: 378 km
  • Guyana: 459 km
  • Paraguay: 0 km (landlocked)
  • Peru: 2414 km
  • Suriname: 386 km
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 362 km
  • Uruguay: 660km
  • Venezuela: 2800 km
  • Total: 33107 km
Chuck 18:17, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

lyrics of C'est la vie[edit]

  • A Google search turns up loads of lyrics for songs by that name. Who sang the version you're looking for? - Mgm|(talk) 16:17, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Mona Island (Tain)[edit]

From: Jason S Livanos, MD, PhD To: Wiki Subject: History of the Caribbean

I don’t have time to write and to correct for you. However, you have my permission to borrow from what I have already written. There is a “hidden” place: I wish you well. Maybe this will be helpful.

PS Where is the "send" button?


Was Malta ever at war by it self,without allies? Also,is there independent movement on Gozo island?

Several times, before British rule. See History of Malta. DJ Clayworth 20:06, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

How to use a gun?[edit]

How do you use a firearm e.g. a hand gun etc.?

If you live in a country where it is legal to do so (I don't), seek out a local shooting club where you can get lessons in how to do this. Firing a gun is easy, hitting things is harder, and more important than both is knowing how to do it without killing yourself or anyone else (accidentally). Notinasnaid 17:03, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
As the above said, the best way to learn is to find a chapter of an organization that provides firearms training in your area and join up. Try the phone book or inquiring at firearms shops. Trying to learn how to use one by yourself isn't advised; indeed, depending on your area, you may be required to take a training course before you will be able to own a gun legally. Also, see our article on gun safety. Garrett Albright 19:01, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

English-only debate[edit]

Could you please tell me what mayor and when vetoed a city proposition stating that whoever lives in this city must speak,write and read in English. Thanks alot

I'm not sure exactly about that case, but a good place to start might be our article on English-only movement. --best, kevin ···Kzollman | Talk··· 17:02, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
You may also need to specify which city you're talking about, or at least which country. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 18:19, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
I'd think that its pretty obvious that their talking about england-- 15:29, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
I doubt that they're talking about England. I may be wrong, but all the "English Only" movements I've ever heard of are here in the (semi)xenophobic US of A. Or do Britons make the same fuss?Brian Schlosser42 20:25, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
I seriously doubt he is referring to a British Mayor (who cannot veto city council decisions anyway) as there isn't really a big 'english only movement in the UK (although there may be some individuals calling for it in certain mulit-ethnic cities. AllanHainey 07:19, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

What is Democratic Republic[edit]

A democratic republic is a country exhibiting both democratic and republican tendancies in government, such as the United States. The phrase is also sometimes used in the official name of countries generally agreed to exhibit neither tendancy, such as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 18:17, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

The Archbishop of Canterbury[edit]

I need to know who was Archbishop of Canterbury during the years 1487-1488. Could you possibly tell me the dates he was in office also?

This information can be found through our page on the Archbishop of Canterbury - as there have been so many, the list is linked from there and is at List of Archbishops of Canterbury. Looks like John Morton (he of Morton's Fork), apb. from 1486 to 1500 (For future reference, we have lists for most of the major bishoprics in the UK). Shimgray | talk | 19:02, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Where did the name Helene derive from[edit]

I'm thinking, the Iliad? --Diderot 19:34, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

I would imagine so, ultimately, but the spread of the name in European countries is probably due to the influence of Saint Helen. User:Zoe|(talk) 05:41, 1 October 2005 (UTC)


What is link of book Ana Karenina with Serbia

This looks like a good reason to read the book and do your own homework, but you could also investigate our Anna Karenina article. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 20:05, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

Female Basketball Players[edit]

Why do Female Basketball players get less money then male Basketball players?

Avoiding any discussion of gender bias, which could exist, the WNBA doesn't have anywhere near the cash inflow of the NBA, so there's no way that payrolls can be at the same level. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 20:03, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
And the reason that they have less money coming in is that fewer people watch the WNBA than the NBA, both at the stadiums and more importantly on television. This is true of virtually all women's sports. --Robert Merkel 22:32, 29 September 2005 (UTC)
But why do less people watch womens sports than mens? I would have thought they get paid less because they are less publicised by those who can do so. --Ballchef 02:47, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
Publicity and tradition probably has a fair bit to do with it, but there's also the fact that the majority of sports fans are men and thus probably find it easier to identify with male players. There's also the issue that, in most sports, the standard of men's players and teams is considerably superior and more spectacular to watch. Women's basketball, for instance, completely lacks the most spectacular visual element of men's basketball - the dunk. --Robert Merkel 22:06, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
Almost completely lacks it. Lisa Leslie has dunked the ball. JamesMLane 05:55, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
Keep in mind the WNBA has only existed since 1996 (compare 1946 for NBA) —jiy (talk) 16:57, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

james madison[edit]

How did james madison help frame the bill of Rights?

Per the instructions atop the page, do your own homework. However, our articles on James Madison and the United States Bill of Rights may provide assistance. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 20:10, 29 September 2005 (UTC)


Answer: Macedonia! --best, kevin ···Kzollman | Talk··· 21:18, 29 September 2005 (UTC)

U S history - quotation[edit]

Who made the following statement? "Dependence induces a spiritual and moral disintegration fundamentally destructive to the national fiber. To dole our relief in this way is to administer a narcotic, a subtle destroyer of the human spirit."

It was FDR - there is no mention of it on Wikiquotes, but a Google search gives the answer.--inks 00:56, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

procedures and practices used for obtaining suitable employees[edit]

Human resources planning:defination,processes and limiting factors Systematic approach to recruitment: recruitment policy and procedure,job analysis and description,personnel specification.--````

Please note the top of the page: "Do your own homework - if you need help with a specific part or concept of your homework, feel free to ask, but please do not post entire homework questions and expect us to give you the answers." — ceejayoz 14:24, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

What is ob-art?[edit]

For you art folks. What exactly IS ob-art? -- 22:49, 29 September 2005 (UTC)Carmen

  • Do you possibly mean op art? I haven't heard of ob art. --Metropolitan90 05:21, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
    • Is it short for observational art? Of course, I don't know what that would entail. Proto t c 10:04, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

History Websites[edit]

Can anybody suggest some well put togeather authoratative history websites? I'm bored and looking for something good (preferably non-profit) to read. Ideally early american history. Thanks!

Is there anything wrong with the History articles here on Wikipedia? Granted they're not all written by people who have PhDs, but most articles are referenced and have external links. The history portal is a good place to start.--inks 00:50, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
  • There's a site edited by Bamber Gascoigne that got a fair bit of press attention when it first started at History World. I would also recommend looking at Category:Museums and looking for the larger institutions - most of the articles in those would have a link to the official museum site, which ought to be a cut above any random history site, usually having a series of focused exhibits. --bodnotbod 23:16, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

Maintaining US citizenship[edit]

Does a US citizen living in another country need to return to the US to maintain their citizenship. If so how often

Our United States citizen outlines what would be needed in order to lose citizenship. It states: "Various court decisions have ruled that citizenship is a constitutional right and cannot be deprived without due process. However, a U.S. citizen may lose citizenship for a variety of reasons which include:
  • Service in a foreign armed forces
  • Employment with a foreign government of which the person is a citizen
  • Renunciation of citizenship to a U.S. diplomatic officer
  • Renunciation of citizenship within United States to the proper authority (this only applies 'in time of war')
  • Naturalization as a citizen of a foreign state

It is also important that the person in question has the intention during the majority of these cases of relinquishing U.S. citizenship and also that the person has another nationality to assume (a person cannot become stateless for renunciation purposes). If a dual national is required to perform military service for a foreign military, and does so without the intention of losing U.S. citizenship, this does not constitute a breach of citizenship. There are also special provisions for persons who are deemed to be avoiding U.S. taxation (which is, in theory, applicable up to ten years after the official loss of citizenship), which can result in loss of right to entry into the United States. While in practice there is little to stop a foreign citizen who has performed a said act from entering the U.S., the U.S. State Department "requires" that a Certificate of Loss of Citizenship be obtained at a U.S. embassy or consulate (though this is generally treated as a grey area, judged on a case by case basis)." Capitalistroadster 02:06, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

For natural-born citizens, I think it's really quite a definite No; for those who have been naturalized, I hear that court cases have ruled that departing the US even immediately after citizenship is granted is not sufficient to lose it. Now, a very important point is that immigration authorities have argued otherwise, so it could mean a long expensive trip to a high court to find out what the ruling would be today. Immigration and citizenship law is disappointingly tangled, with instances of administrative instructions conflicting with legal findings, legislated changes never being implemented in policy, immigration authorities discounting documentation issued by diplomatic branches, and frontline agents acting inconsistently and with wide lattitude. I read all this in the newsgroup misc.immigration.usa, which like most newsgroups has occasional credible facts among its postings. I recommend you search its archives at Sharkford 15:11, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

Help me write a punchline[edit]

Here's the lead-in.. "What's the difference between a philosopher and a historian?" Response is preferably along the lines of a bad pun. So far all I can come up with is "One reads dead white males, the other reads dead men's mail," which is not very good for a number of obvious reasons. Sharpen your funny bones, I need some help! --Fastfission 01:32, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

"One has a bad haircut, and drives a cheap car. The other has a bad haircut, and drives a cheap car."
"One thinks about why things happen. The other thinks about why things happened, and where they can get a sandwich"

Um, I'm not very good at this. Proto t c 10:02, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

The first one is actually pretty funny, but I'm not sure it'll work best for my purposes! --Fastfission 15:27, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
No one ever said "La filosofía me absolverá". -- Jmabel | Talk 20:26, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
How about "When they can't find work, the historian blames society, and the philisopher just sits in a corner and cries" Yeah, I know I suck at this :P I was going for a "takes it philiosophically" thing, but it didn't work out. May I ask what this is for? Cheers,

gkhan 11:38, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

Historians might end up studying the kings of burgundy whilst all philosophers end up working at burger king-- 15:39, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
Now THAT one was funny - thanks for making me laugh on a Sunday morning!--nodutschke 09:48, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
No problem. Might want to fix it up a bit though-- 12:09, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
"The latter works on the kings of Burgundy while the former works at Burger King." I hope that's better. ~GMH talk to me 20:40, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
Using the terms latter and former in a punchline make it sound too pompous. bodnotbod 23:25, 2 October 2005 (UTC) -- (founder of Category:Wikipedians interested in comedy).
"One writes about the kings of Burgundy, and the other is writes during his breaks at Burger King." -- Jmabel | Talk 06:13, 3 October 2005 (UTC)


Opinion? ☢ Kieff | Talk 06:27, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

  • As an idea, the Western tradition usually traces the current notion of a right-based "freedom of speech" to at least The Enlightenment, though the idea that people should be free to criticize and speak their mind likely goes back far earlier than that. --Fastfission 15:33, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
  • In the USA there is something about this in the Bill of Rights of the US Constitution. AlMac|(talk) 04:27, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Whats the difference between Left-wing and Right-wing politican parties?[edit]

Whats the difference between the two? Does one do things by the book and the other take a more original approch or something? Thanks in advance :)

how long has germany been a country?

never mind found it

Freedom of expression[edit]

This is Naoc,I just went through an orientation where we learnt about the different types of speech but we where told to describe the different types the different types of speech which the supreme court identified and what are the rules regarding constitutional protection of each type of speech?. I can be replied through <e-mail address removed>

The article Freedom of expression is an excellent resource. Note that freedom of expression is dealt differenty in each country. ≈ jossi ≈ 02:13, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
If (as I assume, from the mention of constitutional protection and supreme court) your question relates to America, there are several forms of speech that have been characterized as being either more protected or less protected (or completely unprotected) under the first amendment. Some of these for you to consider are: political speech (more protected); obscenity (unprotected); commercial speech (less protected); slanderous or libellous speech; seditious speech; speech which incites violence. - Nunh-huh 21:47, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

world war 2[edit]

this isn't a questionas such, but anyone who has any possible arguments id like to hear it. i just think the overwhelming contribution to germanys defeat was russia, and that the west had almost nothing to do with this. the western front was just a post war move to prevent stalin from taking all of western europe; by now the russians, the west and germany's high staff knew the war had shifted and russia, whod been fighting alone for years could crush the nazis by themselves. If anyone has prrof to the contary, lets hear it.

Your own words bely your argument: western front was not "post-war". Other people already gave this a much more complete answer in the last day or two here at one of the ref desks. alteripse 10:30, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

The question is of course, unprovable. We can all talk endlessly about What If scenarios. What if the West didn't help out with the Lend lease scheme, when Russia was so close to defeat in the early days? What if the Japanese were not distracted by the Pacific War, and were able to menace the USSR's east? What if the British weren't supplying the Russians with intel from intercepted communications? What if Rommel was at Stalingrad instead of Africa? History is dominated by small events with big consequences. Did the Russians do the majority of the fighting? Yes. Did they shed the most blood? Yes. But you underestimate how unstable WWII was, how close to victory the Nazis got.--Fangz 01:15, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

James bond - game from film[edit]

There was a James Bond film (I think starring Timothy Dalton) where he sat down and played a computer game (against a villian, of course) utilising a heads-up screen and some other stuff. It may have also been a kind of game where, if you lost, you would be caused physical harm by the game. I don't know which film this was from but does anyone have any info on what the game was and how it was played? thanks, Ballchef 07:57, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

  • Wasn't that in The Living Daylights? The villain explained things briefly in the film, but I don't think he ever mentioned the game's name. - Mgm|(talk) 09:52, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
  • Actually it was Sean Connery in Never Say Never Again. I think the game was called something like Domination, but I can't remember for sure (perhaps you could ask on the NSNA talk page). As I recall, there was a world map, and the computer would randomly choose a country. Then that country's map would be divided into sections that lit up, and the two players would fire at those sections. The first to hit a section would win that section. Each player also had missiles which they could launch directly at the other player, and shields to block these missiles. The joysticks held by each player would give out electric shocks, and the level of pain would increase the more a player was beaten by their opponent. KeithD (talk) 22:48, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

indian history[edit]

please provide me with the anwer for this question:--

all events in indian history from the year 1858 as points and not paragraphs. -- 11:40, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

I might suggest doing your own homework - you could start from History of India and work from there -- Ferkelparade π 12:55, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
Including births and deaths? Heh. You're gonna have to be more specific than "all events". — ceejayoz 14:22, 2 October 2005 (UTC)


what is the impact of VAT on business


Why did the immigrants came to Singapore in the earlies[edit]

when was the date of the last commonwealth games?

The 2002 Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester between 25 July and 4 August 2002, and I got soaked watching some hockey matches at Belle Vue when a thunderstorm brewed up! -- Arwel 18:34, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

What do liars LOOK like?[edit]

Yesterday I went to a job fair after dropping my adult daughter off at college to attend her two classes and I had 2&1/2 hrs to attend a job fair abd get back to pick her up. I was short on time--it was a large job fair--200 employers.

Upon arriving I was in a line where everyone was asked if s/he was repistered with the "Workforce" office. Apparently it was required for all job fair attendees.

Some people in line said s//he was registered with the state Workforce office and their word was taken for it and they were allowed to enter the job fair.

Others, myelf included were looked at skeptically and told to go to the area with attendants sitting behind computers (about 4) and instucted to tell them our Soc Sec Number and they would look it up in their system and verify our registration.

I was/am registered and I told the lady that asked me that I was and she still required me to go and verify that with the attendant. It took time I couldn't afford to waste.

What I want to know is what makes someone LOOK like a liar and others not look like a liar? I have had probs in my life with persons disbelieving me when I was telling the truth and I wonder if it is because certain people just LOOK like liars and maybe I'm one of those. My current state of unemployment and my very registration with the Workforce office is also because my ex-employer didn't believe me and took the word of a lying B over mine.

This probably cost me a lot of money when I once had an idea for a business (before anyone else was doing it) and in looking for an extra job to finance it I was asked why I wanted to work there and told my perspective boss(es) that I wanted to start a business making "X's" and they were Japanese and started laughing. I asked why and they said it was because I was lying. I took it to mean at the time that it was just that stupid of an idea that they couldn't believe me--so I gave up on the idea. Then a few years later, everywhere I look in stores there are "X's"!!! A couple of decades later I find out that the Japanese consider lying to be funny--ridiculously, ludicrously so. (Well, it IS pretty stupid--gotta give them that.) But those stupid short-sighted men cost me a LOT of money!!!

This must stop--I am not a liar but have been repeatedly subject to having someone's word--that IS a LIAR--over my word and having to deal with those consequences.

And if I LOOK like a liar then maybe there's something I could do to LOOK less like one? 19:01, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

I don't think your question is a silly one. People use all sorts of cues when evaluating a statement by someone else as true or false. The problem is that this process is largely unconscious and free of feedback improvement (in other words, there is often no opportunity to have the validity of our judgment unequivocally confirmed, and little negative consequence if we are wrong). Just like some people can flunk lie detectors when giving their birthdate, it is highly probable that some people can display the visual or voice cues that lead others to disbelieve them even when they are truthful. So I agree that your concern is plausible. You need (1) to find what cues in appearance and voice are commonly used, and then (2) to determine which ones you might be unintentionally displaying, and (3) to try to change those behaviors. Since it is hard to go find a good con man and ask for an apprenticeship, you might try the academic approach. There is an extensive research literature on lying in the psychology journals and they have a specialized journal indexing database for their literature. I would try asking a librarian at a local college library for help accessing the database, and searching for articles on lying. I promise there are published articles on how people judge whether someone is lying, but I can't promise the other two steps will be easy. Good luck. alteripse 19:37, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

PS. I just ran a google search on lying cues and turned up lots of relevant hits like this: [9] [10] [11]. You might start with what you can find online. alteripse 19:42, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

I haven't looked at those links so perhaps they cover this. But I've heard a few times that people who are lying but consider themselves adept at covering it up over-compensate for the usual "can't look someone in the eye" cue by holding someone's eye-contact too steadily (perhaps, additionally, to guage whether the person they're speaking to looks as if they believe them or not).
I suffer froma related and quite different problem in that I am rightly regarded as an honest person, but since I am rather neurotic and negative I tend to think (if I don't check myself) that people are labelling me as untrustworthy and I tend to overcompensate by not lying when perhaps a lie might be better for all concerned ;o) At any rate, your cues are obviously subconscious, so I wish you well with your goal as it will be quite an effort to overcome your subconscious. --bodnotbod 23:58, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

Who were the Sex Pisotls?[edit]

See our fine article on Sex Pistols. DJ Clayworth 20:24, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

On Hobbit Puns[edit]

The article on Irregular Webcomic! says this:

One of the characters is a hobbit, and therefore there are hobbit puns, though no closer together than 100 strips.

Then, what is exactly a hobbit pun? --Kakurady 22:33, 30 September 2005 (UTC)

A hobbit pun would be a pun, or word play, about a hobbit. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 23:46, 30 September 2005 (UTC)
Any Examples? --Ballchef 15:09, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
"Son, have you done your homework yet? No? Then hob to it!" Gah, I've got nothing....... gkhan 09:33, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
[12], [13], and this set of 4: [14], [15], [16], [17]. Now excuse me while I go clean my brain. — mendel 21:19, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

addressing dignitaries[edit]

How should one address a Consulate General from Mexico?

If you are talking about a person who heads a consulate general, then he or she is called a consul general, or, more casually, simply a consul. Consuls do not generally have a special form of address. One would write Señor(a) N_ M_, Mexican Consul General. --Gareth Hughes 17:35, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

Toilet seat hygene[edit]

Does sitting on a toilet seat typically have any possible health/germ dangers? If so, how do public toilets and private (used by 1-5 people regularily) compare in this regard? And if so, what are the concerns (mostly just harmless germs, or STD's, or what?)? (Assuming that the seat appears to be fairly clean) --Peoplesunionpro 02:00, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

Unless you have open cuts on your thighs, I don't think you need to worry. Also, according to a recent study there are something like 10x the amount of germs on a frequently used keyboard than toilet seat. Battle Ape 09:34, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

What Battle Ape said. Bacteria/viruses generally do not penetrate unbroken skin. Infection occurs when the patient brings a contaminated part in touch with eyes, nose, or mouth (eg chews on a fingernail after touching the toilet seat with it). Furthermore, a dry toilet seat is not a fun place for a bacterium to be. No cells to live in, no moisture to keep it alive, no nutrients even if it were alive. As long as you wash your hands, there is nothing to worry about (although that other guy, the one that posted on some other reference desk about maybe stepping in human feces with an open cut on his foot, that's something to worry about)--inks 10:44, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
Hovering over a toilet seat is the most prestigious way to use a public restroom. lots of issues | leave me a message 16:39, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
When you mention STDs being a concern it's hard to guage whether you personally are concerned or are just referring to beliefs out in the wild. But I'd like to assure you (or the wild) that you will not catch an STD from a toilet seat. --bodnotbod 00:06, 3 October 2005 (UTC)
...and perhaps another way of looking at is is this: most public places that you go where you might be expected to spend any time have a public toilet. If there were any significant risks involved in using one you can bet they would erect appropriate signage to warn you of them. So, let's say there really were a danger of catching an infection through normal seated use of a convenience, we would find the universal availability of disposable shields to be placed on the seat to be flushed after use. On the other hand, we seem to learn at quite a young age that thoroughly licking our hands after going for a poop isn't pleasurable (and if that made you go ugh! that's sort of my point) so a sign suggesting you don't is not thought necessary (much like doors do not require a sign saying "do not slam on your fingers".
I seem to remember a study that showed, though, that very young children are not instinctively repulsed by faeces - it's something they learn. Which is, um, interesting. If you follow these things. --bodnotbod 00:13, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Top-selling music albums[edit]

What is the best-selling techno album of all-time? Specifically, I would like to know the top-selling house album of all-time. I cannot find any charts divided by genre. Thanks!

Well, there's a strange claim to the title here. --bodnotbod 00:21, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

how many people is tribunal for war crimes in former Yugoslavia in Heague still looking for?[edit]

An incomplete list is at International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia#Indictees. My understanding is that they don't openly announce the names of people they've indicted but haven't captured (in general) - the reason being they hope that the indictee will travel openly, perhaps internationally, making them easy to capture. For others, such as Radovan Karadžić, it's so obvious that they'd indict him that they didn't bother to keep it a secret. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 15:31, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

Capitalization of Vincent van Gogh's name[edit]

What is the correct capitalization of this name? Vincent van Gogh? Vincent Van Gogh?

And when just the last name, is it Van Gogh? or van Gogh?

I see it both ways for both full and last names.

04:49, 1 October 2005 (UTC)~

Capitalization of Dutch names as "Van" is likely to be a modern phenomenon. Ther correct capitalization is van, with lowercase v as in Vincent van Gogh ≈ jossi ≈ 05:49, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
Any rule about consistent capitalization is likely to be a modern phenomenon<g>! - Nunh-huh 06:43, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
However, the "van" would always be capitalized at the beginning of a sentence -- "Van Gogh lived in the Netherlands." User:Zoe|(talk) 06:35, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
In Dutch the "van" is not capitalized in the full name, and always capitalized when using just the last name. David Sneek 07:47, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Only capitalized at the start of a sentence. "van" is not commonly capitalized in Dutch names. It's more of a foreign thing. - Mgm|(talk) 08:29, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
Random article from the front page of today's Volkskrant: "Liberale Kamerleden vrezen een prestigestrijd volgende week tussen fractievoorzitter Van Aartsen – tegenstander van de heffing..." David Sneek 11:39, 1 October 2005 (UTC) p.s.: See also: "Het voorvoegsel van een achternaam wordt in Nederland met een hoofdletter geschreven als er geen voornaam of voorletters aan de achternaam voorafgaan."
  • Oh yes, translated that would mean it has a capital letter if there's no first name or initials in front of their last name. - Mgm|(talk) 14:06, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

Number of Republicans in U.S. House of Representatives after 2002 and 2004 elections[edit]

See U.S. House election, 2004 and U.S. House election, 2002. Thryduulf 12:07, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

white water rafting[edit]

when was white water rafting developed; by who? and what is the history of white water rafting? 07:14, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

Try Whitewater rafting and whitewater. Incidentally, these articles need some merging and unmerging...

Congres International d'Architecture Moderne Conference 1946[edit]

I am researching this event to support a bid for grant aid to Bridgwater Arts Centre. Locally it is referred to as the M.A.R.S conference although I can't establish what that stood for. Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier attended. Was it significent and much reported at the time? The conference was held in the 1930s theatre at the rear of the Georgian part of the Arts Centre (18th Century Castle Street being an important part of the Conservation Area) all of which is now Grade 1 listed. I can't help wondering what the assembled respected international architects made of the grotesque Concrete Castle House (1851) that lies behind the Arts Centre in Queen Street. Any reports or anecdotes gratefully received.

History Portugal[edit]

Afonso I 1240

see Afonso I of Portugal, although he was long dead by 1240. In that year the Portuguese monarch was Sancho II. Our History of Portugal article doesn't refer to anything hapening specifically in 1240, but several things of note did happen in the 1240s. Thryduulf 12:46, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

russians in 007[edit]

Is there a high proportion of James Bond Villains or general bad-guys that were russian? If so, why? --Ballchef 15:13, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

I take it that you are young enough to have missed the Cold War and your history class never got past 1945? For a more sophisticated version of British concerns about the Russian threat in the 1960s see Anthony Burgess' Clockwork Orange. alteripse 16:46, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

No, I didn't attend the cold war, but I know what it is, and I see what you mean. But I don't understand the Clockwork Orange reference, the article doesn't mention russian influence or threats or british foreign policy, can you expand, is there more to Burgess' story than I saw. (BTW I only saw the film, not the book sorry) --Ballchef 08:18, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
One thing I remember abou A Clockwork Orange is the new slang language in use. Do you know where it came from? If you do, you are most of the way there. Notinasnaid 08:22, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
I claim no expertise in this area, but I would suggest it is a big leap from knowing that Burgess used Russian as the basis for Nadsat to claiming that this is a reflection of British concerns about the Russian threat. There is certainly nothing in the articles on A Clockwork Orange or Nadsat that suggests Burgess used Russian for reasons in any way connected with the Cold War. The articles suggest that Burgess wanted to create a new teen argot (presumably as using real teen slang would date the book and create associations the writer wanted to avoid). I'd suggest he used Russian as a basis because he was a polyglot and wanted i) to show off; ii) to use a language that relatively little known. If you have sourced info that suggests that the use of Russian was partly to do with the Cold War, then you might like to add it to the relevant articles. (Having grown up in Britain in the latter part of the Cold War, my main concern was the possibility of mutually assured destruction rather than a Russian takeover, by the way). Valiantis 13:50, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
Anyway, aside from the Burgess question... yes, it had to do with the Cold War. In many movies, especially ones who deal with espionage and the like, the enemies are often embodiments of whatever the "current threat" is. So at various times the Russians, the Chinese, the East Germans, and -- as in one of the more recent James Bond films -- the North Koreans have shown up as the scary bad guys. Though in a post-Cold War era you're also likely to see things like "terrorists" of different sorts playing a main role. Films often have a strong reflection of the context in which they were created, the concerns and fears of the day, etc. --Fastfission 14:15, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

What clothes do you wear in Malawi, Africa?[edit]

Well, some clarification would help. Do you want to know what's worn locally (presumably rural, the cities are fairly European in this regard)? The distinguishing piece of clothing is a woman's large square of cloth (my Chichewa is rusty, so I've forgotten the proper name) that's adaptable as a skirt, ground cloth, baby carrier, and several other purposes.
Alternately, do you want to know about what a traveller should wear? This depends a good bit on the season (wet or dry, with dry corresponding roughly with local winter) and on your concern for meeting cultural sensitivities. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 18:20, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

If you look at last month's National Geographic special issue on Africa, you would conclude that the universal item of clothing worn by nearly everyone is now the T shirt. However, IANAA. alteripse 21:01, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

There are few situations where a lightweight long sleeve shirt, and long pants / skirt as appropriate will not be comforable and culturally appropriate for a visitor. In general, pack these whereever you go and you won't go far wrong.

What are some major differences between the Athenian democracy and todays democracy?[edit]

See Some Major Differences Between the Athenian Democracy and Today's Democracy, or read Athenian democracy and draw your own conclusions. David Sneek 17:28, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

Legality of posting song lyrics[edit]

I was wondering if it is legal to post song lyrics on to a web site without express permission from the copyright owner. I thought that maybe it would be considered fair use under the U.S. Copyright Law. I plan to use it on a wiki that would be a free resource for music. It would be much more complete if lyrics could be posted. If you know this please respond.

Thank you, Shardsofmetal [ Talk | Contribs ] 17:45, 1 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Contemporary song lyrics are almost all copyrighted, and posting without permission is a copyright violation. Extensive quotation would almost certainly not have a fair use defense. -- Jmabel | Talk 19:33, 1 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I know of a website hosted here in the UK that had extensive Bonzo Dog Band lyrics that later had to remove them. I'm certain it didn't actually go to court, but I'm sure the law is there to enforce such requests. At any rate, there are already SO MANY lyrics sites out there, it would be great if you could use wiki technology for something more original. --bodnotbod 00:35, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Would it be legal if the page that links to the page displays the record label? Also, the site would be educational, because it would display more than just lyrics. The site isn't intended to be based around lyrics, and it isn't a big deal if we can't display lyrics, however it would be an additional resource the site could provide if it is legal.

Thank You, Shardsofmetal [ Talk | Contribs ] 03:30, 8 October 2005 (UTC)


We just discovered that ancestors are Wyandot/Cherokee Indians...Any information about that will be most helpful.. Thank you

civilization of man[edit]

full reference of civilization of man

I know of a brilliant answer to this question, but alas this margin is insufficient to contain it.--Fangz 01:08, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

See Civilization and Civilizations_in_human_history ≈ jossi ≈ 02:23, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

Life of John Field[edit]

Which John Field are you interested in?--inks 00:16, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

end of the cold war[edit]

What about the cold war?--inks 00:15, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

It is generally considered to have ended the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, leaving only one superpower (the USA). Some people set the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 as its death knell. Most historians see the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev as being central to its eventual end, though some people like to give Ronald Reagan's reinvigorated arms race a lot of credit (I tend to see things with the former, myself). Anyway, it turns out we have an entire article on the End of the Cold War (1962-1991) -- hope that helps! --Fastfission 20:09, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
I have read lots of interesting stuff, but this was some years ago so I am sorry I cannot cite my sources.
  • At the time, the Pope hailed from Poland, so he was well familiar with the goings on of the communist regimes.
  • The Catholic Church was under much criticism for not doing more to help defy the Nazis during WW II.
  • The Vatican had a pretty good intelligence service, as good as several nations.
  • The Pope authorized covert operations to undermine communist rule, such as to provide support for Solidarity the union movement in Poland that did so much to topple communism there.
  • Intelligence services of the communist nations knew about the Vatican's secret aid to Solidarity, but not how that fit into the larger undeclared war of the Vatican against communism, but because of what they did figure out, that is how come the Bulgarians were given the assignment to assassinate the Pope, a mission that failed.

AlMac|(talk) 19:46, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Donal Trump[edit]

I'm a Navarre Beach Fl resident,There been some talk that Donal Trump brought land on the beach,would you know anything about this?

I don't know about that, but I believe you mean Donald Trump. StuRat 19:09, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

what is feminist view of aging[edit]

Um, it happens? According to our article on Feminism, it deals mostly with moral and social issues, as a philosophy or ideology. It would be kinda silly to have an opinion on a biological fact.--Fangz 01:06, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
  • The feminist view on aging would probably look at how men become "distinguished" while women become "undesirable" or something like that. But I don't know for sure. --Fastfission 02:06, 2 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Both Germaine Greer and Betty Friedan have written books on the aging process in women. You might want to have a look at their articles. Capitalistroadster 01:07, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

URGENT(need question answered within a day) about Taiwan[edit]

Okay, to be specific, I'm doing a project on a country's conflicts, and I was assigned to Taiwan. I need as much info I can use about anothing about Taiwan, but specifically on the Taiwan problem. I'll have to do a report on it in front of the class, and be capable of answering any questions about it afterwards. It has to last at least 5 minutes.

I understand it, but only a really simplified verson of it. I understand--

- that there is a problem of whether Taiwan should stay a province under the People's Republic of China or whether Taiwan can become it's own Republic.

- that Taiwan was owned by Japan until they lost World War II.

- Taiwan legally became it's own Republic on 1912 under the government of the ROC, which is the government predecessor or the PRC.

I apologize in advance for the silly request I am about to ask you. So here it is.

I'm under a lot of pressure right now, so I can't concentrate, which means most of the contents after the first two sections make no sense to me. Can you tell me the rest of the info about the Taiwan problem in a summarized, simplified version? I need info such as the treaties and what war/conflict they came from that invloves this, and what the different political views are.

Thank you so much in advance.

You want Political status of Taiwan. You might also take a peek at Taiwan and Republic of China. - Nunh-huh 03:55, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

It is already way past your deadline never the less want to let you know that you are way off on many points. You should go to this link to get better educated about the Taiwan position and history

mahatma gandhi details[edit]

Mahatma Gandhi details! David Sneek 07:24, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

Articles of Incorporation[edit]

I recently setup a nonstock corporation for myself. I was about to setup a Sub Chapter S so if I needed to write off any of the businesses losses I could do so through my personal tax returns. When I mentioned to my Accountant I setup a nonstock corporation he was very concerned to the point I knew I had seriously made a wrong move by not setting up a stock corporation. Unfortunately, my Accountant left me hanging until next week to discuss this matter and actually I didn't tell him for certain that I had setup the business as a nonstock corporation. I told him I'd check the paperwork. If I did setup incorrectly can it be amended (quickly)? And will it effect my FEIN # I already received? I appreciate the help from a knowledgeable paralegal or attorney in Coporate Law. Hopefully, I'm not back peddling. If so, I just need to know how to change my gears quick and get moving in the right direction. Again thank you!! (MOM)


Psychiatry+Algophobia. Thryduulf 12:49, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

what is the private sector[edit]

from our Private sector article:
The private sector of a nation's economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i.e., a variety of entities such as private firms and companies, corporations, private banks, non-governmental organizations.
Thryduulf 13:54, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

Free fonts?[edit]

Where can I find a selection of public domain fonts? Dunc| 13:23, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

The external links section on the Typeface article (Font redirects there) lists at least a couple of sites that woudl be a good starting point. Thryduulf 13:53, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

Google "free fonts". alteripse 22:41, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

  • As it happens, I think "free fonts" might be one of those searches that Google doesn't respond to very well. I've found quite a few freebies via Font Leech, the guy that runs it doesn't update much now saying he's exhausted the world's supply of free fonts, but there's an extensive archive of freebies there. --bodnotbod 00:47, 3 October 2005 (UTC)
The fonts which are famous for being Free are Bitstream Vera and another one whose name escapes me Gentium [18] [19]. FreeFont has some, and DaFont. Not all of them are Public domain though. Ojw 22:09, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Automatons Throughout History[edit]

I am writing a paper on Automatons throughout history beginning with the ancient world through the 20th century. I know that in Ancient Egypt, the faithful would kneel in the temple of Anubis or Amon Ra and await a sign. The effigies would come to life, and respond with a head nod or a few words. The faithful did not suspect that temple attendants were manipulating the statues behind the scenes.

In 280 B.C.E., King Ptolemy exhibited a statue of a man that would rise from its seat and pour milk into a goblet without spilling a drop.

In A.D. 50, The Roman Emperor Claudius presented a spectacle on Lake Fucinus in which a silver triton was made to rise from the water and sound a trumpet.

These were all found in a book called "Special Effects: An Oral History," by Pascal Pinteau.

What I am really looking for are more detailed examples as well as references. Any help with this or suggestions pointing me in the right direction are greatly appreciated.

Can we assume you've done a Google search and checked Amazon (links are to sepcific results)? This book on a Turk chess playing automaton. Jeremy Dyson, co-writer of The League of Gentlemen (comedy) has a story about an automaton in his fiction anthology Never Trust A Rabbit that I remember being quite good. ooh, here's a good piece about a mechanical duck. Then there'#s the book Living Dolls by Gaby Wood --bodnotbod 01:00, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

What are the Top Companies that advertise in Greater Hartford, CT[edit]

What are the top 500 companies in the Greater Hartford Metro Market, in terms of advertising dollars spent on local media advertising campaigns, on i.e. broadcast radio, television and newspaper in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005?

That's the type of data that's not very important to many people, but is pretty important to those that care. That makes it fairly unlikely that you'll find a free published source for it, though it is possible. Try contacting one of the local ad agencies or the Hartford Chamber of commerce or the development authority or equivalent. Any of them may be able to tell you were you could find that kind of information. Or maybe there is a local business or trade group or magazine that might have either published on that or might also know where to find it. - Taxman Talk 12:30, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

Agatha Christie - The Rats[edit]

In 1962, Dame Agatha Christie had her one-act play "The Rats" presented at the Duchess Theatre in London's West End. It was part of an evening of her one-act works entitled the "Rule of Three" and also featured the one-act plays "The Patient" and "Afternoon at the Seaside". I was wondering if anyone has any articles/reviews from 1962 relating to the first production of "The Rats". If anyone has the Christie's notes on "The Rats" I would be more than happy. Thank you - information on the subject is extremely difficult to come by.

  • Should be easy enough to research in any decent library, but not on the Web. -- Jmabel | Talk 06:31, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

?Italian? sculptor[edit]

Is anyone familiar with the sculptor 'Mentucci' ? Probably nineteenth century.

Freestylers Push Up clip[edit]

In the music video clip of the single Push Up (from their album Raw as Fuck) - does anyone know the name of the woman in the clip? -- Anon. 23:12, 2 October 2005 (UTC)

Who was Joseph Medlicott Scriven?[edit]

What is the historical order for cooperative farming near flood-plains of great rivers, slash and burn techniques, and irrigation-based state farming?

Oprah Winfrey and corporations[edit]

How did Oprah, being an African American woman, rise to power in the corporation world, which is predominately a "white man's world"?

I suspect you'll get the most detailed view by reading her autobiography and other biographies about her. Although I expect she'll spout some bilge about it being God's will whilst other biographers will probably put it down to her being of her time or an instinctive connection with her audience or other hard-to-replicate/hard-to-measure factors. --bodnotbod 01:17, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Old Brass Back made by Thomas Lote[edit]

American Advertising Slogans[edit]

I am looking for the products in the United States advertising market that have the following slogans:

1. Grab the Gusto. 2. Experience the Good Life.

These might be old slogans. I need the company or organization name.

For example - "Be All That You Can Be" is the slogan for U.S. Army.

Schlitz Beer, "Grab for all the gusto you can get" (used between 1963 and 1967). I suspect the Good Life is also beer, but it's used so commonly in advertisements (e.g. Sears) it's hard to find the one you're thinking of. - Nunh-huh 03:20, 3 October 2005 (UTC)


what kind of animal did vasco da gama first document in december 1497?

Have you read the Vasco da Gama article? Thryduulf 08:12, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

We just did this question! Within the last week. alteripse 21:03, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Which probably means a) that some teachers set the same homework over and over and b) the people doing it don't read the articles. DJ Clayworth 17:34, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

the rolling stones- sticky fingers[edit]

how many sold?

According to the Recording Industry Association of America [20], over 3 million copies of Sticky Fingers had been sold by the year 2000.--Kewp (t) 13:50, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

settlement in Syria (Lebanon?)[edit]

Please if anybody knows a settlement in Syria (probably modern Lebanon) named Qaron, or Karon, or Qaroun, somewhere near the city of Zahlah (Zahle). At least there was such a place in the 19th c. Jerusalim Patriarch Gerasimus Yared is supposed to die there, poisoned.

Moat sold comics[edit]

What is the best selling comics of all times? I mean the name and the volume of the book, not the general topc. (i.e. mickey mouse no:321 in year 1956)

  • It is hard to determine this due to varying sales practices and sales reporting in different eras and different countries. Reportedly the record in recent years in the USA is held by X-Men volume 2, no. 1 (in 1991) with 7 million to 8 million in sales (counting all variant covers). However, reportedly, in the 1950s, Walt Disney's Comics and Stories regularly sold 5 million copies every issue, so the American best seller might be from that era. And in Japan, Weekly Shonen Jump used to sell 6 million copies a week (according to the Wikipedia article), and I've seen claims of sales of up to 10 million for that title. So I don't know the exact answer, but you can eliminate from consideration any single comic issue that claims a sale of less than 7 million. --Metropolitan90 04:10, 4 October 2005 (UTC) (edited) 04:15, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

Emily DaVinci[edit]

Is Emily DaVinci (the bad girl) related to Leonardo DaVinci?

  • Porn stars often don't use their real name, so she probably chose that name herself, making any relation highly unlikely. - Mgm|(talk) 16:27, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

The surname "da Vinci" just means someone from the town of Vinci, in Italy, so even if the name were her real name, it only would mean that she was descended from somebody who lived in the same town as Leonardo. Her stage name is Davinci, anyway, but as Mgm said, it's probably not her real name. User:Zoe|(talk) 03:40, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

vatican city[edit]

please show pictures of Pantheon,Forum, vatican museum,of pope

There are wonderful pictures in our articles on Pantheon, Rome, Roman Forum, Vatican City, Vatican Museums and Pope. I cannot understand why you have missed them. --Gareth Hughes 18:41, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Winston Churchill[edit]

What was the term popularized by Winston Churchill for the imginary boundary dividing Europe between the capitalist West and Communist East?

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. [21] Shimgray | talk | 19:41, 3 October 2005 (UTC)
PS: dyoh. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 21:04, 3 October 2005 (UTC)
I really should have mentioned that the answer was a third of the way into the Churchill article... Shimgray | talk | 21:08, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Coco the Gorilla[edit]


I noticed you do not have a page for this animal.

That's all,


  • Koko the Gorilla - Nunh-huh 20:36, 3 October 2005 (UTC) Don't you think you should have put your signature before the answer? alteripse 21:02, 3 October 2005 (UTC)
    • I would never be negative in front of a gorilla! - Nunh-huh 01:22, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
      • What do you call a gorilla with a machine gun? Sir. I kill me. Redirect created. Proto t c 09:08, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
        • But... are you available for weddings and bar mitzvahs? - Nunh-huh 02:47, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Potato Famine (Ireland) and "Shipwash"[edit]

While working on a family tree for a school project, I learned that my grandmother's great grandparents were named "Shipwash". She (my grandmother) was told that her great grandfather earned his name by cleaning the ship in exchange for passage to the States during the potato famine.

I've been unable to find anything on Google or Yahoo that will confirm or refute this. Any suggestions-- 21:14, 3 October 2005 (UTC)


And your question would be .....???????????????? JackofOz 00:40, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

The term comes from a trivium, a three-way intersection common in the roads around ancient Rome, where less important news was posted (important news was read aloud in public squares throughout the Empire). So, in a sense, you could say the ancient Romans invented trivia, although certainly unimportant facts have existed as long as there was language, perhaps even before. StuRat 19:16, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

JS Bach[edit]

what Bach organ composition begins with notes AAA BB?, "children of the dream" Author?

Baseball's Shot Heard 'Round the World[edit]

I am curious to know who coined this phrase. It doesn't appear in the commentaries. I posted the question in the talk page of the article, but it got no response. Tintin 22:59, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

Politics in Germany[edit]

What role if any, does the military play in the politics of germany??

See Germany#Armed Forces. The Budeswehr does not play an important role in German politics. The major issues are military service and the military budget (which is seen by many as too small). --Gareth Hughes 23:27, 3 October 2005 (UTC)
Also, Bundeswehr and conscription in Germany are useful articles. --Gareth Hughes 23:33, 3 October 2005 (UTC)

what is the definition of religion?

religion overall[edit]

what is the overall definition of 'religion'?

1920 Presidential Election[edit]


Question: How many women voted in the 1920 Presidential Election?

Question: How many women were eligible to vote that year?

Thank you!


  • Trova,

It is probably not possible to estimate exactly how many women voted given the secret ballot. However our U.S. presidential election, 1920 shows that 26,765,180 people voted in that election as compared to the U.S. presidential election, 1916 where 18,536,585 voted. Most of these additional votes were probably women and Warren Harding, the Republican nominee seems to have picked up a large percentage of that vote.

As to determining how many women were eligible to vote, the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution states "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."

You might have to look at individual population statistics for each state to look at voting rights in that state to determine the possible population of potential voters. Capitalistroadster 01:56, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

Even if every woman were eligible, they almost assuredly did not vote in comparison to their numbers. There were many women of the era who did not believe that women should vote, and sat out the election. User:Zoe|(talk) 03:46, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
Also note that some states had allowed women to vote before 1920, so not all women voters that year were new to presidential voting. See [22] for a map showing which states had previously allowed women to vote. --Metropolitan90 03:58, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
When calculating the # of women eligible to vote, remember that black women were often excluded, which might throw off your numbers, esp. in the southern states with large black populations. Meelar (talk) 05:57, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

National Forest land in Pheonix Arizona[edit]

How much land is National Forest land in Pheonix Arizona?

No land in Phoenix, Arizona is part of any National Forest. The Phoenix Mountains Preserve, including South Mountain Park, are municipal parks. The Tonto National Forest does share a border with the Phoenix metropolitan area.--Allen3 talk 12:31, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

When did the war of passchendaele end?[edit]

I assume you mean battle of Passchendaele? Nov 1917. alteripse 01:35, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

For future reference, when you have a word like that go to the box marked search on the left of this page and type the word in. It will take you to an article which tells you exactly what you are looking for. DJ Clayworth 17:27, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

Executive Summaries for Congress[edit]

This past summer I found a website which posts the executive summaries on hot issues given to members of Congress. Unfortunately, I've forgotten what the site is. Could anyone help me out?

The GAO = [[General Accountability Organization}} which recently changed its name from General Accounting Office (redirect ???) & I think I got the names right. Anyhow this organization investigates various aspects of government and larger America on behalf of Congress, and after each election, they make a report to the elected congresscritters about the most serious problems that did not get fixed by prior elected (some of which go back for decades). You can sign up for a daily list of what stuff they have found out at Most every report comes in PDF format with a single page summary ... you can view (or print) the summary, or the tons of pages details.
Inspector Generals of the various government agencies also probably provide similar info to Congress.

AlMac|(talk) 04:09, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

You might be looking for the Congressional Research Service. See [23]. Best, Meelar (talk) 05:53, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

artist biography[edit]


I am interested in finding biographical information about an artist. The name is N. Albertis. I own two pieces of this artist works. one is a water color on paper. It is signed in ink. After the signature is the word Roma. The size of the piece is 21 1/2"W x 5 1/2" H.

the second piece is also a water color. It appears to have charcoal highlights. The size of this piece is 7 3/4" W x 10 3/4" H. This piece is signed twice in both charcoal and ink.

Thank you in advance for your assistance.

I can think of three meanings for the word Roma, one is the Italian for Rome, meaing it is a painting of Rome or was made in Rome or the artist comes from Rome. Roma is also a name for the ethnic group also known as Gypsies, so it might mean the painting is of them, as well. A third meaning is a type of small, elongated tomato. StuRat 19:20, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

John Marshall and Roger B. Taney[edit]

what are some key differences between them. and some significant court decisions.


what kind of animal did Vasco Da Gama first document in december 1497?

This has been answered at least once in the past few days - see further up this page. The short is answer is: Do your own homework by reading the Vasco da Gama article. Thryduulf 07:53, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

lorry fleets[edit]

Hi? I'm trying to find out which company owns the largest lorry fleet in the world

Personally, I'd guess United Parcel Service. Garrett Albright 17:37, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Official English translation for 신민당[edit]

What is the official English translation for 신민당 (an old political party). THank you!

I'm sorry but I don't recognise what language that is, so I can't help directly.
We don't have an article on 신민당, however if you know what country the political party is from then you could go the article about that country. That article should have a section on politics, it is possible that this section will be a summary of a fuller article that will be linked in the style Main article Politics in xyz.
The main article should give a list of prominent political parties, which is the place most likely to give you your answer. Thryduulf 07:49, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
  • It's probably a better idea to put this on the language reference desk. - 12:45, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I think that's Korean, if that helps anyone. Adam Bishop 16:56, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I think that's the New Democratic Party (NDP), a splinter party from the Korean Democratic Party. Yun Po Sun was the only President affiliated with it. Or I could be totally wrong and that could be a Korean transliteration of the Canadian NDP! --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 20:22, 4 October 2005 (UTC)



  • I have removed user's email as it is an invitation for spammers, phishers and other nasties to send him stuff. I would also suggest the questioner not use all capitals as that is considered to be the equivalent of shouting. Our Gujarat article has a detailed section on geography but doesn't mention anything about this. Nor does our Arabian Sea article. This article about a serious earthquake in 2001 that killed nearly 20000 people may be of interest. [24] Capitalistroadster 07:28, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
We westerners are familiar with the work of Holland in recovering useful land from the sea of their coastline, by building dikes then punping the water out, much like New Orleans has been doing in the current hurricane season. Anyhow China was doing this long before Holland (the Netherlands) and other nations of Asia also doing it, I not have a list. There's probably a name for the activity and a Wiki article on it.
This reminds me of a joke, that I hope is Ok to share here ... bin Laden and Bill Clinton met a genie who told them he could grant them one wish each (I first heard this joke before 9/11). bin Laden says he wants a wall around Afghanistan that is impenetrable, and nothing can get over the wall. The genie says "wish granted." Then Bill Clinton asks that the inside be filled with water.

AlMac|(talk) 04:19, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Brazil Plane Gas[edit]

On my return flight from Rio de Janeiro, the flight attendant stated that the cabin needed to be sprayed by a special gas, authorized by the World Health Organisation. I was wondering if anyone knew what this gas was for?

At a guess, it's to kill disease-bearing mosquitos. I know that flights into South Africa from malaria-affected countries get the same spraying to preserve South Africa's malaria-free status. However, I'm not familiar enough with Brazil (or know what your destination was) to speculate on which disease is pertinent here. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 16:12, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
Probably dengue fever. Rio has been reporting some increasing number of cases. ☢ Kieff | Talk 19:18, 4 October 2005 (UTC)


what is feudalism?

See Feudalism. Shimgray | talk | 15:59, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

what is the meaning of 'charity begins at home'?[edit]

what is the meaning of 'charity begins at home'?

This saying suggests that one should do good to those around you before doing good to those afar off. It can suggest that it is wrong to give support to the needy of a far off country when there are still many need in one's own country. The phrase can be used in either the sense of being good to those close by, or the sense that one should support domestic charity before overseas aid. It is likely that the first sense is the oldest, and the latter is the invention of xenophobes. --Gareth Hughes 17:21, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
Of course, it's often also used in an ironic sense: "I could send this money to the Red Cross, but I'm going to buy some chocolates with it instead; after all, charity begins at home." I'd even say this is the most common use of the phrase, but perhaps I just hang about with a bad crowd.... --Camembert 13:46, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Western Culture[edit]

I want to know a little about American Culture (Iam in Asia). What I want to know is- 1)Will children in USA seperate from their parents and live in a seperate house after they attain some specific age? Or, Do they live in the same house forever like we do? 2)If yes, does this happen in rich families also?

The answer is that all of the above happen. The mainstream "norm" is that children leave home when they graduate from high school and college and get their first full time job, or get married. This is the idea for both rich and poor, but especially for middle and upper classes. However I am calling that a "norm" in the same way that I might say that a typical family is a married mother and father and a couple of children: in reality a huge proportion of families differ from this "ideal". So every living arrangement you can imagine happens commonly in the US. Admitting that, I would still say that in US society it is more expected that children move away in their 20s than in Asian societies. alteripse 17:03, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

alteripse is correct. In fact, in many cases, a child returning to live with his or her parents (particularly after attending a university) is viewed as a failure of the child particularly and the family generally. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 18:00, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
That is apparrently changing, more so in Europe but to some extent in North America, especially in areas where housing costs are high. Children, even graduates with good jobs, are choosing to live with their parents for a while basicly to save on housing costs. Essentially it speeds up the process of being able to afford their own house, avoiding the stage of having to live in a crummy apartment while paying off their student loans. Still a minority of course. DJ Clayworth 21:28, 4 October 2005 (UTC)
Actually, I think I read recently that kids returning home after college are now a majority in the U.S. Most of them think they're in the minority because the culture still says you're supposed to be independent immediately. Regardless, most aren't going to stay at home more than a couple years. So it's still vastly different from an Asian model where at 40 you still live in the same house as when you were 10. Isomorphic 06:29, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

"How is the judiciary committee appointed?"[edit]

Whose committee? If in the context of those in the United States Congress, they're generally elected by congressional motion, though membership is really more of a political reward based on past actions. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 19:38, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

what is a pagan[edit]

Have you read our article at pagan? — Lomn | Talk / RfC 19:39, 4 October 2005 (UTC)


How can i get pictures of how Europe colonized Africa?

For a broad overview (including the Romans, etc.) see colonization of Africa; for the period you probably have in mind, start with Scramble for Africa and go from there: the links, images, references, and such should have lots of the information you want. History of Africa and Africa#Colonial_Africa have some useful information also. —Charles P. (Mirv) 21:24, 4 October 2005 (UTC)

If by picture you mean map, go to your library and ask for a "historical atlas". They all have maps showing the steps over the last 3000 years of how africa was invaded and/or colonized by one external culture or country after another. alteripse 15:24, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Political Conjuncture[edit]

What does the term conjuncture mean in the context of politics?

Desert Island Literature[edit]

No, I'm not talking about your favourite books... but books actually about surviving on a desert island - can anyone think of any good ones besides Lord of the Flies and Robinson Crusoe? I'd prefer pacific islands, some degree of difficulty to the survival and preferably stories of individuals. Actually, I'd be interested if anyone knows of any real life stories of survival along these lines - the Desert island article alludes to them vaguely but provides no links or examples :( thanks in advance. - 00:14, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

I'd strongly recommend Tom Neale's book An Island to Oneself.-gadfium 02:28, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
thanks!! -- 23:44, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
There is the novel Swiss Family Robinson by Swiss pastor Johann David Wyss and edited by his son Johann Rudolf Wyss. It was originally published in 1812 and was written about a Swiss family shipwrecked en route to Australia. Pastor Wyss wrote the book to "teach his four sons about family values, good husbandry, the uses of the natural world and self-reliance." Lost in Space was known as the Space Family Robinson in its honour. Capitalistroadster 04:43, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
thank you! -- 23:44, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
One of my favorite books growing up was Hatchet (novel) by Gary Paulsen. Though it does not take place on a literal desert island, it has many of the same elements with respect to having to learn to survive in the wild by one's self. Garrett Albright 17:30, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
heh, I've read Hatchet (novel) and some (if not all) of Paulsen's other survival books. Great fun, especially since the protaganist isn't trained in survival but shows the right sort of reasoning to solve his problems. -- 23:32, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
Lucy Irvine wrote a book about her time on (previously uninhabited) Tuin Island in the Torres Strait in the early 1980s, Castaway [25]. Interesting and very enjoyable. Natgoo 11:19, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
Another, kind of similar book is Our Year in the Wilderness [26] by Michael and Susan Cusack - they were in The Kimberley region of Western Australia, but were no less remote than if they were stranded on an island. Natgoo 11:51, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
How about Island of the Blue Dolphins? User:Zoe|(talk) 05:21, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

French composers of piano works since 1950[edit]

Although I have found, through on-line music stores, two composers who died only recently, both having written piano works, I would like a greater selection from which to choose works written as recently as possible, having a very French flavour. Unless I buy these books I have no way of knowing the difficulty or style of the works.

Alternatively, can you give me some on-line contacts to French music publishing houses or shops which deal with french piano music.

At a later date. I'd like to do the same with piano music from other countries.

Poulenc died after 1950. You can also look at the French composers category for more. Dysprosia 00:04, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
Some favorites of mine are Jean Françaix (1912-1997), Henri Dutilleux (b. 1916), and Alexandre Tansman (1897 - 1986) -- OK, so Tansman was born a Polish Jew, but he lived in France and may as well have been a Frenchman. As Dysprosia suggests, Category:French composers may be helpful, as will List of 20th century classical composers. Mindspillage (spill yours?) 22:58, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

Where can I find schematic of Christian denominational taxonomy?[edit]

Where can I find schematic of Christian denominational taxonomy that includes North American denominations? The one in the Christian Denomination article is not detailed enough to satisfy my curiosity. Also, are there detailed ones out there for Islam and Judaism?--RPlunk 02:29, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

This ebook is a good taxonomy of all the Eastern churches, most of which you'll find represented in North American even though they originated elsewhere. I don't know any sources for a broader view. Isomorphic 06:22, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

John F. Kennedy at the 1956 Democratic National Convention[edit]

Hello. At the 1956 Democratic Convention, John F. Kennedy attempted to run for vice-president but lost out to Estes Kefauver. I heard his words on radio and I would like to find a transcript. Where can I find an online transcript of everything Kennedy said at the convention? Thank you. --Blue387 04:37, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Blue387,

The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library has a reference desk see [27]. You could try contacting them at John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library - Columbia Point - Boston, Massachusetts 02125 Tel: 1-866-JFK-1960 Fax: 617-514-1652. Their e-mail is kennedy.library at Capitalistroadster 04:50, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Bully case[edit]

What should I do if no one in my own country which is Malaysia does want to help me?

I need help. I need a lawyer or advocate to settle down problems i face. My relatives and their friends control my life; every aspect of my life. Their main concern of me is my financial and marriage/friendships/relationships. I have now reached the age of having financial independant, which means working & earning for my own living. This group of people use their own means to cut off my income and make sure I am alone, living in family circle without any friends. They also make sure I cannot obtain any evidence to sue them. They force me to be broke and humiliate us by being seen nakedness in toilet or bathroom.

Besides that, i face discrimination by my community and they reject to talk to me or work with me. Some of them might be under threaten by the above mentioned group of relatives and their friends. Some of them might use all types of excuses to discriminate me.

I seek help from many people, including church leaders, local political leaders, lawyers and etc. They all told lies and they received money as the rewards to bully me.

I don't know how to live on. Can you teach me how to live on without money? What type of help can i get? From where?

The reference desk is primarily a place where we try to answer factual questions, rather than guidance in how to live one's life. Also, the economic situation, culture and legal system of your country are considerably different to my own, and those of the majority of the regular contributors to the Wikipedia reference desk.
That said, if you are indeed old enough to live and work independently, if you can establish yourself with a home and an income that doesn't depend on your family, you can then sort out your other affairs from a position of strength rather than weakness.
But before taking any action, maybe you should talk to somebody who can provide you with some guidance to evaluate your options - somebody who has no connection with your family, and, if coercion by them is an issue, somebody who is not susceptible to such coercion. Somebody who doesn't live in the same location as you, perhaps? Somebody who is a member of a different ethnic community?
I'm sorry if my response is a bit vague. I wish you well in confronting the difficult issues you are clearly facing. Maybe somebody else who knows a bit more about Malaysia may be able to provide some more specific responses in terms of what legal and counselling services may be available to assist somebody in your situation. --Robert Merkel 14:33, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

I think when someone describes how "church leaders, local political leaders, lawyers and etc ...all told lies and they received money as the rewards to bully me", he is describing a problem to which your suggestion is not the answer. I am being opaque here out of lack of details and desire not to aggravate the poor guy's problems, but think about the probabilities... alteripse 15:15, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Thank you for your suggestions (N0. 153: Bully case) and I have tried to talk to someone from outside my community or different regions. They all are bribed with money and they left me in misery. A lot of people use me to get money. They all turned into multi-millioners overnight. It sounds crazy, but it is real. I know you won't believe me and think that I had the idea of bribery because they can't provide a solution to my problems. It is actually happening, in my surroundings.It is definitely true. That is why I cannot get help anywhere. That is why my problems still unresolved.

May I know is Wikipedia a representative of Commonwealth countries? If not, how can I contact the actual Commonwealth Organization that can provide me legal advice? Is there any legal department in Commonwealth Organization? I know it is a very personal problem, but if a citizen cannot get help from her own country, can she get help from overseas, especially commonwealth countries?

I happen to know a person who lives in Malaysia and reports a problem very similar to yours. His name is Julian Goh & among other places he hangs out at Yahoo Groups TYR, so you can probably locate him there if you interested in comparing notes. His problem is not with family members but former employers, and he also got into a relationship with a woman who is in the family of the nation's leadership, which got the nation's secret police on his case (initially just to investigate anyone dating family members of nation's leaders), which he told me as a warning that they probably reading any e-mail I should send him so I should be careful. I told him that people who get in the habit of not doing illegal immoral unethical stuff or supporting any such behavior should have nothing to fear from whoever reads their e-mail. I not want to suggest he doing any such, but we did have some differences of opinion of what is appropriate based on our different cultural backgrounds. Anyhow, because I have met other people in USA with same kind of problem as Julian and you describe, I do know it happens, but I also suspect that in some cases people can be overly paranoid, ascribing evil explanations to stuff that happened for innocent reasons, or not understanding the context. I think in Julian's case, since he has been to universities in Australia and Taiwan, having seen how other cultures function, he is having trouble understanding how some things are done differently in different nations.

AlMac|(talk) 20:00, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

I have a suggestion: leave. If all the people who are bothering you live nearby, then going to another city may free you from their influence. It may be necessary to move in secret (without telling them), so they can't find you in your new location, at least not until you have established an independent life. However, you may find that these people were also helping you more than you knew, in which case this would be a valuable lesson and you could then return. StuRat 19:34, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

Derrida's Deconstructionist theory[edit]

I'm not sure what your question is, but I would suggest looking at the Jacques Derrida, Deconstruction, and post-structuralism articles for more information. If you have a more specific question please post it again here. Best, Kewp (t) 12:11, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Coping With[edit]

Several years ago, there was a TV series based on the Coping With books. Was it ever released on VHS/DVD (and did it feature Elderado Dingbatti)? smurrayinchester(User), (Talk) 12:14, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

I've done a thorough search of the 'net to see if I could answer this, and it appears that the answer is "No". Sorry. The programme appears to have been a Central Indepedent Television production for Channel 4 in the UK. Channel 4's website states: Channel 4 videos and DVD's commercially available can be purchased at the Channel 4 Shop. If the video or DVD you want is not available through the Channel 4 shop, the programme has not been released through Channel 4 Video or any other distributor. As we are sure you can appreciate, we receive hundreds of calls and emails requesting copies of programmes that were not released commercially, therefore, Channel 4’s policy is that we do not send out one-off copies. The series in question not being listed there (or on Amazon) then it's fair to say it has never been released. You might try eBay to see if you can get an off-air VHS recording, although this may not or may not be a legal action in your country. RedversHelloDoings 19:18, 21 October 2005 (UTC)

Reservation land policies[edit]

I have been using a video called "Homeland" in my classes, a work tracing the experiences of four Pine Ridge families during the course of a three year period. At the beginning of the work Thurman Horse, one of the individuals featured, informs us that, subsequent to the Collier Act, many of the individual holdings had been sold and the those people now had nothing, had moved from the reservation. Later, however, another featured individual--Marian, I believe--explains that Pine Ridge people have difficulty starting businesses because they have little start-up money and they are not allowed to mortgage their individual lands as collateral.

I am puzzled. If people have been allowed to sell their individualized acres, why are they then alternatively not allowed to use them as collateral for loans? Any help you can provide in offering explanations for the differences, I would truly appreciate.

Harvey Klevar Professor of Anthropology Luther College Decorah, Iowa

I sorted out your multiple posting and formatting issues. --Gareth Hughes 12:56, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
Dear professor, you are not doing your employer any favors as I can't really parse all of your grammar. I'm not sure exactly which Pine Ridge you are referring to, but lets assume it is Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. We don't appear to have an article on a Collier Act, and I'm not sure what that is, do you know the year? Some web searching led me to believe Indian Reorganization Act is what you might be referring to. Anyway, it is more likely that instead of not being allowed to mortgage the land, it's more likely it was simply impractical or no one was willing to offer the mortgages. Bare land is hard to mortgage at all, and it usually comes with bad terms like high interest rates, high costs to start the loan, etc. The same thing can happen to a lesser extent with any rural land even with a house or building on it. The type of house matters too. Add on to that that the land is in the reservation and may not carry the same types of legal ownership as other land, so legal differences/difficulties could mean that the standard things that banks and mortgage companies want such as title insurance, etc were not available. It could also have been simple discrimination by banks. So basically I'm offering some plausable speculation. To really find out you may have to do some old fashioned book leather research on the laws in question and business practices of the area and time. - Taxman Talk 18:57, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Won't somebody please think of the children?[edit]

Why do some people feel that it is neccesary to 'protect' children (which, apparently, ranges anywhere from a 2 year old to a 17 year old) from perfectly natural things such as sexuality, masturbation and, nudity (you can throw sexual-education in there as well)? I'm particularly looking for reasons outside the religious realm, as those are fairly obvious. So, reworded, my question is: Are there any reasons, outside of the theological, that people use to justify 'protecting' children from the above stated things?

An example of this 'protecting' would be a parent who zealously shields their child from any form of nudity (even the exposure the breasts). To me, this seems ridiculous as a prepubescent child wouldn't care about seeing someone of the opposite sex naked unless their parents made a huge deal of it, and a pubescent child would probably seek out nudity anyway.

Also, is this type of behavior restricted to the United States, or can it be observed elsewhere (such as Europe and Asia)? My many and sincere thanks in advance, --anon

I would substitute moral for theological, as a non-religious right-and-wrong standard can also be responsible for this. I think that's about the extent of justification, however; there's no physical ailment, for instance, directly resulting from seeing a breast. For your second question, yes, this is observable worldwide to varying degrees. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 14:43, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
Are you trying to start a flamewar? :-)
One perspective is that the desire to shield children from these topics is essentially along the same vein as abstinence-only sex education. Essentially, pre-marital sex (and for that matter any sexual activity, including masturbation) is bad, any exposure to anything sexually-related (like breasts) will implant naughty thoughts in their mind, and therefore children should not be exposed to anything vaguely related to sexuality.
Now, that caricature is probably unfair, and there are more subtle versions of it. One might argue, for instance, that contemporary American popular culture's treatment of sex gives teenagers the wrong idea about it (for instance, would you want your teenage son getting his ideas on how to treat women from the more misogynistic end of hip-hop?) and therefore a parent might seek to present a different picture.
As to attitudes about children and sexuality, it certainly varies from country to country, and even within countries. Scandinavia, for instance, is far more relaxed about the fact that teenagers are sexual beings than the United States. Conversely, some Muslim countries all but prohibit men and women from seeing anything of each other's bodies unless they're married.
Hopefully somebody can point you to some better articles that discuss this specifically; the censorship article doesn't really cover the idea of shielding children more than adults. --Robert Merkel 15:00, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
Heh, I can assure you my intent is purely academic in nature. Thank you for your detailed answer. --anon

What strikes me about your question is your mention that the religious and theological reasons are "obvious". They are not at all obvious to me. Might you be confusing religion and theology with social custom? I'm not starting a fight, just quite surprised at your assertion and suggesting you re-examine some of the premises you are considering obvious. alteripse 15:19, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

I do suppose I may have worded that incorrectly. In retrospect, the term "obvious" probably doesnt convey what I wanted to say properly. What I mean is that I am fully aware of arguments for the 'protection' of children that originated for religious reasons, such as certain Christian denomination's views on masturbation ("spilling seed"). I probably used "obvious" because reasons such as those are commonly cited, and, in terms of my question, I am more interested in non-theological justifications of the 'protection' of children. I apologize for any offense I may have inadvertantly caused. --anon
I think this is a fascinating question. Most parents in America, including secular ones, seem to think that there is something horribly wrong with chidren or adolescents seeing nudity. The ongoing debate about indecency in the U.S. revolves only around the best way to prevent young people from seeing indecency without infringing upon the rights of adults. That it is an imperative of government to "protect" children from indecency is considered a given. Now I lived in Europe for a couple of years, and things could not have been more different. There is nudity everywhere -- on daytime TV, on the news, on commercials, on billboards, on newsmagazine covers. No one cares. That certainly doesn't mean that European media is of a higher quality than American media by any means. Maybe there's something to be said for modesty -- I don't know. But it's fascinating to me how cultures superficially so similar could be so drastically different in this area. This would be a great book for someone to research and write. The title could be Nipplephobia.
I'd like to hear from some (non-libertarian) American parents as to whether they feel it's wrong for kids to see nudity, why it is so, and whether they were aware of the fact that many other countries do not share American society's views of "indecency." The nudity taboo is so ingrained into American society that my stepfather wouldn't believe me when I told him that they show nudity on Czech TV during the day. -- Mwalcoff 02:29, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

This last is a good question. You become very aware of your culture's customs in a very different light when you are raising children. There are certain times when I consciously made a decision about an issue like that: sometimes going with convention and occasionally not. One of the dimensions to this type of issue is that social conventions like nudity taboos have a variety of purposes, including acting as a social glue and distinguishing members of the community from outsiders. You don't do your children a favor by not making them aware of the edges of behavior that would trigger surprise and unwanted responses from people around: there is at least some potential social cost to flouting or being ignorant of community social standards. So in my opinion a smart parent picks and chooses which conventions are worth teaching a child to disregard and which are not. Every society has this type of convention, each of which looks kind of pointless to another society. For example, there is a difference between teaching a child that telling racist jokes is stupid and offensive, and teaching them that the nudity/modesty standards of their community are stupid and offensive. People who think there are only a few of this type of convention in each culture are being oblivious: we live in them like fish live in water and no society is free of them. Raising a child to be ignorant of the major taboos of his culture does him no favor, but there is nothing wrong with explaining to him what a taboo is and the difference between not doing something because it is morally wrong versus not doing something because it is illegal versus not doing something because it might create social trouble for you. Is that the kind of answer you wanted? alteripse 01:48, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Quote from previous response: "Now I lived in Europe for a couple of years, and things could not have been more different. There is nudity everywhere -- on daytime TV, on the news, on commercials, on billboards, on newsmagazine covers. No one cares." As a UK resident I would say us British seem still to be relatively uptight compared to our European neighbours. In fact some of our night-time TV shows are compilations of mainland European adverts which are notable to us for their unabashed nudity. There is also a definite moral panic about paedophilia here. Two cases I can recall illustrate this, the first being very relevant to the question; One of our newsreaders was investigated when a photo developing shop passed on her photos of her naked bathing child to the authorities; the second when a paediatrician was hounded from their home (slaps forehead). --bodnotbod 01:57, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
    IIRC, Brass Eye presented an interesting take on the way that the media has a way of blowing such things right out of proportion. The biggest campaign against the programme was that of the Daily Mail, the very publication which usually contributes most to such panic situations. (13:12, 21 October 2005 (UTC))
This year I've started to watch UK television (previously I have only watched US television) and I've been quite suprised at the 'indecency' that is commonly shown. Some shows I've watched would never have been shown here (in the USA), and probably won't for decades ;) Peoplesunionpro 01:05, 18 October 2005 (UTC)

Regarding broadcast standards in the US, these are governed by the FCC (Federal Communications Commission), which seems to go for the easiest to enforce standards. Whether a nipple is showing is an easy thing to determine. Whether the portrayal of sexual activity will have a negative effect on children is much harder to determine, so they don't typically try to limit that. For example, the show Girlfriends features black women having multiple sexual partners outside of marriage and a typical conversation might have them comparing the penis sizes of their various men. This is on at 4 PM in my area (Detroit), so can be considered the new "after-school special". It would be easy to make the case that black teenage girls viewing such programs will think it is normal for them to engage in the unprotected sex shown on that show, and will then suffer the consequences of venereal diseases and pregnancy. This teenage pregnancy will tend to lead to a new generation born into poverty with little hope for the future. However, the FCC does not challenge that program, as they are careful not to show any nipples. As a consequence of buearocratic laziness, many current and future lives may well be ruined. StuRat 19:04, 22 October 2005 (UTC)

Regarding religious standards; remember that the major religions were formed thousands of years ago, before medicine and birth control, so any sex outside of marriage would almost inevitably lead to a fatal disease or pregnancy. Pregnancy outside of marriage might also be a death sentence then, as there was no social safety net to feed and house unwed mothers. Bearing all this in mind, it was of critical importance to prevent sex outside of marriage. This, I believe, is why such elaborate measures were taken as keeping women hidden from view at all times. Religion has only recently caught up with society regarding the ban on slavery (and with science on the Earth revolving around the Sun), so I wouldn't expect them to catch up regarding sex anytime soon. StuRat 19:16, 22 October 2005 (UTC)


How is the World Trade Oranization ran?

Exactly how the Fortune Global 500 want it to be run, seeing the governments of the world take most of their marching orders from them...
Oh, you wanted an answer that wasn't sarcastic? Try our article on the World Trade Organization. --Robert Merkel 15:05, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

6 October[edit]

6 October is "Ivy Day", marking the anniversary of the death in 1891 of the Irish parliamentarian Charles Stewart Parnell.

Ivy Day is most notably commemorated in James Joyce's short story " Ivy Day in the Commitee Room", included in the collection 'Dubliners'.

Still today in Dublin - wel, up to last year at least, Joyceans willl be seen about the city sporting a dark green Ivy Leaf on a jacket lapel

Maybe you'd enjoy creating the article about Ivy Day in the Committee Room which is listed under Dubliners but still needs someone knowledgeable to write about it. If you're new to wikipedia, you might want to check out Wikipedia:Your first article and Wikipedia:Tutorial first. Happy Ivy Day.--Kewp (t) 16:37, 5 October 2005 (UTC)


Is there any connection between the name of Julius Caesor and Cleopatra's son's name and the type of birth of the same name? I have tried finding this information on my own thru other websites but I have found nothing - which I suppose suggests that there is no connection, but...

Thank you in advance,

Keith Reaume

Your spelling is letting you down: see Caesarean section. --Gareth Hughes 16:19, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Of course there is a connection: both the son and the type of birth are named after Julius Caesar. alteripse 23:22, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Actually, this is a popular misconception (no pun intended). It almost certainly couldn't have been Julius Caesar, because mothers who underwent surgery to remove their babies from their wombs almost always died, however Julius's mother lived for many years after his birth. The term refers to a distant ancestor of Julius Caesar. And Cleopatra's son was Caesarion, whereas the operation is a caesarian section. Cheers JackofOz 00:51, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

Do you think the type of delivery was called that before Julius Caesar or would have been called that since then if not associated with Julius Caesar? alteripse 00:54, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

Check out caesarean section for some further discussion. Cheers JackofOz 02:12, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

I am convinced you are correct and a little embarrassed that I hadnt been skeptical of the folk etymology. Caesarean delivery is more likely to have been derived from caedere (cut),- the past participle of which is something like caesus from which we get incision and scissors. Thanks. So. New answer to Keith: what Jacko said! alteripse 10:33, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

I read an article in the European Stars and Stripes one time about an American columnist who wanted to get his hair cut like George Clooney's in a "Caesar cut". So he went to the German barber and asked for a "Kaiserschnitt", which he found out meant Caesarean section. At least, that's what his column claimed.  :) User:Zoe|(talk) 05:30, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

Do Hindus have angels?[edit]

Do Hindus have angels? I am a Hindu and recently bought the book 'How to talk with your angels' by author Kim-O-Niell. I tried to talk to angels as said in that book. But, I was not able to talk to any angels. What should I do to talk to angels? How can I talk to angels? Please help.

I doubt that you will be able to talk to any angels, but don't fret, Hinduism has an answer. I strongly advise you read A Guide on Angels by Sophy Burnham, which describes in detail the existence of angels in comparative religions, including Hinduism. In Hinduism, there do exist Devas, nine planets called Navagrahas, ancestors, and living gurus to help guide and protect you in your life. In addition to those beneficent forces, there are also apsaras, who are from the lower astral realm. They serve to tempt and denigrate humankind. The apsaras are depicted as seductive beautiful women and the devas are shown as royalty, usually with a handsome appearance. As a polytheistic religion, remember, Hinduism does include spirits who are concerned with various aspects of life, land, and so on, but these are all manifestations of the supreme being Brahman. Be careful though, because many people who claim clairvoyance will say they can see your angels for you; I advise you read more and think more deeply about the subject alone.Screwball23 02:29, 16 October 2005 (UTC)

I am resisting the temptation to tell you that all the rest of us have angels we talk to regularly. So I won't pull your leg and I will assume you aren't pulling ours. Here is a straight answer. There are a whole lot of bestselling popular religion books like this published in the US. The buyers are mostly culturally-but-not-really Christians with average or below average intelligence who feel better reading these books, whose major message is "don't feel bad about yourself, Someone Very Important thinks you are just fine the way you are". If you match up most of them with real Christian doctrine (Eastern, Roman, Lutheran, Reformed, etc) you find the overlap small and very important things are missing. Sort of like the religious equivalent of french fries. So don't worry about it if the books (or the angels) are not talking to you. alteripse 22:56, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

Yes, I'm struggling not to be flip here. But do you not have a religious leader who guides you in your worship who you can approach with such a question? --bodnotbod 02:00, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

Steve Vai[edit]

Hi, I was just wondering if anyone knows so much about Steve Vai that they could add some more to the articles of his albums?

I might look at leaving a copy of this comment on the talk page for Steve Vai. Alternatively, if you have knowledge about any of the albums or have access to reliable information about the albums, you may wish to add to the articles yourself. Our Wikipedia:Introduction tells you more about how you can get started. Capitalistroadster 23:51, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Watch the movie Crossroads (1986). You'll see Stevie play some mean guitar!

crowdy bay australia[edit]

why is Crowdy Bay so called?

  • According to "It reputedly gets its name from Captain Cook who dubbed a prominent headland 'Crowded Head' when he saw a crowd of aboriginals standing on it as he passed by in the Endeavour." Canley 00:47, 6 October 2005 (UTC)
  • The Macquarie Atlas has no record of a Crowdy Bay but does mention a Crowded Head as above. Capitalistroadster 06:48, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

Letter from Birmingham Jail/Martin Luther King Jr.[edit]

Why does king advoate non-violent means of protest?

Three possible reasons, don't you think?

  • It seemed to him the ethically right approach to the problem of improving the civil status of Negroes. Those who emphasize his upbringing as a Christian, his training as a preacher, and his admiration of Mahatma Gandhi tend to favor this explanation.
  • It seemed to him the most politically effective method to improve the civil status of Negroes. Liberal intellectuals and historians tend to emphasize this reason.
  • Subversive communist agitators convinced him to do it for the benefit of the Soviet Union. This was the reason favored by J. Edgar Hoover.

You decide. alteripse 00:52, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

The real answer is "Why not?". Does non-violence need any justification? JackofOz 00:54, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

Also remember it was the early 60s, and the riots at Watts & Detriot, Washington etc. hadn't happened yet. King was showing white Americans through the Freedom Rides, Selma etc., particularly in the north, just how prejudiced, violent and awful Jim Crow could be. Also you don't get invited to the White House if you're a violent social disturber, and King was trying to achieve change through rational & calm methods. Towards the middle 60s there was division in the african-american community about whether to use violent or non-violent means to achieve their aims, but after the assassination of Dr. King the violent impulses got free reign because there was no one left to argue for the other side. Additionally King was trying to achieve improvements for many people, not just african-americans. He was planning a Poor Peoples' March on Washington when he was distracted down to Memphis and killed. JK

What happened in 1945?[edit]

The United States spent most of the year without a Vice President. Please do your own homework. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 19:37, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
Also see 1945. Dismas|(talk) 00:22, 6 October 2005 (UTC)
It might also be worth mentioning that both Germany and Japan surrendered, ending World War 2, after Hitler committed suicide and 2 atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. Also, survivors of Germany's death camps were freed and Soviet control of Eastern Europe started, eventually degenerating into the Cold War. And US President FDR died in office, being replaced by his VP Harry Truman. See 1945 for details. StuRat 19:51, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

What is the etymology of "hoodwinked" (to deceive)?[edit]

A dictionary is a great reference for this. Try hoodwink at Wiktionary. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 19:38, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
I've yet to find a dictionary, however, that explains the etymology of hoodwinked. I think I'm pretty clear on the definition already. — Silvaran 23:09, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
To wink is to close ones eyes; a hood covers the head. The verb originally meant "to blindfold", which makes sense from the two parts - a hood that winks (blinds) you. (Blindfold itself was originally something like blind-fall - "to make blind"). It then became used metaphorically - compare to phrases like "pulling the wool over their eyes". Shimgray | talk | 23:28, 5 October 2005 (UTC)
Yep, it's that simple -- OED2 just lists "hood (n.) + wink (v.)" for etymology. — mendel 16:04, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

business non-profit status[edit]

What are the benifits to having a non-profit business? And what are the regulations enforced upon businesses to maintain non-profit status?


Generally, non-profits are taxed separately from regular businesses. However, the benefits and regulations vary by country and region, so it's probably best to check with your local Chamber of Commerce or a corporate lawyer for this. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 20:56, 5 October 2005 (UTC)

You also might find some interesting answers in the following articles, mainly on how it is handled in the USA (sorry I not have links to how it is in other nations), and those articles that these ones link to:

AlMac|(talk) 20:13, 7 October 2005 (UTC)


"Age and treachery will usually overcome youth and enthusiasm." Who originally said it? When? Where, or in what work? Is it an accurate quote?

Try a few Google searches, mix up the quotation marks (like search "age and treachery" "youth and enthusiasm") and see what you get. I don't have time to do more right now, but...

has a link to this:,14179,2618616-3,00.html

Which says:

"He has a point, and for some reason the famous Mack Rhinelander .sig file pops into my head: ""Old age and guile will always triumph over youth and enthusiasm." Maybe it's a good thing for Helix Code that Updater isn't really what the business plan is all about. "

Hope this helps! 12:42, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

Death by crushing[edit]

A coworker and I were talking about the Salem witch trials and it reminded me of something that I had heard years ago. The story I heard was of some ruler having a large number of prisoners that he wanted to have executed. So he brought them all into an area and had them lay down. A dance floor was then constructed over them so that the weight of the floor and its occupants was supported by the people being crushed. The dancers were not told of what was below them and the people below the floor were crushed to death. Does this sound familiar to anyone? I don't recall where I heard of this and a few google searches haven't reaped any results. Dismas|(talk) 00:20, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

I'd think the screams would've tipped them off, or maybe the way the floor kept moving off level! More importantly, that'd have to be a pretty heavy dance floor, keeping in mind that the weight of the dancers would be distributed across all of the prisoners. After all, crushing by elephant used a whole elephant just to crush one person. — mendel 16:01, 6 October 2005 (UTC)
You make good points. I'm still curious where this came from though. Dismas|(talk) 23:24, 6 October 2005 (UTC)
Well, it reminds me both of Edgar Allen Poe's "Hop-Frog Or the Eight Chained Ourang-Outangs", where an oppressed hunchback conspires to kill a king and his advisors at a party (but no crushing), and of the death of Francesco II of Gattilusia, who “on a journey through Lesbos, while passing the night in one of the lofty towers then common in the Archipelago, ... was stung by a scorpion. Alarmed at his cries, his attendants and nobles climbed up into his room in such numbers that the floor collapsed and he was killed on the spot ... .” (as recounted by William Addams Reitwiesner in The Lesbian Ancestors of Prince Rainier of Monaco, Dr. Otto von Habsburg, Brooke Shields, and the Marquis de Sade. But those are probably unrelated<g>. - Nunh-huh 04:27, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
Wow. I had an elaborately flippant reply prepared... and then I checked. That monograph exists? Dude. I feel so much more cheerful about the world now. Shimgray | talk | 14:31, 8 October 2005 (UTC)


Is it true that a meme rarely regenerates? If asked, will a meme serve as an answer? Is it true that one can splice syntactical meaning with logical non-meaning? Can someone please explain/make better?

How gnomic. And, unfortunately, how very very far from my limits of intelligence. However, if you read the comprehensive article on memes here on the Wikipedia, plus follow the excellent links to further resources provided at the foot of the page, you're bound to find out more. Possibly. RedversHelloDoings 19:25, 21 October 2005 (UTC)

american red cross[edit]

Dear Sir/Madam,

I admit, maybe there is a flaw in my research method. Thus far I have been unable to find the answers to the following questions: What is the organizational structure of the American Red Cross? What is the chain of command? How does changes in the organization come about? (ie, who makes the changes? is there a board that vote on a bill? etc.)

Thank you.


Take a look at [28]. The fourth paragraph (starting "Following World War II") gives their organisational structure in brief. There's an email address at the bottom of that page which might provide a good resource for followup questions.-gadfium 04:46, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

Name of a Movie[edit]

I'm looking for a movie that I saw when I was very young about a journalist who decided to write about being a Playboy bunny. I can't remember much else about it except that. If you could help me I would really like to know its name. Kitten 9:51pm Oregon

Thank you sooooo much I've being looking forever adn no one seems to know what I'm talking about:) Thanks agian:)

serenity prayer origins[edit]

There have been multiple claims that "Reinhold Niebuhr" popularized but not originated a much older version. Two of the more common original authors were Christoph Oetinger and Franz of Assisi.

If there had been earlier versions of this prayer, should we not be able to find in old texts in libraries in the world that have cited the prayer?

Has anyone claimed with "black on white" certainty, in whatever langauge, a printed source from a book earlier than 1900?

If none exist, then the WikiPedia entry should note this point as further support of the Reinhold Niebuhr claim to fame. Dlwl 04:47, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

Russian society[edit]

Why is the country of Russia more European than the rest of Asia? I can understand the western part being more like Europe but even the eastern section of Russian is far different the Mongolia, China, Japan or any other nearby coutries.

The western part of Russia is not just like Europe, it is in Europe. Valiantis 12:17, 6 October 2005 (UTC)
It is tempting to say the Europeans colonized what is now Russia (and some of that did happen, mainly from the Vikings), but in prehistoric times just the reverse happened, the people in Europe came from what is now Russia. That is why they are called Caucasians, after the Caucasus Mountains on the Southern border of Russia, where this broad ethnic group/gene pool/race apparently originated. StuRat 20:38, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
The "Caucasian" theory is pretty dubious; it comes from 19th century "racial theory" and is more or less based on one anatomist's personal preference for the skulls of people from that region as the exemplars of the "white race". The superficially similar idea that the Caucasus is the origin of the Indo-European languages, however, may be true.--Pharos 02:03, 17 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Siberia and the Russian Far East has been extensively settled by ethnic Russians and Ukrainians from the west since the areas came under the control of the Russian Empire in the 19th century, a trend which continued during Soviet times, as in the Virgin Lands campaign.--Pharos 02:03, 17 October 2005 (UTC)

Can one name their child a curse word?[edit]

Hi, just a quick question, in the United States, I was wondering if it was legal to name a child a profanity. I would never do such a thing, but I was curious as to if there were any laws in the US that would stop this from occurring. My closest guess it that it be seen as a form of child abuse, perhaps, and the parents might be forced to either change the kids' name or give them up, but I don't know enough about US law to be sure. Okay, thanks for your time! 12:36, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

I would agree that someone would lock you up for child abuse or some such thing. I know it's not in the U.S. but in Sweden there was the case of "Albin". His parents named him Brfxxccxxmnpcccclllmmnprxvclmnckssqlbb11116 and insisted that it be pronounced "Albin". Dismas|(talk) 14:07, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

No laws at all in the US. There are plenty of weird names out there. Some make you think "poor kid." I think the only requirement for a legal name change if you are an adult is that it not be done "with intent to defraud." alteripse 14:37, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

Happens all the time. Friends in Detroit tell me they've personally seen medical records with a girl name pronounced "Ash-oh-lay" spelled Asshole and another name pronounced Shi-thay-uh-d spelled Shithead. Unbelievable, but the parents thought it was just fine. I'm sure you could verify this with birth records which are probably public record. - Taxman Talk 16:14, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Well, those are classic urban legend -- down to the "friends" who personally have seen them. Snopes has a good discussion of these and other unlikely names (I've always been fond of the lovely name Chlamydia). As far as I know, there aren't any state laws restricting what parents can name their kids, and it's far from anything US Federal law would attempt to control (or at least one would hope.) --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 22:10, 6 October 2005 (UTC)
Such a law does exist in Quebec. Some people tried to name their kid "Spatule," as in the kitchen utensil, but they were prevented from doing so [29]. -- Mwalcoff 23:57, 6 October 2005 (UTC)
There is a well known story about a little boy who asked his teacher why Mary and Joseph had named their baby after a swear word. Shantavira 13:03, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

My mother, a social worker once told me about a crack addict mother who was high as a kite at the time of her twins birth. She legally named on Chicken of the Sea and the other Master of the Universe. So who knows? Curse words might be no better. [moved from question below]

A child named Shithead is discussed in Freakonomics. Rmhermen 15:51, 16 October 2005 (UTC)

sovereign states[edit]

I wonder how come the field of international relations is reserved for 'sovereign states', while excluding minorities or autonomies.. Could any one refer me to treaties/agreements/conventions defining a 'state'? I've found the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, but it is (officially) limited to the Americas. Is there any convention in International Law which specifies 'sovereignity' and 'state'?

My understanding of this issue is that the definition of state as outlined in the Montevideo Convention is used as the de facto definition in international relations. -- Rune Welsh | ταλκ | Esperanza 21:29, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

It's one of those things that's hard to say. For example, the Universal Postal Union admits places that aren't states, e.g. Cayman Islands. The United States government traditionally had a test for whether or not to recognize a government. It had to have actual control over its territory, it had to respect international laws, and it had to have had peaceful intent. The U.S. didn't recognize the Soviet Union for some time because it immediately repudiated its international obligations and Communist doctrine was to take over the world. Basically, a state is any body which another country has recognized, e.g. some countries recognize Taiwan, others do not. PedanticallySpeaking 16:11, 18 October 2005 (UTC)

Novelist or Author?[edit]

Most writers are described (as in on their disambiguation page) as "Author", example: Melville (Herman). Some are described as "Novelist", example: Conrad (Joseph). What is proper? Which is most accurate and/or honorable? Should Wikipedia consistently denote things like this?

Thanks! -- 13:18, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

According to Author, "The author of a book, story, article or the like, is the person who has written it (or is writing it). This can be short or long, fiction or nonfiction, poetry or prose, technical or literature; in particular it is a profession (doing this for pay)." So an author is a writer, but a novelist is someone who writes novels. Since Herman Melville wrote not only novels, but also short stories and poetry, the writer(s) of the article may have chosen to use author rather than novelist. However, in his article he is referred to as a novelist. Joseph Conrad also wrote novels and short stories, so perhaps he would be more accurately described as an author, rather than only a novelist. Perhaps Wikipedia should be more consistent about this. Be bold and change it yourself!

Frederick Douglass[edit]

Try Frederick Douglass --Borbrav 00:09, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Royal grants of title[edit]

Dear Sirs: Please tell me where I can find the actual wording of an English royal grant of title from the 17th Century under Charles I. If such a document is not available, any English royal document will be helpful. Thanks you. Louise M. Gouge

What do you mean by "grant of title" - a grant of a title of nobility, or of title to land? The Avalon Project has a selection of letters patent for land grants. Are you trying to replicate one, or to confirm if a copy of one is accurate? Shimgray | talk | 17:19, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

media history and politics[edit]

how did the media change between 1750 and now?

I'm not sure I understand your question. Are you asking how "the media" changed in the sense of "the people who produce news information" or do you mean the question to be about the changes in how news information is conveyed since that time? In either case the changes between the 18th century and now are pretty large, it'd be hard to sum them up. In a nutshell, a lot of this has to do with changes in publishing -- cheap newspapers, increased literacy, changing role of news organizations, changing role of nation/states and the rights of communication, creation of magazines and other essay-length periodicals, etc., which are already a number of BIG changes which happen in the early 19th century without even getting into the innovations of the 20th century like radio, television, and the internet. --Fastfission 16:57, 6 October 2005 (UTC)
You can argue that telegraph was the biggie. All the rest is just refinements... --Robert Merkel 07:52, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

calusa indians[edit]

What did the calusa indians eat?what did they drink?

  • Our Calusa article is silent on the issue other than referring to mounds of shells which suggests seafood was an important part of their diet. This article [30] on various tribes of Native Americans in Florida states "The Caloosahatchee River ("River of the Calusa") was the main highway of the Calusa into the interior. Its banks teamed with small game and its waters were abundant with fish and shellfish. Calusa canoes could circumvent Lake Okeechobee and travel up the Kissimmee River into other tribal areas." It also seems that they were known as skilled hunters. Capitalistroadster 05:51, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

A title of Apollo[edit]

I have recently finished reading the excellent book War Music by Christopher Logue. It is a rewrite basically of the Illiad, and it is one of the most spectacular books I have ever read. I warmly recommend it to anybody, even if you're only slightly interested in Homer or poetry in general. Anyway, in the book he repeatadly calls Apollo The Lord of Light and Mice. The mice part is obviously a reference to the plauge amongst the greek troops. Now, I considered myself fairly knowledgable about classic greek works, in my youth I read both works by Homer aswell as several other great works, but I have never heard Apollo be called by that title. Logue says that his sources are exclusivly the several different translations of the Illiad (he can't even read greek), so is this something that like Alexander Pope used somewhere in his translation or something? Or is this a common title for the Sun-God? Any greek scholars here that can cast light on the subject? gkhan 16:11, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

'Lord of Light' obviously comes from his role as the sun god; 'Lord of Mice' is indeed found in Homer, as Σμινθέως (glossed as 'Mouse-god'). (The same epithet is also found in Pausanius and Strabo.) I can't find any combination of the two names in any classical works; it may be from one English translation or another, but I suspect that it is of the author's invention. —Charles P. (Mirv) 01:53, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

I agree the combined epithet was invented by Logue, but there is a nice summary of the epithet smintheos ("god of the mice") from line 39 of book 1 of the Iliad in Walter Leaf's commentary: Smintheu, lit. ‘Mouse-god’; Apollo was worshipped under this title in the Troad, as at Smyrna as ‘Locust-god,’ Parnopios. Strabo (p. 606) knows of several places named Sminthia, as far as Rhodes. The Sminthian temple near Cape Lekton existed to historical times; and even on late coins of Alexandria Troas Apollo appears with a mouse at his feet. Mr. Lang argues that this indicates the amalgamation of the Greek Apollo with a local mouse-god, originally a tribal totem. The common explanation is that the word is a familiar abbreviation of Sminthophthoros, destroying the field-mice or voles which ravaged the vineyards: hoi gar Krêtes tous muas sminthous kalousin Schol. A (see Frazer's note on Paus.x. 12. 5). Only a few years ago Thessaly was seriously injured by an invasion of these little pests. Others see in the mouse the symbol of plague, which would be especially suitable here. In Herodotos the destruction of the army of Sennacherib is attributed not to a plague but to a host of field-mice which gnawed the Assyrian bow-strings in the night. A somewhat similar story connected with the colonization of the Troad is told by Strabo (p. 604). In 1 Sam. vi. 4 golden mice are offered as a propitiation when visited by a plague (W. Robertson Smith Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia p. 302, where further evidence is given for a Semitic mouse-god). erepsa seems to indicate the most primitive form of temple -- a mere roof to protect the image of a god standing in a grove; for it was to groves, not to buildings, that sanctity originally belonged. Temples are rarely mentioned in H.; we hear only of those of Apollo and Athene in Troy, and of Athene at Athens. See note on 5.446. charienta seems to be proleptic, for thy pleasure. For the construction of the prayer cf. E 115.

I snipped the above from the Perseus project. For other associations and allusions, the smintheos epithet is also discussed more extensively by Robert Graves in The Greek Myths than in any of the other compendia of Greek mythology I am aware of. alteripse 02:44, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

political science[edit]

please in not more than 2 pages, what is the definition and nature of political science?

Ohh, you mean something like this? Please read the top of the page, then you can look at Political science and start from there. gkhan 18:48, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

banker's visors[edit]

Why were those old-fashioned visors worn by bankers green?

what is the role of the Popoe in the Ctholic church[edit]

The earthly head. See Pope. —Charles P. (Mirv) 19:35, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

The Ctholic church? Do you mean the Church of Cthulhu? -- Arwel 00:08, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

Article and section or Amendment of the Constitution[edit]

If a personis indicted for a crime, what are all the rights which he has per the United States Constitution(Not the Miranda warning). What articles or Amendments are these listed under?

The simple solution here is to think - well, Miranda v. Arizona held that people's rights weren't being protected on arrest, so what rights did they hold people had? Our article on that case says:
The Court held that suspects, prior to being interrogated by police, must be informed of their rights under the Fifth and Sixth Amendments to the United States Constitution.
(Note that the "Miranda right" is just to be warned of your rights - it didn't actually create those rights.) Our articles on the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution and Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution may be useful, also note the Fourteenth (which holds that all persons, citizen or noncitizen, are covered by these rights). Shimgray | talk | 19:57, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

I'm neither American nor am I a lawyer, so take this with a grain of salt :P Off the top of my head:

  • Fourth amendment guards against unlawful searches (not really a problem if you are already under arrest, but oh well)
  • Fifth amendment guards against having to witness against yourself and establishes grand jurys
  • Sixth amendment ensures a jury-trial in a criminal case
  • Seventh amendment ensures a jury-trail in a civil case
  • Eigth amendment guards against torture and excessive bail
  • Fourteenth ensures due process and equal protection

I'm sure there are more. Please see our articles on these amendments for the details. Also, I guess technically you could say that the first amendment ensures free speach for prisoners :D gkhan 20:05, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

family name[edit]

Who are the best selling authors in human history?[edit]

Is there a list available of the authors who have published the most books, in order of the number of books they have published? This seems like a very simple/common thing to wonder about, but I haven't been able to find any information on, for example, author, writer, bestseller, or lists of authors. I am particularly interested in whether the forty million novels published by Terry Pratchett place him in, for example, the top ten or twenty novelists in history, by publication numbers. Thanks. -- Creidieki 23:02, 6 October 2005 (UTC)

  1. God
  2. Mao Zedong
    -- Миборовский U|T|C|E 02:36, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
I hope you don't mean the bible. A bunch of people wrote the bible, the idea of a god was just the inspiration ☢ Kieff | Talk 07:48, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
The Communist Manifesto must be somewhere near the Little Red Book in terms of all-time sales records. That has to put Karl Marx up there at number three. It puts The Beatles claim to be bigger than Jesus into perspective. --Diderot 11:44, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
I would doubt that. Mao's work was required reading for all citizens of the world's most populous country; this was never the case with the Communist Manifesto. (Indeed, you might argue that the behaviour of those who later called themselves Communists suggests they hadn't paid much attention to Marx's message at all...) Valiantis 00:43, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Technically, God didn't write the bible. He may have told people what to put in it, but it was the people on earth who actually put pen to paper. See Old Testament and New Testament. - 07:50, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
However, if you are a believer, God did write the Koran (at least by dictation). That's probably sold a few copies. Valiantis 01:15, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
That is not exclusive to the Quran. The Bible has written dialogue or "dictation" from God as well. The Quran did sell about several million, but I cannot locate the exact number. In both books, many are distributed free of charge, making them difficult to calculate as bestsellers.23:38, 16 October 2005 (UTC)
According to her Wikipedia article Danielle Steel has sold 530 million novels. I make no claims as to the veracity of this figure, but it beats Terry Pratchett hands down if the 40 million figure quoted is correct. Valiantis 01:15, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
The appallingly uninventive Catherine Cookson has sold over 100 million according to our article, further knocking Pratchett down. I would strongly assume Stephen King has sold more than Pratchett, As would Tolkien. But I've tried dozens of tweaked searches to find a chart with no success. --bodnotbod 02:28, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

Greek word for excessive pride or ambition[edit]

hubris alteripse 01:19, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Bob Dylan - Nashville Skyline[edit]

I know Dylan did all of his recordings "live" - never dubbed anything or laid down separate tracks. On Nashville Skyline at the beginning of the song "To Be Alone with You" he asks if the tape is rolling and then a few seconds later starts singing. Does anyone know if this was "planned" (which doesn't seem like something Dylan would do) or if this is just Dylan genuinely asking if the tape was rolling since this was a "live" take of him playing and singing like usual? Thanks. --Nadsat 00:56, 7 October 2005 (UTC)


According to our article on Nashville Skyline, the recording of "To Be Alone With You" was very relaxed so I suspect it was unplanned and Dylan just liked the version of the song recorded in the take. The article on the song states that the song was recorded in an "off-the-cuff atmosphere" see [31] so it seems it was unplanned. Capitalistroadster 06:06, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Note also things like Bob Dylan's 115th Dream (where he collapses laughing) on Bringing It All Back Home, or various tracks on the Bootleg Series - there's a few starting with conversations, lead-ins, that sort of thing. Shimgray | talk | 11:49, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Thank you for your responses. I have noticed many of the bootlegs have that sort of relaxed manner to them, but this was the first time I noticed it so blatantly on a released track. Although, perhaps the recording of Rainy Day Women #12 and #35 rivals this one. Thank you for confirming that Dylan never "pre-planned" his recordings - which makes them all the more admirable. --Nadsat 15:16, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Boxer Rebellion[edit]

After I studied the Boxer Rebellion, I am wondering that what are the impacts of this event to China and "the outside world"? Would you please give me the answer as soon as possible and my e-mail address is (deleted to protect user's privacy). Thanks

edited for formatting and to remove user's e-mail address --Metropolitan90 02:05, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Mr Ardennes[edit]

On the National Archives WWII photo gallery, number 111, there is the photo of the German soldier sometimes known as "Mr Ardennes". What is his name? What unit did he belong to? When was he born? Was he killed? Thanks.
-- Миборовский U|T|C|E 02:08, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

The NARA's image description reads "A Nazi soldier, heavily armed, carries ammunition boxes forward with companion in territory taken by their counter-offensive in this scene from captured German film." Belgium, December 1944. but you probably already knew that. Date and place might give you a lead to figure out his unit... Lupo 08:25, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
The photographer (or cameraman, if it's a still from some movie) appears to have been on Fritz Winter [32], not to be confused with the painter Fritz Winter. However, on the various websites I found this image on there is some confusion on whether this is the photographer's name, the name of the soldier, or just a generic moniker. Lupo 08:51, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
Got some more on him: "This man was in Kampfgruppe Hansen of the 2nd Company, I./SS-Pz.Gren.Rgt 1. His name is Walter Armbrusch, and he possesed the rank of SS-Schütze as an MG-42 gunner. Here he is seen after a successful attack on an Allied reconnaisance convy, with gear obtained from it. The picture is taken during the early days the Battle of the Bulge.". See [33], where there are a few more pictures of him. Maybe you can find more info in the book by Paul Pallud, The Battle of the Bulge, 1986; ISBN 0-90091-340-1, where he even features on the title. Lupo 09:10, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
And then again, maybe he's not Walter Armbrush: [34]... Also, see [35] and [36]. Contact the museum at Poteau... Lupo 09:32, 7 October 2005 (UTC)


can someone please tell me what is the physical, metaphysical and spiritual nature of god as well as some of his personality traits, scars, tattoos, defining characteristics and his hair colour? PLEASE ANSWER RIGHT AWAY I NEED THIS FOR MY HOMEWORK FOR TOMORROW

Seriously, we don't do you your homework for you, and there's no way we can provide a short answer to a question that has prompted millions of pages of discussion amongst theologians and philosophers for thousands of years. Try Gadfium's suggestion.--Robert Merkel 06:05, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
So he did, live and learn. --fvw* 06:24, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Sent to Wikipedia:Unusual requests. --cesarb 23:01, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

Industrial revolution between 1760 and 1830[edit]

Hi, i have a question in mind. Does Industrial Revolution leads to Asia being colonized by the West? Thanks shuhui

  • Shuhui,

Our Industrial Revolution article states that took place in the late 18th and early 19th century. The chronology of Imperialism in Asia states that the Portuguese conquered Sri Lanka in 1505 and the process was well underway by the time that the Industrial Revolution started. Capitalistroadster 07:58, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

It didn't lead to it, but it did speed up the process by reducing the travel time between Europe & Asia & by increasing the industrial production capacity of Europe, & hence its demand for raw materials & its ability to provide colony countries with manufactured goods to bind them to the west (& in the case of guns & bullets to speed the process of conquest). AllanHainey 12:18, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Rescind or revoke the Nobel Peace Prize[edit]

Has the Nobel Peace Prize ever been revoked, rescinded, stripped from, taken back, or otherwise discredited with respect to a particular recipient? Have there been political controversies after the fact of awarding the Prize? Has it ever been refused, on the part of the recipient?

To quote Richard Feynman:
Then I began to think, "How can I turn this all off? I don't want any of this!" So the first thing was to take the telephone off the hook, because calls were coming one right after the other. I tried to go back to sleep, but found it was impossible.
I went down to the study to think: What am I going to do? Maybe I won't accept the Prize. What would happen then? Maybe that's impossible.
I put the receiver back on the hook and the phone rang right away. It was a guy from Time magazine. I said to him, "Listen, I've got a problem, so I want this off the record. I don't know how to get out of this thing. Is there some way not to accept the Prize?"
He said, "I'm afraid, sir, that there isn't any way you can do it without making more of a fuss than if you leave it alone."
Now, he was talking about Physics not Peace, but the principle applies - it's really very difficult to refuse a Nobel prize without causing a massive amount of fuss. I don't believe anyone has done it. It's been treated as a joke with regards to some recipients - Henry Kissinger was a popular topic of satire, for example - but the prize itself hasn't been discredited nor have they had it revoked; note, though, that in many years it simply hasn't been awarded. In something as "political" as Peace, though, I suspect they quietly sound out the recipient to see if they're likely to do something messy like refuse it. Shimgray | talk | 11:38, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Actually, Le Duc Tho refused when he and Kissinger were awarded it. Likewise, Jean-Paul Sartre refused his, though it got kind of messy. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 17:47, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
    • Gerhard Domagk and Richard Kuhn were forced to refuse Nobel Prizes by the Nazi Germany, but they accepted it after the war. Tintin 03:11, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
    • Boris Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958, but he declined to accept it, probably under pressure from the Soviet authorities. Tintin 10:25, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

A Nobel Prize can be refused but not taken back. After the outbreak of widespread Palestinian violence in 2001, people (depending on which side they were on) called for the rescinding of Yasser Arafat and Shimon Peres' peace prizes. But the Nobel people said that once you win a prize, it's yours to keep, just like on Wheel of Fortune. -- 00:28, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

They took it back from Milli Vanilli. Oh, no wait - I'm thinking of something else. --bodnotbod 02:42, 13 October 2005 (UTC)


Africans clim to be the pace-setters in development but are still one of the deprived continents in the world.discuss

That's not a question. And which Africans, exactly, "clim" to be the pace-setters in development? – Quadell (talk) 11:53, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Presidential approval ratings[edit]

Greetings. According to a Time poll, President Bush's approval rating is now down to 37%, his lowest ever. When was the last time any president had such a low approval rating? I assume Nixon's was lower toward the end, but has there been a case since then? – Quadell (talk) 11:51, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

There are "end of term" approval ratings which are recorded as lower, but these are generally statistically freaky - people who lose tend to have people saying they really preferred the other guy &c. So Nixon was 24% when he left, and Carter 34% according to [37] - but you'd get more realistic numbers if you polled people the day before the election, not after. [38] has some polling data for the same week in their second terms, which is more the sort of data we're looking for. Gallup says Truman had the lowest approval ever, 23% in January 1952 - but in January '52, as mentioned above, we'd be looking at an end-of-office poll so it may be exaggerated. [39]. Carter apparently hit a disapproval of 59%, which probably means under 37% approval (these figures never add up due to "undecided") during summer '79, so he's probably the last case - not really the example W. would like to compare himself to, I fear. (Before you cry "but Ford!", people kinda liked Ford, all told. Heck, I like Ford. He didn't screw up much.) Shimgray | talk | 12:32, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

ABC News says George H.W. Bush hit 33 percent during his presidency. That was right before the 1992 election. -- 00:22, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

also, do we have a list of US presidents who got the electoral vote without a popular majority, somewhere? I am curious as to how many times this has happened. 17:09, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

never mind, I found it, it happened four times, John Quincy Adams 1824, Samuel J. Tilden 1876, Benjamin Harrison 1888 and George W. Bush 2000.

survey of selected societies and cultures in sub saharan africa.[edit]

African claims to be the pace-setters in development but it is still one of the deprived continents in the world. 13:34, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

What's your question? Dismas|(talk) 13:49, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
Anything that ends "Discuss" is obviously a homework question! Notinasnaid 14:21, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Vocal range: Contralto and Sopprano[edit]

Hello, I've been looking all over the web for an answer to this question, so I hope you can help me. Recently, I started taking private vocal lessons, and discovered that my usable vocal range spans a little over 3 octaves. From D above tennor C to F above sopprano C. This covers both the Contralto and Sopprano ranges, and I wanted to know if there is a term for that, which I could put down on an application to music school. I've asked my teacher, but she isn't classically trained and doesn't know.

Thank you for your help.


  • Mezzo-soprano, perhaps? I'm not familiar with the terminology of the field, though, and that seems to be a seperate classification which is not quite one nor the other. Looking at Fach might help, or Vocal ranges.
  • Alternately, if you just want your range determined, you could contact a vocal teacher who is classically trained (your teacher may know one) and ask if they'd be willing to let you know the proper terminology for the applications, for a small fee. They'll likely know this stuff better than someone who can't hear you! Shimgray | talk | 15:26, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Most women's voices are naturally centred on the range of mezzo-soprano, and most women feel more comfortable singing closer to that range. It is important to note the difference between possible vocal range and the useful one: being able to eac a certain note does not mean that you will necessarily be able to sing it well. A trained voice is able to expand its range, though it often develops quite distinct registers. These are a bit like gears on a bike or car: the voice changes in timbre as it shifts register. It would be useful to sing through your range (ascending and descending) with your teacher and notice where the distinct divisions of register fall. This might give you some idea of your technical proficiency in a certain vocal range. Besides that, simply choose what is most comfortable and which range appeals to you most, noting that there is often more competition between sopranos than there is between other singers. --Gareth Hughes 15:35, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I have no idea, but congrats on having such an amazing range. purplefeltangel (talk)(contribs) 21:27, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I've been doing a lot of editing on vocal range articles in Wikipedia, so I'm delighted to see a question about it. I do love being useful. I agree with Shimgray. The only way to determine your voice type in classical terms is to work with a classical teacher for a few months and have him/her figure it out. Voice classification involves not just range but timbre, tessitura, registration, and so on. Until you've had some time to work out these things with a professional, it's not really sensible to apply a label. And, of course, it depends on what sort of music you tend to sing. Keep at the lessons, and worry about the labels later. 02:52, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
  • My son has almost the same range as an "unchanged" voice at 12-years old. The opera company lists him as a "Treble", a woman in the same range a "Mezzo-Soprano".
  • It will help your web search if you spell soprano correctly. --Auximines 13:07, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

Autonomy and Foreign Affairs[edit]

This is a restatement of a question above the received no replies. We're studying the relationships between sovereign states and autonomous regions or autonomous identity groups. It seems commonly accepted that 'international affairs' is a competency (a responsibility or delegated power) that is 'reserved' for the central government or the sovereign state, meaning then that autonomous regions generally are excluded from international affairs. Of course, there are exceptions. What we would like someone to help with is to point us at a reference that explains or defines or identifies the source of this generally accepted international legal norm. We would like to be able to point to the foundational documents, treaties, or international agreements which indicate how this practice came into effect. Thanks if you can help!

The first particular case I can think of is the US, where the "sovereign states" merged into a single entity and signed away their competency to international relations.
I remember reading some interesting debate on "montevideo minus one" entities a while back - places that fulfil three of the four Montevideo criteria - which is here. (Yes, Montevideo technically only refers to the Americas, but it is considered generally relevant in international affairs anyway - it's not binding, but it's something usually accepted as Making Good Sense). As one of the four criteria is "ability to enter into relations wirh other states", you might find it interesting. Shimgray | talk | 15:37, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
Does having a military establishment create competency in that it's not so important to talk to someone who cannot invade your territory? --Gareth Hughes 15:58, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
During the Middle Ages, and earlier periods, it was common for local leaders to actively involve themselves in international relations. The Treaty of Westphalia is often considered the point where Europe switched to modern nation state based diplomacy. This came about, in part, because the central governments gained a monopoly on violence during this era. - SimonP 19:24, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Actually, sometimes, subnational governments do get involved in international affairs. The Canadian province of Quebec, which likes to act as if it's an independent country, has its own ministry of international relations and has quasi-embassies all over the world. In the U.S., states are prevented from signing binding international agreements under Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution. Nonetheless, states regularly engage in nonbinding agreements and cooperation with foreign entities. See this article on the role of North American states and provinces in foreign affairs. -- Mwalcoff 01:09, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

Many US states, and even major cities, have trade missions to other nations, states and cities ... check out sister cities for example.
Can a political entity join the United Nations or take grievances there?
Some American Indians complained to the UN that the USA had violated some treaties with them. Very true, but the UN did not recognize the tribes as having standing at the UN. AlMac|(talk) 02:57, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
There are various non-national entities with accepted observer status at the UN - see United Nations General Assembly observers - but they can't actually join, as this is reserved for sovereign states (and in effect not all of them - Taiwan, whilst generally considered sovereign by the world, won't be able to join as China would be sure to veto it) Shimgray | talk | 19:39, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
I don't know the source for the 'accepted legal norm' that only sovereign states are the only ones able to deal with other sovereign states in international affairs. I don't think that there is a specific legal document which sets it out (apart from impositions imposed by central government on the limits of the authority of their provinces or devolved components. I would suspect one or more of the following as the reason though:

1) No sovereign state is going to deal with a non sovereign state (Eg France makes a treaty with Wales) as it would lead to conflict, & possibly war, with the country (sovereign state) which claims that territory (Eg United Kingdom). Although in the past such things have occurred with countries making deals with governments in exile where the 'sovereign state' is one they are already at war with(eg UK sheltered, recognised & made agreements with French, Polish in exile in WW2 when their countries were no longer sovereign as they'd been occupied by Nazi germany.

2) No sovereign state would want to make deals with a constituent part of another country for fear that country will recognise & make treaties with parts of its own territory (EG the USA wouldn't have made a treaty with Scotland incase the UK made a treaty with Virginia, the CSA, etc).

3) Unless you are intentionally aiming to destabilise another country there would be no point in dealing with non-sovereign states as the sovereign state which claims authority over them wouldn't recognise any agreement (Eg if you made a treaty with Catalonia Spain wouldn't recognise it and would probably get very upset at both of you. Also if Catelonia made such an treaty in its own name it could be considered as an act of secession & could be quickly surpressed).

4) Unless it is making a bid for autonomy/independence no non-sovereign state is going to make a deal on international relations with a sovereign state. If its bid succeeds then it is a sovereign state itself & its agreement before that is forgotten (EG American colonies alliance with France before they won independence), or if they fail the agreement is forgotten & no longer valid (Can't think of any examples of this, though that may prove the point). AllanHainey 15:44, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

A basic principle of most international organizations (UN, African Union, OAS, etc.) is non-intereference by the organization or its members in the internal affairs of another member. making treaties or delas with a sub-national entity would violate that principle. I would expect that national governments developed that principle to protect their own positions against foreign interference. There are some small deviations from the principle: the Government of Quebec (as "Canada-Quebec"), and the French Community of Belgium are members La Francophonie as "participating governments", but these are rare exceptions. Ground Zero | t 21:40, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

One historical case I've just remembered is the British East India Company which was a non-sovereign commercial entity which made binding treaties (though they usually broke them) with a large number of Indian principalities & sovereign states. On a number of occasions even buying & selling some of those states to/from other Indian rulers. AllanHainey 07:11, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Are patents copyrighted?[edit]

Are patent copyrighted? Are the text and images in a patent application copyrighted? Thanks. -- BMIComp (talk, HOWS MY DRIVING) 15:31, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Unless explicitly stated otherwise I would assume so. They are original work, they are creative, so yes. Shimgray | talk | 15:37, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
  • They're patented rather than copyrighted. But the effect is the same. You can't use such material. - Mgm|(talk) 16:27, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
To clarify: Of course the concepts being patented are copyrighted, but I'm fairly certain the actual documents involved in applying for a patent are public domain, if that's what you were asking. (But IANA patent L.) So you should be able to copy patent documents to your heart's content; just not the concepts. Garrett Albright 17:38, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
Why would the patent documents be public domain? Yes, they're public information in the sense that they're not secret, but I'm not at all sure they're not copyrighted... Shimgray | talk | 17:56, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
The official patents are published by the US Government, and therefore can't be copyrighted, correct? Brian Schlosser42 20:13, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
That's right. When you apply for a patent, the materials are made freely available and public domain (in regards to copyright.) – Quadell (talk) 20:30, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
Doesn't automatically follow, though - the USG can't claim copyright on its original work, but it is legally able to hold copyrights originally claimed by others; the GPO is able to publish copyrighted works, for example.
That said, I checked with the USPTO - Patents are published into the public domain as part of the terms of granting the patent to the inventor. As such, they are not subject to copyright restrictions. [40]. Note it may still contain trademark images, so be careful when assuming freely-republishable. [Also, usual picky "well, he didn't say the US..." disclaimer ;-)] Shimgray | talk | 22:26, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
  • It also depends on which country. That might apply in the US but not in other countries with different Copyright laws. For example, much material from the US Government is in the public domain but that does not necessarily apply elsewhere. I would check with the relevant patent authority unless you are interested in the US. Capitalistroadster 08:54, 9 October 2005 (UTC)


What is the philosophical difference or approach difference between social psychology and clinical psychology? (Is there a web site or a reference that you can recommend with a chart or a simplified explanation showing situations and both the clinical and social psychologists response to that situation or question?)Thank you------Cathy

The professional duties of a clinical psychologist are to her patients. Her most common work is dealing with the mental health problems of individual people. Her success is usually largely dependent on her patients' satisfactions or outcomes.

The duties of a social psychologist are nearly always to her employer, whether it be a university, a commercial business, a government agency, or a large organization that deals with the public. Her most common work is to understand, or devise ways to change, the behavior of groups or categories of people. Her success is largely judged by whether her employer or academic peers find her reports or suggestions worthwhile or useful. She is unlikely to deal individually with people in a therapy capacity.

And here is a value-added freebie: A clinical social worker is a different animal from both of those. Her training is different, but her work more closely resembles that of a a clinical psychologist than a social psycholgist. alteripse 20:17, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Window types[edit]

Is there a such thing as "French" window? What are they? Is there a name for floor-to-ceiling windows? -- 16:54, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Yes, a French window (or French door) is a large window that reaches down to the floor and may also be used as a door. Why "French" I'm not sure. I don't know any special name for a floor-to-ceiling window. Maybe "picture window", but that's not necessarily floor-to-ceiling. --Bob Mellish 17:00, 7 October 2005 (UTC)
  • An image search might help you, though not all the hits are valid. --bodnotbod 02:56, 13 October 2005 (UTC)


Looking for some information on Music? --Borbrav 03:22, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

Does not compute... Need more parameters. =p __earth 14:20, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Philosophers who said that a God who intervenes in the world miraculously is not benevolent[edit]

I'm currently researching the idea that if God performs miracles in the world he is not considered benevolent. An idea shared by Wiles and Hume that I know of. Especially with infant deity argument.

This obviously links with the problem of evil and epistemic distance.

Arguments for and against from philosophers and perhaps personal opinions would be useful.

Define benevolent, and define miracles?--inksT 01:17, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
The Judaeo-Christian concept of God. A miracle as an act of God such as creation or direct interevention such as healing a foot.
The major argument for would be that if God does do miracles, then God can do miracles, and if he is benevolent, there is no reason why He can't do a whole lot more miracles. God would then either be arbitary (since it cannot be reasonably argued that people who recieve miracles are more deserving than those who don't), or actually cruel. God would, of course, also be rendered imperfect, because events in the world would be shown to be not part of His plan to such an extent that He needs to dabble and fix things.--Fangz 01:01, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I would also suggest you look at our Miracle article which discusses the concept from various points of view. Capitalistroadster 08:59, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
  • and theodicy.

Why not take as a supposition God giving man free will is evidence of benevolence. If God intervenes, that free will is taken away and God is not being benevolent.

  • Surely that depends on the manner of the intervention? If his intervention is in healing and offering greater wealth then he is increasing freedom and still benevolent. --bodnotbod 03:01, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

I disagree ;-) If God intervenes, God takes away man's free will to choose and experience the consequences of his actions. That is not benevolence: that is a patrician "Let Pa Clean Up Your Mess" attitude I'm sure enlightened beings wouldn't be proud of asserting on those more clumsy.

Pronunciation of the artist Edgar Degas's name[edit]

A friend once told me that the correct pronunciation of Degas's name was Degas, with the final "s" being sounded, rather than "Degah". Never have I heard it pronounced thus. What do you think?--Nora Brown 23:24, 7 October 2005 (UTC)

Click the audio link: Webster lots of issues | leave me a message 01:00, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

Funny things over at MWD: the link led me straight to degas (that is gas removal), and only then to Degas. However, as it used its own non-scientific pronunciation key the dictionary is a bit of a nonsense when it comes to pronunciations. However, the tradition of not pronouncing s at the end of a French word is not straighforward. There are many place names and personal names that retain the pronunciation of the final s. Thus, I have a strong suspicion that the final letter of Degas is pronounced. However, most dictionaries say that this letter isn't pronounced. --Gareth Hughes 13:44, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
I've updated the Edgar Degas article with the IPA transcription of the what I believe to be the most appropriate pronunciation. This does not have the -s pronounced. I'll keep looking for sources on this one. --Gareth Hughes 14:58, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

I'm pretty sure that Gareth's transcription as [dəɡɑ] is correct. However it does seem quite common for English-speaking people even in TV broadcasts and so on to pronounce it as ['deɡɑ] as if it were spelt "Dégas". --rossb 06:28, 22 October 2005 (UTC)


I was at a local war museum the other day, taking pictures for the glory of Wikipedia with my trusty Cyber-shot, when I saw this captured German artillery piece (Image:Capturedgermanartillery.JPG), which I managed to identify as an M96nA, from World War I. On the blue plaque affixed to the front, it says:

Taken by 33rd Aust Battalion
at WARFUSE 8 Aug 1918

I googled "Warfuse", but could find nothing helpful in English. I scoured around Wikipedia, looking for something relevant about that date, August 8, 1918. That was the day that the Battle of Amiens, which pitted a Canadian/Australian force against the Germans, began. I've placed the image of the gun on the Amiens page, as it seems almost certain that that was when it was captured, but I'm curious: does anyone know anything about this Warfuse place? DO'Иeil 06:59, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

It's a poorly spelled version of Warfusée, a village just outside of Amiens, now part of the municipality of Lamotte-Warfusée, Somme. --Diderot 08:29, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
Ah, alright. I had suspected that "Warfuse" was perhaps a little village near Amiens somewhere, thanks for clearing this up. —DO'Иeil 04:14, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

What came first, Catholicism or Christianity?[edit]

-- 10:09, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

They should have appeared at the same time -- Catholic basically means "lack of divisions", and was used by the early christians. The term Christian was coined by observers, rather than by the christians themselves, and would have been used at about the same time. If you're asking about Roman Catholic, then History of the Roman Catholic Church mentions that it started 313AD, when the Roman Empire (specicially, Emperor Constantine) adopted Christianity. Ojw 11:35, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

There are different answers to your question from different perspectives. For example, the present Roman Catholic church claims to be the original and only valid Christian church. Their official doctrinal answer would be that Christianity and Roman Catholicism began together with the spread of the Gospel by the first Apostles. From a non-Roman Catholic historical perspective and a broader definition of Christianity (all the churches who proclaim that Christ is the prinicipal historical connection between humanity and God) then you might argue that Roman Catholicism only came into being by defining itself against other groups who were also Christian. There were many different forms of Christianity in the first 3 centuries AD, some of which survived and many of which did not survive the push for hegemony by the orthodox church in the West. Finally, from a semantic perspective, you might note that no group calls itself catholic (as in universal) until it is not or has not been catholic. alteripse 12:14, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

From memory, Ignatius of Antioch (who died sometime around the beginning of the 2nd century) was the first person to use the term catholic. By it he meant the worldwide church that held fast to a consensus of revealed doctrine (i.e. excluding heretics) and obedience to one's bishop. On the other hand, the Bibile itself tells us, in the Acts of the Apostles 11.26, that the followers of Jesus were first called Christian in Antioch. This suggests that this term is older. --Gareth Hughes 19:25, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
I take your question to mean, which came first, the belief in Jesus as the son of God, or the Roman Catholic Church. If this is what you meant, there were definitely many who believed Jesus was the son of God before the formation of the Roman Catholic Church, which happend a few centuries after the death of Christ. One could even argue that some believed in Christianity prior to the birth of Jesus, in that there were many who believed in a prophecy of His birth. StuRat 20:53, 8 October 2005 (UTC)


can you explain more about stereotype?

More than what's in our stereotype article? Dismas|(talk) 14:39, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
The question was answered back in 2002, by contributors to the stereotype article. Talk about efficiency! It's almost like they predicted your question. Ojw 14:50, 8 October 2005 (UTC)


who invented baseball?

See Origins of baseball. —Charles P. (Mirv) 18:37, 8 October 2005 (UTC)

Name of Island[edit]

What is the name of the island between South Africa and Australia, where both English and French are spoken? Thank you Pattron

Maybe you're thinking of the Seychelles. --Gareth Hughes 20:24, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
"Suzy and Cecil sell seashells and C-shells by the seashore in the Seychelles."
Or perhaps you're after Mauritius? —DO'Иeil 04:17, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
Well it could also be Réunion, but all these islands are not between South Africa and Australia but further north between Mozambique and Australia. Don't forget about Madagascar which the population speaks French and a local Malagasy language--Jcw69 12:26, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

democritus the mathematician and any link to democracy.[edit]

Sir maam I would like to know if there is any link between democritus the ancient greek mathematician that had a delemma with the atomic structure of a cone shape because he could not percieve atomic bonding other than in parralel planes hence instead of being smooth the cone would be stepped.Further to this he also believed that there was a hiarchy and that everything had its place and that there is no God. Hence you can see the relevance of my question is democracy named after him.Because if it is it might explain the reference to the devils number and it being that of a man.Also the reference to wise men and numbers(mathamatics)in the bible.Hence democracy is in oposition to God,as was its namesake.

I doubt if democracy is named after him, more likely both his name and democracy share the same root word. As for his argument on the cylinder, he was right, it is rough at the atomic level, not smooth. Of course, the surfaces of all shapes are relatively rough at the atomic level. StuRat 21:26, 8 October 2005 (UTC)
Democracy stems from the greek words δημος (demos), meaning The people, and κρατειν (kratein), meaning to rule. I.e. it means "The rule of the people". Also, I would personally like to say that I believe that democracy is very much formed in the same spirit as christianity. Democracy preaches that all men and women everywhere are equals, none should have more power than anyone else. This is certainly in the spirit of Christ, no? gkhan 00:07, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
In relation to this, I believe the -crit- part of the name is from the Greek word κριτης (krites) meaning judge. Thus Democritus is "judge of the people". [[Sam Korn]] 14:21, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
That's quite a strange logical path you're winding. You go from "Democritus had a mathematical question which made him think there was no God" (I have no idea if this is true or not), to "If democracy is named after him, then democracy must be in opposition to God". I'm not sure I follow you on that one. --Fastfission 14:51, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
There's no etymological connection, but historically Democritus and the Atomists were just about the only ancient Greek philosophical school to embrace democracy, a system of government strongly opposed by Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.--Pharos 06:07, 18 October 2005 (UTC)

Regarding the last battle scene from the movie Cleopatra[edit]

I have two questions which I would appreciate guidance to other sources of information and/or a/some webpage(s) in Wikipedia on the following: (1) Is the Roman general(?) "Ruffio" as called by Marc Antony (played by the late Richard Burton) a true figure in Ancient Roman history or a fictional character in the movie? If "Ruffio" was a real figure in history can you give more information on his life and military history/science especially in relation to the battle described below in (2)? (2) Was the battle between Octavion's and Agrippa's 20 legions (as described in the movie) versus Antony's and Ruffio's 2 legions true [I surmise it took place near what is now Alexandria, Egypt] (in which Antony's and Ruffio's 2 legions desert them and in fact Ruffio is assasinated as depicted in the movie and no actual blood was shed (except Ruffio's)?) If this highly dramtic battle (in the movie) is historically true...can you give the name of this battle, when it occurred, and the military history/science of it (especially how soldiers from both sides were deployed before the fighting began). Thank you very much. Sincerely, a fan of chess and the film "Cleopatra" starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton.

The article on the battle of Actium doesn't answer all your questions, but may be of use to you. --Gareth Hughes 03:05, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
Our Cleopatra article says the characters name was Rufio played by Martin Landau. According to Cleopatra: Ruling in the Shadow of Rome by Julian Morgan, Julius Caesar left an ex-slave by that name in charge of the legions in Egypt. A character by that name appeared in Caesar and Cleopatra by George Bernard Shaw. 09:29, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

That was me. Capitalistroadster 09:43, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

Most of what we know about Octavian's final defeat of Mark Antony comes from the biography of the latter in Plutarch's Parallel Lives (which may not be entirely reliable). See [41] for the Loeb translation. Note that Rufio does not appear in the ancient accounts, so perhaps his role was invented later (I note that he appears in George Bernard Shaw's 1901 play Caesar and Cleopatra; perhaps Shaw had noted the remark in Suetonius that Julius Caesar had given the command of his legions in Alexandria to the son of his freedman Rufinus). Gdr 16:34, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

Federalism vs Anti-Federalism[edit]

I am trying to study on my US History and not being quite up to date on this/ I am 48 years old trying to go to school I have a couple of questions.

1. Is a Federalists the same as or close to a Republican?

2. If your not a Federalist are you a Democrat?

Please if anyone can help me with this and explain it in simple terms then please let me know.

Childofyah 03:08, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

No to both questions. While US politics has consistently split into two opposing parties (sometimes with a significant third party, as well), the issue over which the split occurs has changed over time. The original split was over whether we should have a strong central government and weak states or strong states and a weak central government. The strong central government side eventually won, then the issue moved on to pro- or anti-slavery. After the anti-slavery side won, the split became primarily economic, with Democrats on the side of the poor and Republicans on the side of the rich. A new dynamic seems to be emerging in recent years, with Republicans being on the side of a religious society and Democrats favoring secular values. It's too soon to tell if this is a permanent shift or just a temporary trend, however. StuRat 03:45, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
Democrats on the side of the poor and Republicans on the side of the rich -- Careful! It would be more correct to say that the Dems are/were in favor of higher taxes and more social programs, whereas the Republicans are/were more for tax cutbacks and reduction of social programs -- though it hasn't been quite that simple, either. And the goals of political parties have fluctuated wildly over time, so just as you can't say Anti-Federalists == Democrats, you can't say Democrats ca 1870 == Democrats now; Dems today tend to be in favor of affirmative action programs that give benefits to minorities, yet during most of the civil rights struggle of the last two centuries, they were on the side of white hegemony.
So I guess the simplest terms I could use would be this: If you try to collaborate the political parties of today with the political parties of yesterday, you'll drive yourself bonkers. Garrett Albright 08:24, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
I stand by my statement that Democrats have been primarily on the side of the poor and Republicans on the side of the rich, at least since FDR took office. Using your example, higher taxes supported by Democrats disproportionately affect the wealthy, even if there is a future flat rate tax, and even more so under the current progressive rate. Social programs disproportionately help the poor, at least that is their goal. There are some thoughts that many social programs may actually harm people, in the long run, by encouraging dependency, but that certainly was not the intent of those programs. Republican initiatives, like reducing business and environmental regulation, also disproportionately help business owners, who tend to be wealthier than the average American. StuRat 16:27, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
I like to think of it that Democrats are more like social democrats (prefer some kind of welfare state) while neocons are free markeeters. __earth 05:52, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
Or, stated from the opposite POV, Democrats prefer a social safety net while Republicans believe in economic "survival of the fittest", which they take to mean themselves, the rich. StuRat 14:42, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Ah, but that's assuming the simplistic fallacy that all Republicans are rich, which is just as clearly incorrect as saying all Democrats are poor. Garrett Albright 17:08, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Our United States Federalist Party explains the history of the Federalists who were led by John Adams and Alexander Hamilton. They were opposed by the Democratic-Republican Party (United States) led by Thomas Jefferson who were called the Republicans but who who were not modern-day Republicans. Indeed, they evolved into the modern day Democratic Party (United States) at the time of Andrew Jackson. The Republican Party (United States) evolved from the United States Whig Party and their first President was Abraham Lincoln. The above articles contain more information. Capitalistroadster 09:54, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

Law Codification[edit]

I would like to bring to your attention that under the section of Napoleonic Codes you have an error. Before this codification, another successful codificatoin was made in Malta under the Knights of St. John. The man who was responsible for this codification was later on also in charge of codifying the Napoleonic Code. If you would like any further information please contact me on <removed e-mail>

  • We would be interested in finding out more. It may well have potential for an article or articles. Capitalistroadster 10:16, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

New Zealand legal[edit]

Can you provide information on the penalties for shop lifting, including diversion for a first time offender without previous convictions of any sort? -- Miriam

  • If you are in New Zealand, it would be better to contact your local Community Law Office, or Citizens Advice Bureau. [42] and [43] --inksT 22:00, 9 October 2005 (UTC)


when nelson was born

Do you mean Horatio Nelson, British Admiral from Battle of Trafalgar? Nelson Mandela, South African Politician? Nelson Muntz, Simpsons Character (!)? There is a more complete list of Nelsons at Nelson. smurrayinchester(User), (Talk) 13:29, 9 October 2005 (UTC)


Explain why wood in egypt was so expensive. and tell me were you got the info from so send the link.

This link will tell you how much forest and woodland there is in Egypt. You should then be able to work out the rest of your homework question by yourself. Shantavira 18:25, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

Middle Ages[edit]

What were the natural resources of Europe during the Middle Ages?


Please do your own homework questions. Although, there was a lot of wood. smurrayinchester(User), (Talk) 20:22, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

Can't you be locked up for suggesting "a lot of wood" to a schoolgirl? Majts 23:56, 9 October 2005 (UTC)
No, but you can for making jokes like that. DJ Clayworth 18:55, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

I Imagine the same as they have now only more. Their was also many wild animals such as bears and Wolfs.

The Jewish Tabernacle[edit]

I am doing a special school project on making the Jewish tabernacle. I've looked everywhere on the internet and I'm still confused on the outer design on the tabernacle. It's supposed to be a cheribum (a winged angel) but I've got 2 different pictures with 2 different design neither in the deisgn of a cheribum or anything near it. Would you pleas help me by supplying an accurate design because I don't want to get a bad grade because of a pattern error... The Student

Is that the same as the Temple of David ? StuRat 01:57, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

Are you constructing it according to the instructions in Exodus? No one knows what a cherubim looked like, so you can't flunk unless your teacher is certain he knows and made a big deal out of telling you exactly why he knows. Most modern depictions use a conventional 19th century angel images, a "guy in a robe with wings". Here are google image searches for tabernacle [[44] or cherubim [45]. alteripse 11:41, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

guys, you are confusing tabernacle (the tent) with the Ark of the Covenant (the box with cherubim). Also "Jewish Tabernacle" is a bit of an anachronism. It should more properly be called "Hebrew Tabernacle". 17:05, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

How so? I know the difference and assumed he was referring to the one with detailed specs from exodus, and wanted pictures of cherubim so he could put the ark in the tabernacle. alteripse 17:43, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

Vostok1 patch[edit]

I am wondering what the letters are on the side of the ball(space pod) in the patch. I believe it might be CCCp but am not sure. I need to know for a project I am doing. --sarah

Yep, you are correct, CCCP stands for Союз Советских Социалистических Республик which is USSR in Cyrillic Majts 23:23, 9 October 2005 (UTC)

HELP! I need some information on Upton Sinclair.....[edit]

Hi! I need to find out what Upton Sinclair's height and weight were when he died. Do you happen to know where I can find this info??? I have searched and searched for this and cannot find it. If you find it, can you email me at [e-mail removed]??? Thanks!!!

numismatist, what does it mean?[edit]

Someone who studies and/or collects (for other than value as money) coins and currency. See Numismatics.

Automatic ?drawing?[edit]

Can someone give me the name of the museum or a link to it's website in which I can find the Czechoslovakian, or Czech artwork of a cult from the mid to late 20th century where they used a trance like state to draw creatures from other worlds? phew. I know the cult was from Czechoslovakia and they denounced alcohol, tobacco, drugs, and even sex. If anyone could shine any light on this it would be great!! - Joe

Concentration Camp No. 333 in Poland[edit]

My father was in subject concentration camp in 1943-44 as an Italian Army officer. In reading his memoirs I find that it was near a town called Beniaminswo or Beniaminsovo or Beniaminowo. His writing is very small and difficult to make out. I am trying to locate that concentration camp geographically by locating the town it was near. If anyone who knows Poland well can shed some light on this, I would appreciate it. george68.220.84.89 01:27, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Here is a map showing where Beniaminow is. Stalag 333 was located there. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 02:19, 10 October 2005 (UTC)
Note that you need to zoom in one step to see the name of the town. StuRat 02:30, 10 October 2005 (UTC)
Stalag 333 was originally in Ostrow-Komorowo, Poland from 03/1942 to 09/1943 and was then moved to Beniaminow, Poland until it's closure in 01/1944, according to this site:
StuRat 02:36, 10 October 2005 (UTC)
This site has an interesting document, it's a postcard from there, apparently just to notify the family that Danilo Pasotto was a Prisoner of War at that site: (index) (front) (back)
StuRat 02:49, 10 October 2005 (UTC)


You're welcome. However, you may very well find that the site is now a strip mall. Very few such sites have been preserved. StuRat 14:52, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

What is Hartz IV[edit]

Hartz IV. David Sneek 12:30, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

Social and Political Background[edit]

What does general socail and political back ground mean

What does general social and political Backgrounds.

Is this a homework question? If so, for what grade level or age group? AlMac|(talk) 20:53, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

Urban Anthropology[edit]


I am looking for information which will help me with an assignment i have to observe a community (Small for a short period of Time) i am looking for help to find good books and website any help apopreciated.

  • What level of schooling is this an assignment for? Most of the handbooks on anthropological methodology are for the graduate or postgraduate level and won't make any sense to people who aren't already well-read in the field. Unfortunately, I don't know of any good web resources offhand for this sort of thing at the level you are probably looking for it (sounds like a good candidate for a Wikibook, if someone wants to write one!). --Fastfission 03:21, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

what is the schuman declaration?[edit]

We have an article on the Schuman Declaration. Does that help? KeithD (talk) 16:44, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

Sailors and Explorers[edit]

Name some explorers of the 15th century?

We're not here to do your homework for you, but you could look at 15th century. Also, remember that the 15th century covers the years 1401-1500, so don't get confused and look at dates of 15xx.-gadfium 20:31, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

Henry the Navigator John and Sebastian Cabot. Vasco De Gamma

North Korean motto[edit]

In the North Korea article, it used to say that the motto is "One is sure to win if one believes in and depends upon the people (translation)." I removed it because I couldn't find the original version, nor verify it. Even the editors in the Korean Wikipedia couldn't find the source nor the original. Can anyone verify this? Thanks. -- WB 17:37, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

For what it's worth, that sounds somewhat like someone trying to summarise the concept of juche, which I suspect is where it came from. Shimgray | talk | 23:09, 10 October 2005 (UTC)


what year did the turkish invade algeria ? :)

,:| ? The Ottoman Empire gained control over Maghreb under Suleiman the Magnificent. --Diderot 20:00, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

I myself am not sure but History of Ottoman Algeria might help. __earth 14:31, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Lunar Months in the Celtic Calender[edit]

In the Celtic lunar calendar each lunar month corresponds to a letter, which in turn corresponds to a tree. How do these designations correspond, (roughly), to our own twelve month year?

Check Celtic calendar. There are a couple of good external links that may help you. ≈ jossi fresco ≈ 19:56, 10 October 2005 (UTC)


From Dec. 24 Birch
22 Jan - Rowan
19 Feb - Ash
19 Mar - Alder
16 Apr - Willow
14 May - Hawthorn
11 Jun - Oak
9 Jul - Holly
6 Aug - Hazel
3 Sep - Vine
1 Oct - Ivy
29 Oct - Reed
26 Nov - Elder

Can an Arab be a Jew or a Jew be an Arab?[edit]

The articles on Arab and Jew explain some of the different definitions. These different definitions mean that no clear and definite answer can be given to the question. However, of particular note are the Mizrahi and Sephardi who are Arabic-speaking Jews. KeithD (talk) 20:50, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

(written before edit conflict) One can be of Arab descent and be a follower of Judaism, sure. I guess if your father is of Arab descent and your mother is Jewish, you'd be an Arabic Jew. You can also be a Jew for Jesus. Or a Arabic Christian. The thing is, Judaism is a religion and the Jews are an ethnic group, whereas Arabs are an ethnic group, but not a religion. Does that make sense? Brian Schlosser42 20:54, 10 October 2005 (UTC)
Both Arabs & Jews (ethnically) are semitic peoples too (semitic race, don't know the right terinology). AllanHainey 07:04, 11 October 2005 (UTC)
It depends very much by what meaning is intended by the words "Arab" and "Jew". Broad social categories of this type entail non-trivial ambiguities, which are to some extent covered in Wikipedia articles. "Arab", taken as a question of national citizenship in a formally or informally Arab state, means that just as there are French Jews and American Jews, there can also be Arab Jews. Although the number of people this defintion can cover has been fairly small since the expulsions and immigrations following 1948, it is non-zero.
"Arab" seen as an ethnicity is more difficult. "French" and "American" are not viewed as ethnic labels by all of the people they apply to, so some Jews and non-Jews do not view being a French Jew as implying being ethnically French, while the notion of anyone being ethnically American is fairly strongly discouraged in modern America. Opinions vary, both among Jews and non-Jews, about the applicability of various ethnic labels to Jews. However, language preference is often used as a surrogate for ethnic identity among Arabs. By this criterion, many Jews would qualify as Arabs, since there is a large Arabic-speaking Jewish population, But it is probable that few Arabic-speaking Jews would choose to identify themselves in this manner, and no doubt many Arabs would reject such an identification as well in the current political climate.
Judaism seen as a religious quality, however, poses an entirely different set of boundary issues. Yes, people who identify themselves as ethically, linguistically or nationally as Arab can convert to Judaism. I do not know how many such people exist but I presume the number to be larger than zero. Also, given the current political conditions, I do not know if such people would identify themselves as Arabs, or if they would prefer to see the adoption of Judaism as a larger change of identity. I expect different people see things in different ways.
Ultimately, I suspect that not too many people would identify themselves as "Arab Jews" and that current conditions would discourage most of those to whom one or more of the above definitions might apply from doing so. But, it is not logically incoherent under any of the usual definitions of "Arab" or "Jew" to be an "Arab Jew". However, it is highly ambiguous in isolation exactly what such an identity might entail. --Diderot 08:04, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Massachusetts Bay Colony[edit]

A bay can be the colour of a horse, a herb, a gulf of water, a region of Somalia or a high official of the Egyptian 19th Dynasty. A colony might mean the settling of new land, but often requires the forceable removable of that land's previous inhabitants (if you do not believe in aliens, try space colonization). Otherwise, lots of animals, insects and assorted organisms live in colonies. Colony also happens to be a cracking good album of Swedish melodic death metal. As for masachusits, I've never heard of it. It may be that I'm spelling it wrongly, but it sounds like an Indian name, perhaps introduced into the English language during the Raj. Enjoy! --Gareth Hughes 23:19, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

the grachus reforms[edit]

what were the grachus reforms of rome?-- 22:42, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

See Tiberius Gracchus, and note that there are two c's in the name. --Gareth Hughes 22:57, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

friends of the mansion[edit]

What are the steps in the Unites States Election process?[edit]

What are the steps in the Unites States Election Process?

The steps are outlined in the articles on U.S. presidential election ad midterm elections. --Gareth Hughes 23:26, 10 October 2005 (UTC)
Then you can hop from them to Elections in the United States. --Gareth Hughes 23:29, 10 October 2005 (UTC)

William Penn and treaties with Indians[edit]

I am looking for the text of any treaty with the Indians written by William Penn. Is there the exact wording somewhere? It is said Penn's treaties were the only ones never broken with Native Americans (in his lifetime. Thanks!

Ark of the Covenant[edit]

Earthquake of 1822 in Chile[edit]

Was there really a gigantic earthquake in Chile, as the 1822 article says? I searched the web, but couldn't find it, apart from copies of that same article and some typos. Common Man 03:38, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

  • This article claims [47]:

"As communication between various parts of the world became more common, earthquake observations from throughout the world could be combined. Following an earthquake in Chile in 1822, the author Maria Graham reported systematic changes in the elevation of the Chilean coastline. Observations of coastline changes were confirmed following the 1835 Chilean earthquake by Robert FitzRoy, captain of the H.M.S. Beagle, while Charles Darwin was onshore examining the geology of the Andes." Capitalistroadster 03:59, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Thank you! Maybe that should be in its own article? Now I The area of 100000 square miles of new land added seems very big, though - I wouldn't feel comfortable putting that in an article without a proper source. Common Man 04:19, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

It would certainly be worthwhile having an article. Although I am not an expert on geology, 100,000 square miles in new land seems a bit excessive to me. Capitalistroadster 05:11, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

  • This source states "on November 19, 1822, a three-minute major earthquake and the resulting three consecutive 12-foot tsunamis devastated the port of Valparaiso's main buildings, destroying most of the churches and seven hundred homes." I agree that the 100000 sq miles claim is more than dubious. That's a third of the land area of Chile and that sort of land movement would have surely caused a Megatsunami Majts 05:19, 11 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Thanks - I deleted that claim, referring to this discussion. Common Man 05:49, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Tips on drawing familiar human faces[edit]

What sort of tips you guys would give me to draw a human face in a way it resembles a familiar one? What are the major features people usually notice? I've seen people draw a few lines and ta-dah, it's a caricature of you or someone you know. I studied tons of these but couldn't find what sort of aspects they capture. I could think of shape of head, position of eyes, nose and lips, but it's hardly been useful for me.

Anyone experienced in drawing human faces could give me a few hints? I'm sick of sucking at drawing faces and practicing is not really the problem. I just came to that moment I realized I need some formal knowledge on the subject to go to the next level. I looked up for face drawing tutorials but they're too... Well, not specific on this subject, so not very helpful. :/ ☢ Kieff | Talk 05:06, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

As you've already identified, proportion and placement of the facial features is very important in creating a recognisable specific face. There are lots of little cues we use to identify faces, but these are among the most important. If you are new to drawing faces, I would strongly recommend you to use guidelines if you aren't already. All too often new artists think that using guidelines to draw is somehow cheating, or something that 'real artists' don't do. In truth, they're vital for establishing positioning and proportion of features. Any basic drawing tutorial should be able to tell you how to set out guidelines for head and face construction.
Also, on a practical level of finding out where you're going wrong, here's a few ideas:
Get a photograph of your subject, and without studying the photograph, draw their face. Once you're done, compare your drawing to the photograph and try and identify point-by-point where they differ - have you drawn the head too round? the lips too small? etc.
Try tracing over a photograph of your subject loosely to get an idea of shape and proportion for the features. Trace some other subjects too and examine how they differ from each other - what makes each one recognisably unique?
Also learning to draw facial expressions will help in identifying the difference ways in which the same face can vary in appearance.
Caricature exaggerates the defining features of a person, so it can be a very good way to learn to pick out such features.
Most of all though, practice. You'll get there in the end. And don't worry about those 'masterpiece in one stroke' artists - they had to start at the start too. :) Noodhoog 15:00, 11 October 2005 (UTC)
I'm no artist, but I think it's important to distinguish doing a realistic picture of a person's face and doing a caricature. A caricature is not realistic; it exaggerates to provide a direct linkage to recogition. So, you need to be very sure you know which you are aiming for. Now, while they are different, I think it would be possibly instructive to try and do both, maybe side by side for the same original. As you do it, I think you would learn something in each process that teaches you more about the opposite process. If you are struggling to do semi-realistic caricature, maybe it's worth trying to do really wild ones to work on invididual traits. Hope this helps. Notinasnaid 19:10, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

what is a bothey[edit]

A misspelling of bothy. KeithD (talk) 10:01, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Why were Nazis a 'socialist workers party'?[edit]

I know the National Socialists were rabidly anti-marxist, anti-communist, anti-bosheiveik, etc. Additionally, I know they were against class warfare and instead all about uniting all classes behind nationalism. So, without getting into the minefield of whether 'nazism' is a type of 'socialism'-- assuming for the moment that it is not, can someone answer this: Why did the Nazi party, which was so anti-marxism, choose a name which, to the modern ear at least, sounds so marxist/communist/socialist? In the name "National Socialist German Workers Party", sure National and German make perfect sense, but where did Socialist Workers come from? To use an analogy, it's almost as if the Ku Klux Klan were to spontaneously name themselves the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Is this confusion merely a product of 'mistranslation' from german to english or from 1920s to 2005? Would a 1920s german citizen, upon hearing the name NSDAP for the very first time, assume it was a marxist party, only later finding out otherwise? Or did words like Socialist and Worker only later become synonmous with marxism. Alternatively, if the party name was indeed confusing to germans, why did the nazis choose such a name for their party? Alecmconroy 11:00, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

The articles on National Socialist German Workers Party and Austrian National Socialism explain the origins of the name and the parties. This paragraph from the article on Nazism probably sums it up best of all:
"It is important to note that the Nazi Party's conception of international economics was very limited. As the National Socialist in the name NSDAP suggests, the party's primary motivation was to incorporate previously international resources into the Reich by force, rather than by trade (compare to the international socialism as practiced by the Soviet Union and the COMECON trade organization). This made international economic theory a supporting factor in the political ideology rather than a core plank of the platform as it is in most modern political parties." KeithD (talk) 11:23, 11 October 2005 (UTC)
The Communist Manifesto discusses and dismisses various forms of socialism, not all of which are purely left-wing. In fact, the Nazi policy of a large, centralised government, and the emphasis on society (the state) above the individual was in many ways quite socialist. Also, remember that the Nazis were not primarily drawn from the traditional ruling class (which was perceived to have failed), and could have been seen as movement of and for the workers in the political atmosphere at the end of the First World War. --Gareth Hughes 12:12, 11 October 2005 (UTC)
Please do excuse me for not replying entirely on-topic, but you may be interested in controversial German historian Götz Aly's new theory: Hitler was perhaps, quite ironically, a socialist. Cf. [48] if you can handle French, or this review of the book &#151; titled Hitlers Volksstaat (Hitler's People's State) &#151; in which the theory is put forward. Grumpy Troll (talk) 15:22, 11 October 2005 (UTC).

All this is correct, but the short answer is that Hitler and his henchmen took over a weak party which if I remember correctly he had been sent to spy on for the Wiemar government.

I think you will find it was a rogue unit of the German Army (see Adolf_Hitler#Early_Nazi_Party) operating more or less independently of the Weimar Government (which was at that time the Weimar Coalition of Social Democrats, Liberals and Catholics) which Hitler was working for. The name was only changed to National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) after Hitler joined. When he joined it was the German Workers' Party (DAP) - so he didn't inherit the name, he was one of the people who changed it to NSDAP.
You might also consider the influence of Oswald Spengler on Nazism, particularly his 1920 book Preußentum und Sozialismus (Prussia and Socialism) which proposed a synthesis of nationalist and socialist ideas. The more 'socialist' of the leading early Nazis (e.g. Ernst Röhm) were largely disposed of in the Night of the Long Knives leaving Hitler able to cosy up to the military, industrialists and haute bourgeoisie. Valiantis 23:11, 11 October 2005 (UTC)


what is the difference between a job and work?-- 11:45, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Work can be defined as the integral of dot product of force times infinitesimal translation. However, in the context you intend, "I'm going to work" and "I'm going to my job" are interchangeable. Note that work can also be a verb; "I've got to work at my job" means much the same thing. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 13:13, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Also, a job generally implies that you are getting paid. Slaves definitely did work but few would agree that they had a "job" and very few people call Volunteer work or work done on their own home a "job". -Drdisque 14:58, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Health Care and Canada[edit]

I'm doing a paper on the canadian health care, privatization-Why or Why not. do you have any articles that would be helpful to understand the issue. I'm answering the question from the point, not to privatize, because of the social/economic ramifications that whould affed the low income canadians who would not be able to affort privite health care costs. thank you Annette [e-mail address removed]

You could start out at Health care in Canada and go from there... Dismas|(talk) 13:28, 11 October 2005 (UTC)
A comparison with Health care in the United States, which is privatized, might also be beneficial. StuRat 00:01, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
We also have Canadian and American health care systems compared. - SimonP 20:41, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

Presidents of The United States of America[edit]

To Whom It May Concern,

Firstly, let me congratulate you on this fantastic service. I only discovered it a couple of weeks ago, and already it is one of my favourite websites! A marvellous resource.

Secondly, my question: In your biography of George Walker Bush, unless I'm misreading it you say that he is the second son of a previous president to take office himself. If I am correct in this interpretation, can you tell me who were the first father and son double act?

Many thanks, keep up the good work.

John Adams and his son John Quincy Adams the second and sixth presidents. Brian Schlosser42 14:03, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Thank you, Brian!


looking for info on expansions of imperialistic expansion. During 1894-1910

Meiji Restoration? __earth 14:12, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

A survey of societies and cultures in Africa south of the sahara.[edit]

Africa claims to be the pace setter in development but it is still one of the most deprived continents.Discuss.

The top of this page says Do your own homework. Discuss. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 16:02, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

MLB Player Arrest s since 1990[edit]

Where can I find a list of all Major League Baseball players who have been arrested since 1990?

John Forbes Nash Jr.[edit]

I would like to know the actual residence place and actual age of the famous mathematician.

As the John Forbes Nash article says, he currently holds an appointment in mathematics at Princeton, and so he presumably either lives there or nearby. It also says he was born 13 June 1928. KeithD (talk) 16:32, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Looking for print from a public domain image in an article[edit]


I am looking for a high resolution file or print of the image found in this article:

Where can I find this?

Steve SRHookEm 18:26, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Actually, when I have asked him, I think he is looking at a different image. I still need help finding this. I tried to mail the Russian State Library (the source?) but the email came back as a bad address.SRHookEm

Spain´s position on drug trafficking[edit]

I would like to know more about drug problems in Spain and its political position on this issue. Thank you in advance

---Cornelia Habekost---

The CIA world factbook is always good for that sort of thing, as they take a perverse interest in illegal (to them) drugs.
The Spain page [49] says "key European gateway country and consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish entering the European market; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money laundering site for European earnings of Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations". Ojw 20:53, 11 October 2005 (UTC)
That doesn't, of course, mean that the Spanish government approves of any of those activities! -- Arwel 21:44, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

how did people think about religion in the 1850's[edit]

(Reply) Which people, where in the world? Notinasnaid 19:04, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

You may want to check Reformation though the period is about 400 years earlier. If this doesn't help, I'm sorry. Like Notinasnaid, needs more info. __earth 05:46, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

  • 1850 might be a bit late for the Reformation. As Notinasnaid noted, it would be useful to specify which people you are referring to. Capitalistroadster 05:55, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

why lady of justice is a female[edit]

The personification of justice comes from the figure of the Roman goddess Justitia, who, in turn, derives some qualities from her Greek counterpart, Themis. The modern personification is often depicted blindfolded, to suggest that she is impartial (she sees no favouritism), and usually carries a balance in her hand. --Gareth Hughes 19:36, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

how where romans entertained?[edit]

Do you mean how were Romans entertained? By going to the movies of course : see Ben Hur and Gladiator. Also see the article on Roman_eating_and_drinking Majts 19:39, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

  • Also, Culture of Ancient Rome will keep you busy. However, today, Romans tend to go to a football match, watch television and eat well. --Gareth Hughes 19:43, 11 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I hear orgies were pretty entertaining. Caligula was a particular indulger. --Ballchef 05:58, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
  • And a recent edition of QI revealed that there's no evidence that they watched Christians being fed to lions, which has rather put the dampeners on my campaign to revive the practice. --bodnotbod 03:45, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
What do you have against lions? User:Zoe|(talk) 02:27, 19 October 2005 (UTC)


Why did the romans build hadrians wall ?

Read Hadrian's Wall. However, the wall wasn't built, as is popularly thought, to keep the Picts out, but to control trade and traffic throughout the region either side of the wall. --Gareth Hughes 19:39, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

User:AlMac asks about Supreme Court of the United States[edit]

I became curious what is different about the Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court (who is now John Roberts) vs. the eight Associate Justices.

I assume if they have any internal disputes, the Chief Justice is the chief arbiter. A lot of what I am finding, seems to me to be no big deal, such as

  • The Chief Justice is paid a little more and has some extra administrative duties.
  • Each Justice has one vote, but the Chief Justice assigns who gets to write up the results of each vote, when the Chief is in the majority.
  • quote: Each Justice on the Supreme Court is assigned to at least one of the United States' thirteen judicial circuits. The Chief Justice is usually allotted to the District of Columbia Circuit, the Federal Circuit and the Fourth Circuit; each Associate Justice is allotted to one or two judicial circuits. unquote.
  • Serves as the head of several government institutions, both judicial and like the Smithsonian Institution.
  • Often administers oath of office for the inauguration of the President, although this can be done by other people.
  • When the justices are in conference, and someone knocks on the door, the most junior Associate Judge must answer it.

while some other stuff is extremely important, in my opinion

Do I have a good picture of the differences, and what is special about the Chief Justice? Some of the articles on this seem to be a bit of a stub. AlMac|(talk) 21:34, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

He's Chief Justice of the United States, not Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Is there anything left out of that article? - Nunh-huh 22:21, 11 October 2005 (UTC)

Just a note--the power of assigning who writes what opinion is not a minor thing. For example, the Chief Justice might intentionally vote on the side he disagrees with, and then assign himself the opinion, so as to avoid a more sweeping precedent. Meelar (talk) 19:49, 15 October 2005 (UTC)
The Chief Justice isn't the "arbiter" in any meaningful sense. It's basically one Justice, one vote. If there's a vacancy on the Court or a Justice recuses himself for some reason, so that only eight Justices participate in the decision, then a 4-4 tie results in the affirmance of the decision appealed from, so the Chief can't even break ties. Add to the list of minor perks: At one point (probably still true but I'm not sure), when the Justices first conference a case, the Chief Justice speaks first, thus having the best opportunity to frame the discussion. Also, as Meelar stated, the Chief Justice doesn't automatically write the opinion when s/he's in the majority, but assigns the writing of it. A major limit on the importance of this power is that any Justice can write a concurring opinion, and can decline to join in the "official" opinion written by the Chief Justice's assignee. JamesMLane 07:10, 22 October 2005 (UTC)


I would like to ask you about the tipical dress in Ireland--~~

I hear in Ireland they like to go round naked on frosty winter mornings... Seriously, modern Irish people dress pretty much like other people living in developed countries; any differences are likely to be relatively subtle. --Robert Merkel 00:59, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
They are more likely to wear raincoats than, say, Nevada. DJ Clayworth 18:42, 12 October 2005 (UTC)


What is a block chord--Helen harty 02:11, 12 October 2005 (UTC)Helen harty


Hey there, I'm doing a report for my sister. What are the critisms and weaknesses of marxism and functionalism?

Interesting form of home schooling? Well, as it says at the top of the page, we don't do peoples homework for them. But you might want to start your research at Marxism and Functionalism. Dismas|(talk) 04:21, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
It says "Do your own homework". Nothing about doing someone elses...--Commander Keane 14:44, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Who is Esamun[edit]

Someone please help, I have been searching for days. I have an Art History assignment due, and one of the questions is: How is Esamun associated with art history, history or archeology. I can't find anything on this guy. Could someone please help me. Who is he, or where do I find information on him. Thank You

I suspect you have the name wrong. Have you actually seen Esamun in print from your teacher? alteripse 05:10, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

This bibliography from the Griffith Institute mentions an Esamun, "Prophet of Montu lord of Thebes, Member of the phyle of the temple of Re-Harakhti"—does that seem right? Has your course covered Egyptian art at all? —Charles P. (Mirv) 05:17, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
or Schliemann, Heinrich? - Nunh-huh 05:27, 12 October 2005 (UTC) (from the Department of Loose Associations Department).

Pronunciation of Monet's famous French village[edit]

Have searched dictionaries and been unable to find any indications of the pronunciation of the famous French village where Monet's home and gardens are located. Have heard mostly - Ghee'-ver-nee" - but - Ghi-vair"-nee - seems a likely possibility, as pronunciation for Giverny. What say you? 05:23, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Try zhee-vair-nee, where "zh" is the sound of the "s" in "pleasure". It's a good approximation of the French pronunciation. --Diderot 06:30, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
Do note however, that in the French language, the letter r is pronounced &#151; how could one put it? &#151; more gutturally than in English, so to say (much like in Spanish). (Should you understand IPA, I am sure someone knowledgeable in the subject, such as Angr, will be able to formally indicate how it is pronounced.) Grumpy Troll (talk) 10:42, 12 October 2005 (UTC).
I've just added the IPA pronunciation to the Giverny article. I hope the Parisian r is acceptable. --Gareth Hughes 10:48, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
It is if you're Parisian. My dialect is a bit more uvular and trilled - more guttural than the Parisian velar "r". Orrr you coeude prrronounce eet lahke an ol' prêtre frrrome Gaspé... Wikipedia should probably endeavor to show IPA for the more standard dialects where feasible, but the question "How do I pronounce this weird foreign word?" usually implies "How do I pronounce it when I don't know that language and don't want to sound like some hick idiot?" --Diderot 11:51, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Pronunciation advice appreciated, including preferred dialectical "r's." But the syllabic emphases have been neglected: where are these?

French doesn't have any strong syllabic stress. There are phrasal stress patterns that span more than one word and are determined by syntax, but compared to languages with strict phonological stress, French sounds almost monotone. My dialect - Standard Canadian - is especially monotone even for French. This is one of the reasons why francophones may, even after speaking English for years, have a strong accent that makes them hard to understand, while Germans and Russians who have strong accents and very poor English skills may be easier to follow: those languages use stress much the way English does, while English stress is as unnatural to francophones as phonological tone contours in Chinese are to English speakers.
You can, however, replicate the effect of the French stress pattern by placing the accent on the last syllable. This is not exactly the correct rule in French, but it is a highly unnatural place to put the stress in English - emphasizing that you know it's a foreign word - and it sounds kinda like the most common French stress pattern. You can do this for most French loanwords. --Diderot 08:32, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

Much obliged for your expertise, Diderot..Thanks.

american citizenship quiz[edit]

1.What ist the title of the person who is 3rd in line in the succession of the presidents?

2.Who was the only president never elected to the position?

How many terms can a Senator serve?

How long is a Senator's term?

(1) Our Order of succession article states that the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is third in line.

(2) Gerald Ford.

(3) Our United States Senate article states that Senators can serve until they resign, die or are defeated in while running reelection. Some Senators such as Strom Thurmond have served for a very long time.

(4) Six years.

Capitalistroadster 06:06, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Well, if this is going to be about citizenship quizzes, here's a few questions I think ought to be answerable from Wikipedia, but I don't think they can be:
  1. The United States is currently in a State of Emergency declared by the President, and has been continuously for over 50 years. What executive findings are the source of currently active states of emergency, and which piece of legislation authorises the President to issue those findings? (I only know the answer to the second half of the question.)
  2. Native Americans were not automatically considered citizens of the United States until the 1920s, and were previously barred from becoming naturalised Americans through ordinary immigration processes. Was this extension of citizenship the result of a specific act of Congress or an application of the 14th amendment? Does this decision empower the US government to unilaterally reevaluate treaties made with aboriginal nations?
  3. The children of US citizens born abroad are usually considered Americans by birth and do not need to be naturalised in order to enjoy a right of abode on US territory. There is one broad class of exception. Under what conditions must the naturally born children of US citizens be naturalised in order to become US citizens?
  4. Do the state courts have the power to enforce and interpret international treaties signed by the federal government (which is alone empowered to negotiate with foreign powers)? Treaties which are ratified by the federal Congress have the status of US federal law and are binding on US states in as much as those treaties involve powers assigned to the federal government in the Constitution. However, there is a US state whose constitution and state supreme court have interpreted a particular international treaty as having stricter terms than the federal government's interpretation. Which state and treaty is it? (Hint: it has to do with official languages.)
After years of hearing Americans gripe about how few natural US citizens can pass the citizenship test, I thought I might come up with a few other questions touching on basic issues of authority and status under US law. This ought to be a mite more interesting. I should note for the record that I am not myself a US citizen, although I lived in the US for 17 years and am married to an American. --Diderot 07:46, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Government entities making donations?[edit]

The Town of Velma is a government entity, therefore they cannot donate property and must sell to the highest bidder

The above is the answer to a question asked the Town of Velma. I assume it is in Oklahoma since that is what the Ebay description. I don't believe it cannot donate property to a individual or organization since they the ability to recieve property as a donnation?

I don't mind the word no but being mislead or lied to as being law is grounds for a suit or call to the ACLU? Or?

It would not be surprising for a government to work under a policy, or law, requiring them to follow strict procedures when procuring or disposing of property, such as an open and competitive bidding process and the need to deal with the lowest-bidding vendor and highest-bidding buyer. Such laws are usually put into place to prevent cronyism, guard against corruption and generally safeguard the use of taxpayer money. In fact, such laws may be the result of lawsuits or complaints, so I doubt you'll have much success in suing them, but of course only a lawyer could tell you for sure. I'm guessing that perhaps you are representing a charitable organization that feels it would be a worthy recipient of this ambulance as a donation. If so, you might contact a local service organization to see if they would buy it and give it to you. Sharkford 18:29, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

how many muslims are there in the world[edit]

— Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs) 08:28, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Somewhere in the neighborhood of one billion (1,000,000,000). Estimates vary; see Demographics of Islam for the CIA's numbers and Islam#The demographics of Islam today for some others. —Charles P. (Mirv) 08:40, 12 October 2005 (UTC)


Is it all right to say that Indian exist as a nation only after British has created it? shuhui

British India started way back in the 18th century, courtesy of British East India Company __earth 13:03, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
India in its present form existed only from 1947 when Britain left & India, Pakistan & Bangladesh became countries in their own right. Before that there was the British Raj and before that the Mughal Empire were the political powers in the Indian sub-continent. AllanHainey 13:50, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
More correctly, of course, India and Pakistan became countries in their own right in 1947. Bangladesh only came into existence in December 1970 when it broke away from Pakistan. -- Arwel 22:05, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
Don't forget the Chola! So, really, it's hard to say when India started. I would say that modern India started with British India. Is that appropiate? __earth 09:31, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

Pom Pom sock[edit]

Two questions here really. First to make sure im talking about the right thing Pom Pom sock is a sock the has a little ball attached to the rear where it would meet your ankle. SO the first question is that what a pom pom sock is. and the second question is what is the little pom pom for?

Yes, and for decoration. — mendel 17:58, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
Decorative though it may be, it keeps the sock from falling into your shoe, which short socks are otherwise prone to do. Sharkford 18:11, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Earl Warren[edit]

I would like to know why Earl Warren was selected to become Chief Justice. What was his background? Who appointed him?

The article about him will answer your last two questions. As for why Eisenhower appointed him, this letter may shed some light. —Charles P. (Mirv) 12:00, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Warren was the Republican Gov of Cal and before that State AG. In both those posts he had a moderatly conservative record. Ike though that Warren would take his ideology to the bench.

Quakers and Japanese Internment[edit]

I would like to know what role Quakers played in the issue of Japanese Internment. How did they oppose this? What specific things did they do during this period to help the situation?

Ratification of the Bretton Woods Agreement Act[edit]

What is the date of the US Congress' ratification of the 1945 Bretton Woods Agreement Act ??? It may be 31 July 1945 (or is that the date it came into effect or are both dates the same?)

Location of Fort Balkley[edit]

Where was Fort Balkley built? Is it in American or Canadian territory? I can't find any references, and all the articles on Google are the same.

The article on Fort Balkley appears to be either a hoax or fiction without context, so it's no wonder you can't find any references. —Charles P. (Mirv) 13:09, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
There was a Fort Blakely outside of Mobile, Alabama during the U.S. Civil War. Rmhermen 17:23, 16 October 2005 (UTC)


what are two companies in an oligopolistic market?

Two sellers? A duopoly, I guess.
I think the poster wants two examples in a given market, but that fairly strongly resembles homework. However, it should be easy to find: Check oligopoly, identify an industry or market, and pick any two major companies. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 15:16, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Canonical "silent movie" music[edit]

I've been trying to find the names of two pieces of music which are associated in my mind with silent movies, and I can't think of any other context in which I've heard them. I'm starting to think that they aren't complete pieces, but rather musical phrases that the accompanist would pick out for a few bars at the appropriate moment. I think they are instantly recognisable if I can only describe them. I can't turn them into notes, but they are

1. Action/chase music. Five fast half beats, pause, repeat half beats, pause. Four full beats, down-up down-up(?). The same four beats, reversed(?).

2. Sinister music. Five slow beats, ascending except for the last; four faster beats descending.

Thanks in advance, Notinasnaid 14:10, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

I think I know the one you mean with #2, for which you'd typically picture someone creeping along on tiptoes . I was taught to play that as part of very basic piano lessons at school many years ago, and the teacher referred to it as "spooks". I've no idea if that's it's correct name, or who it's by though Noodhoog 14:38, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
  • I too can hear the second one in my mind, also used a lot in Warner Brothers cartoons if I recall correctly. I'm afraid I can't name it either. --bodnotbod 03:55, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
Did you try this: ? Common Man 09:28, 19 October 2005 (UTC)

19th century novels[edit]

Why do some 19th century novels disguise the name of a certain person or certain place by using only a partial discriptor and then using an underline to complete the name but in other instances use the full name or location. For instance, in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice the region where the militia are from is written as _____shire and Lord John____ is used. At other times the names of towns, areas and people are used in full. 15:53, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

It keeps the fiction generic. If an author writes Lincolnshire, someone can become overly obsessive and complain that it didn't really happen there. If an author writes Sherbetshire, that same reader can complain that it doesn't exist at all. It could also be, particularly in the case of names, that a satirical or political point is being made without being overt. The practice is also frequently found in science fiction; an author might describe the first manned Martian landing in 20__ with the story set five years later to prevent premature dating such as 2001: A Space Odyssey. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 16:54, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

It's also a rhetorical technique used to increase the impression of verisimilitude. Some forms of factual writing, for example memoirs or collections of letters, disguised the names of people and places in this way. So writers of fiction adopted the same techniques in order to make their fiction seem more real (after all, a fictional person would seem to need no disguising). Gdr 22:34, 16 October 2005 (UTC)

We answered this question a couple months ago. Don't know if it was the same user or not. PedanticallySpeaking 16:14, 18 October 2005 (UTC)

Proper Title for the Grandson of a King[edit]

King X has a son and three daughters. The second daughter is married to a soldier of the capital guard, but their son keeps the King's family name instead of his father's. Would the son of the daughter of the King be a Lord? What military responsibilities, etc. might he have? The eldest, the son of King X, married and had children when said son of daughter of King was in his late teenaged years. Any information you can give me for any Middle Ages/etc. European country would be helpful.

Things like this really aren't very prescriptive, and were less so still in the Middle Ages. People were frequently created Dukes, Barons, etc. at the whim of the monarch, and occasionally had their nobility removed (although this was commonly accompanied by the removal of their head too). Modern royal families have accumulated a big bag of titles which they distribute to their kids (sometimes there's a pattern to it, sometimes not). Descendants of women get a rougher deal in many monarchies: you'll note that Peter Mark Andrew Phillips, the son of the daughter of a monarch, isn't in the royal family and has no title, as he's a female line descendent (but the Queen could, if she wanted make him the Duke of Drumchapel or something if she wanted, just as she could make any other British person). The only limit on the monarch's power to do stuff like this is the same as the limits on any non-totalitarian monarch - in particular, the monarch often has to keep powerful peers on side (and they might get a bit narked if the King elevates some yokel into being a Duke and puts him in charge of the army). Duke of York is one title that keeps getting pulled out of the British royals' big bag'o'titles. It's all politics, really. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 17:34, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
The title of Duke of York is generally reserved for the second son of the monarch. It's interesting how the title keeps coming back into the monarchy, though, isn't it? It will come back again once Andrew dies, unless he spawns a son somewhere down the line. User:Zoe|(talk) 04:26, 16 October 2005 (UTC)
And I strongly suspect the practices would vary from country to country. You would need to check out each individual country that is a monarchy to get the full answer. JackofOz 02:22, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

Slavery in the US[edit]

How could a black slave become a free man and how could he be recognized as such?

Many ways. Here are a few:
  • They could buy their freedom. This, of course, assumes that their owners allowed them to earn and keep money. Many did so, either out of sympahy or because they reasoned they would get more work out of a slave working diligently to earn their freedom than one with no hope for the future. Papers would be given to them listing them as free.
  • Their owners could set them free to reward them for "years of loyal service". This was frequently done after the death of the owner, and was a term in their wills. Papers would be given to them in this case, too.
  • Some slaves were given their freedom for a particular act, such as saving the life of the children of the owner. Papers would be given to them in this case, too.
  • They could escape to a place where slavery was illegal. The North did not allow slavery in its states, but did return runaway slaves under the Fugitive slave laws, so wasn't completely safe. Canada did not return runaway slaves, so was the destination of many.
  • Some slaves were promised their freedom for joining the Confederate Army.
  • During the Civil War, slaves in Confederate-held territories were technically freed as a result of the Emancipation Proclamation and actually freed once those areas were taken by the Union.

StuRat 17:46, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Bear in mind that as time went on (before the civil war, obviously), there were more and more restrictions on freeing slaves, as a result of fear of rebellions or other unrest. By the late antebellum period in one colony (I believe South Carolina), freeing a slave required an act of the state legislature. Meelar (talk) 19:04, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

Fall of the Roman Empire and Christianity[edit]

Do you know how many Christians were left in Britain after the fall of the Roman Empire?

Some. Since we cannot clearly determine how many people lived in Britian and perhaps even what Britain means at that time, we have little way of knowing. But it is probably non-zero. Rmhermen 17:10, 16 October 2005 (UTC)

Burns, OR circa 1900[edit]

I'm currently writing a novel (historical fiction) and have not been able to find a physical description of Burns or Harney City (Oregon) around 1890 to 1900. Where can I find a good description of these historical towns?

Are these still present day towns of Oregon? If so, the town offices may have some historical photographs and such. If not the town's offices then the county offices may have some information and/or photographs. Dismas|(talk) 20:21, 12 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Burns, Oregon is located in Harney County, Oregon in the southeastern part of the state. We don't have an article on Harney City but this genealogy site should provide some assistance [50]. This article in the Oregon Blue Book should provide some assistance. [51]

The Harney County Clerk is located at:

Harney County Oregon Vital Records
Harney County Clerk
450 N Buena Vista Avenue
Burns, OR 97720
Phone: (541) 573-6641

Capitalistroadster 07:23, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

Cockles and mussels, alive alive o[edit]

In the 1970s I saw a made-for-TV (I think) movie in which the above line was featured in singsong. I have been able to determine that the line is from an old Irish folk song. I'd like to know what the title of the movie was. I vaguely remember a lighthouse (makes sense) and Robert Reed (of The Brady Bunch); I checked his filmography on, but found nothing definitive.

  • The song is called "Molly Malone": [52], which might help your search. Incidently, this is known as "Cockles and mussels, Hawaii Five-O" to every schoolkid who was forced to sing it. --Bob Mellish 21:38, 12 October 2005 (UTC)


How does the liberal constitional phase of 1789-1792 compare with the populist/radical phase of 1792-1794?

They both occurred in the 18th century. Please do your own homework. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 21:37, 12 October 2005 (UTC)

Civil list[edit]

I was looking at the civil list article, and was a bit confused. In 1800s Canada, did civil list refer to the "fund" appropriated to pay the salaries? Or was it just a "list" saying where the money went? Thanks. -- WB 00:57, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

My understanding is that the civil list was originally simply a list of those on the government payroll. Over time the definition broadened, and the civil list became a general term referring to the entire process of selection and payment of these individuals. - SimonP 20:27, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

US presidential felon[edit]

I was reading the article about Leonard Peltier and his run for the 2004 presidency. I know that such a thing would probably never happen, but, how would they go about installing someone who is incarcerated as president? Would he do the job from prison, or is he automatically pardoned?

Furthermore, why can someone who is in prison run for prez, but a prez who commits a crime must be impeached? (I mean a crime they were caught for, not all the crimes committed by past/present presidents that have gone unquestioned). --Ballchef 01:21, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
And one more Q: who are some other criminals that have run for prez (besides dubya) --Ballchef 01:53, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
Impeachment is the process by which a president (or judge) may (not "must") be removed from office. It's not a punishment for committing a crime. - Nunh-huh 04:16, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
When a person has not been convicted of any crime, then it is libel to call them a criminal.
However, in modern politics it is standard to call 100% politicians of political party, other than yours, to be criminals. AlMac|(talk) 19:09, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

If I recall correctly US Presidents are above the law; the only body they must be responsible to is the Congress. Once they return to being normal citizens, however, they are subject to regular laws. See articles on Andrew Johnson (aquitted) and Richard Nixon (pardoned). JK

  • Since Peltier's convictions were in Federal court, if he were elected president, he would presumably arrange for a judge to swear him in on inauguration day, then immediately pardon himself so he could leave prison and go to the White House. Mumia Abu-Jamal considered a presidential campaign on the Peace and Freedom Party ticket in 2004 as well (the party whose ticket Peltier ran on), but he was convicted in state court, not Federal court -- so if Abu-Jamal were elected president, he wouldn't be able to pardon himself. --Metropolitan90 21:51, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
    • But he could get the governor to pardon him right? --Ballchef 03:26, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Lyndon LaRouche ran for the Democratic nomination in 1992 while serving fifteen years in prison for mail fraud, conspiracy and tax code violations. He has now run eight times and if he runs again, he will tie the record of Harold Stassen. Capitalistroadster 06:05, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
  • Another figure to look at in this regards is Eugene V. Debs, who also ran for president while incarcerated in 1920. --Fastfission 19:00, 16 October 2005 (UTC)

Ohio Congressman James Traficant ran for Congress from his jail cell in 2002. James Michael Curley was elected Mayor of Boston from his cell. And political prisoner Matthew Lyon was re-elected to Congress from jail. The only requirements for federal office are those in the Constitution. Therefore, a felon might not be able to vote for himself or run for state office, but he can run for Congress or the Presidency, as Debs and LaRouche have done. PedanticallySpeaking 16:17, 18 October 2005 (UTC)

Uses God's divine name[edit]

Glen Milstead? - Nunh-huh 04:13, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
Perhaps you want the Tetragrammaton? — Lomn | Talk / RfC 12:43, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

World's largest lorry fleet[edit]

I would like to find out which company owns the world's largest lorry fleet.

If you check the Wikipedia reference desk archives, somebody has claimed it's Wal-Mart. --Robert Merkel 06:56, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
But I'd still put my money on the United Parcel Service. Garrett Albright 08:01, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

what animal did Vasco Da Gama study in Africa in 1497[edit]

That's a tough one. The Vasco Da Gama article doesn't specify, and a google search doesn't turn up much either. Perhaps you could look up books devoted to his voyage in a library, or any work written by Da Gama himself. --Ballchef 12:45, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

In 1497 Da Gama was sailing around the southern tip of Africa. So it could have been some sea creature found in the southern waters of africa (for example the Cape Fur Seal) or some land animal spotted on the shore.--Jcw69 17:01, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
Please see this previously answered question. Superm401 | Talk 19:08, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

Female guerilla fighters[edit]

I am working on a piece of creative writing which I hope eventually to turn into a novel. The main premise is that of a young woman who becomes involved with a group of guerilla potential revolutionaries. Obviously there's huge amounts of information on the topic of guerilla warfare, to help with the research this entails, but I'm now looking for something more specific about women involved in guerilla war, both past and present. My personal interest is leaning towards South and Central America, but any information would be useful.

Phoolan Devi was the name that sprung to mind immediately, although she wasn't South American. KeithD (talk) 12:56, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
There are a couple women associated with Fidel Castro and his Cuban revolution, Anita Marquez and a woman just known as Tania. There have been several movies about Castro, they may be the best source of info on the women. StuRat 22:19, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
The Tamil Tigers have a number of all-female units; there's some information about them (from a highly sympathetic perspective) here. They're active in Sri Lanka rather than South or Central America, but you may find them interesting nonetheless. —Charles P. (Mirv) 20:12, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

Where can I find the english Translation of Cyrus' Cylinder?[edit]

In October 539 BCE, the Persian king Cyrus took Babylon. In Babylon, he wrote the Cyrus' cylinder[53]. This historical artifact is considered by many to be the first charter of human rights and also the footwork of the UN charter of human rights. In 1971, the UN translated the whole cylinder from Old Persian to all of the languages of the UN. On the internet, I was unable to find the english translation of it. Many websites have only small parts of the English version, but I am looking for the full English translation. If anyone knows where I can find it, I would much appretiate it.

Here it is. David Sneek 16:40, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
Thanks for the link, but I wanted the official translation of by the UN, there are many websites with translations, but most of the are not completely correct.

--Aytakin 15:10, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

2000 Bush Campaign[edit]

Durring George W. Bush's First campaign for the presidency, he was asked by a reporter to names the heads of state of three(I think)countrys. I believe he did not attempt to answer the question but I am not sure. I would like to know the details of this incident. When exactly did this occur? Who was the reporter? What news organization did the reporter represent? What was Bush's response? Hope you can help.

Marshall Dawson

You can read the CNN article on this at [54]. Bush was asked to name the leaders of four countries: Chechnya, Taiwan, India and Pakistan. He got "Lee" for Taiwan but didn't name any of the others. - SimonP 20:20, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

Swansea City career of Frank Lampard[edit]

Hello! I wanted to know what tournaments Frank Lampard played in for Swansea City when he was at loan there in 1995-96. He played 9 matches in the Premier League for them, but he also played 2 other matches. What matches were these? Thanks a lot. --Aabha 19:58, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

those 9 games were not in the Premiership but in the Football League Second Division. Swansea haven't been in the top devision of English football since 1983. As for extra two games played by Lampard, I can't find any records but it could have been either the League Cup, FA Cup , Football League Trophy or Welsh Cup Majts 04:48, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

New Haven and Hartford Connecticut populations[edit]

Both New Haven and Hartford are both cited as Connecticut's second-largest city (behind Bridgeport). How could that be?

Since Wikipedia is edited en masse, errors like this can creep in. I would imagine, though, that the problem can be very quickly fixed by checking the populations listed for New Haven, Connecticut and Hartford, Connecticut. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 21:19, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
In this case, Hartford trailed New Haven by about 1,000 people at the 2000 census. However, Hartford's article now has a 2002 estimate (which New Haven's lacks) that places it at about 1,000 more. I would favor re-listing Hartford as third-largest unless evidence is shown to demonstrate that New Haven has an appreciably lower population growth. Any comment from other users? This venue seems more likely to get pageviews than the relevant talk pages. — Lomn | Talk / RfC 21:25, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
It might be worth checking with the Census Bureau, the relevant municipal authorities of both cities or the Connecticut state department to confirm those figures or even to get 2004 figures. According to this list for 2004 [55] Hartford had a population of 124,848, New Haven had 124,829 and Stamford had 120,886 so you might want to use this. Capitalistroadster 06:21, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

when does 1 note have two notes?[edit]

Musical terms - when 1 note has two notes? How does this happen? Thanks! -- 22:05, 13 October 2005 (UTC)

You'll need to be a little more descriptive about what you mean. Are you referring to two notes on a single stem? Is there anything like what you are talking about at musical notation? - Nunh-huh 22:20, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
You might be looking for enharmonic notes, like F-sharp and G-flat. Or maybe you mean multiphonics? Mindspillage (spill yours?) 22:44, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
You might mean a Chord (music)? A chord is several notes to be played at the same time, and they are written atop eachother and connected in notation. --W.marsh 23:39, 13 October 2005 (UTC)
Or do you mean an accidental? This is a note that lasts only a fraction of a second in introducing the main note which is usually a semitone higher or lower. It is written on the stave in miniature. However, this usage of the term accidental seems not to be covered in Wikipedia or Wiktionary, so I could be mistaken. Shantavira 08:32, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
See ornament; in particular the sections on the acciaccatura and appoggiatura. Warofdreams talk 10:09, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

The Crucifixion in Art[edit]

On a tour to Eastern Europe we noticed that in Crucifixion art the feet of Jesus sonetimes are depicted with one nail and sometimes with two nails. Our guide thought that the convention in Western Europe was two nails and in Eastern Europe one nail. Is this correct-and if so what is the history of the convention? Thank you in advance-- (e-mail removed)

There is a similar mistake that most depictions show nails through the hands of Jesus, while nails through the wrists were actually used for crucifixition. (If you feel that this comment diverges from the crux of the matter, feel free to cross it out.) StuRat 19:29, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

I'm sorry I'm interested in the artistic convention of how the crucifixion is shown on art and how the convention divergedin Eastern and Western Europe--thanks

I don't believe that there is any clear convention in Western art. A nuber of paintings show one nail; see the image in our crucifixion article or this Raffaello painting or this sclupture. Rmhermen 15:32, 16 October 2005 (UTC)


I have a school project on massachusetts. i checked google and wikipedia of course.. But there is no specific founder of the state.. so was it the pilgrims in general or is it possible to be more specific? And why was it founded? is that up to me to make up? they were just searching for land, right?? thanks

You might be interested in our articles on the Massachusetts Bay Company and the Plymouth Company. The idealistic part of your why might be found in City upon a Hill. I think you can get at the economic whys. — Laura Scudder | Talk 02:18, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
I suspect that the reasons were mainly religious see Pilgrims. Capitalistroadster 06:56, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

Machiavelli vs. Divine Right?[edit]

Gimme five differences.

Okay, fair enough.
  1. Machiavelli ends with a vowel, while Divine Right doesn't
  2. Machiavelli has an 'l'.
  3. Divine Right is two words.
  4. Machiavelli is a person.
  5. Machiavelli would support you having others do your homework, while no self-respecting divinity would.
Do your own homework. Superm401 | Talk 03:12, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Thats awesome. and so true. --Ballchef 03:28, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

how to get your girlfriend to act out her fantasy?[edit]

My girlfriend and I have been together for 12 years. I know her fantasy is to be with 2 guys or engage in group sex. I have told her I would be willing to do either, but I don't know how to get her to feel that it is acceptable to do. She is very beautiful and very very good in bed. I know she is totally into it because of how excited she gets when we talk about it or watch movies about it. I'm just not sure how to make it happen. Any advice would be much appreciated.

                       J Murphy 06:41, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

Is this a homework question? Majts 06:46, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
How do you know "she is totally into it because she gets excited" when you talk about it or watch movies about it? Why would you two be talking so frequently or watching movies about it to begin with? Perhaps you are pressuring her and it is just a latent fantasy of hers, or maybe you are making her fantasize.--16:38, 18 October 2005 (UTC)
Have you tried asking? That's always a good first step. Dysprosia 06:48, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Well done. You've taken the first, and most important step of all: asking complete strangers to help you with the most intimate details of your love life. In the days before the internet, people would have had to go to their local library and ask the librarian if they knew how to get their girlfriend to agree to group sex, which was good news for librarians, but bad news for those people who were trying to quietly read the latest John Grisham book before he finished writing the next one.
As I said, asking complete strangers is the most important step you can take. Under no circumstances discuss it with your girlfriend in an open and honest manner. When it's all over, you want her to feel guilty and uncomfortable about it, just in case the new people are superior lovers to you in either ability or size (or even both), so you have the upper hand. As it's her fantasy, the guilt and discomfort could be overcome in the future, but if you play your cards right, you can manipulate the guilt and discomfort so that everything's on your terms. She might even bake you a cake.
The practical advice would be to tell us complete strangers roughly where you live, so that you can have a couple of local Wikipedians (or a couple of Wikipedians willing to commute) come along and help out, whilst you go and visit your mother for the weekend. You'll want to say something like "I'm going to visit my mother this weekend, dear. By the way, I've got a couple of people coming to help out with your fantasy whilst I'm away. Enjoy. No matter what the Bible says, you remember that God ISN'T watching you at all times." (Whether you believe in God or not doesn't matter. It's a very simple piece of reverse psychology to sow the seeds of guilt). Let us know how you get on.
See also our article on Eppelein von Gailingen. KeithD (talk) 08:12, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Hmmm. This question, and the response (Which was probably a bit unnecessarily snarky - who hasn't wanted advice on how to deal with their romantic parter sometimes?), suggest to me yet another guideline to the top of the page: "The Reference desk is not an agony aunt." --Robert Merkel 08:34, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
If you've already said you'd be willing then the onus is pretty much on her, unless you fancy surprising her. If she's hesitant about actually taking the step of arranging something/approaching someone you might be best to either suggest that you'll sort it out (wouldn't be too hard to arange another guy if she's good looking, would be harder to arrrange another woman or a couple unless she's involved in picking them up too); or to make it clear that if she really wants to do this then you should both try to arrange something. The big step is finding someone else to join you, could get awkward if you try someone you already know otherwise you could both just try picking someone up in a bar. Alternatively you could try to engineer a situation where it is easier for her to say yes, eg invite an open minded friendly couple over(sound them out beforehand), suggest putting a porno film on, etc & let things develop. Though this might be a bit too over-eager & underhand (could be misinterpreted) - basically you're probably better off talking openly about it & finding out why she's reluctant. AllanHainey 09:13, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Get her drunk. Proto t c 09:41, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Sometimes a cigar fantasy is just a cigar fantasy.mendel 15:50, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
I note our article on group sex currently has only a painting and some crude outline drawings in terms of media. So, I dunno if you own or can borrow a Canon Powershot from anyone, maybe the guy you invite over will have one. Note: lighting these sorts of things can be tricky. --bodnotbod 23:17, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

Does anyone know the name of this cartoon from the 1980s?[edit]

For the last few months I've been trying find out information about a cartoon I saw on American television in either 1989 or 1990. I was four years old at the time so I can't remember the name. From what I remember of the storyline it involved a little girl who owned a teddy bear. When she rubbed noses with the bear he became alive. This bear had a sister and it turned out they came from another dimension and their mother was some kind of giant robotic factory. It's possible that it was an animé cartoon but since it was so long ago I can't really remember. It's also possible that this cartoon was show on British television aswell. Help me!

Bits of that sound like Superted. That was about a teddy bear who was rejected at the factory, dumped, and was found by a cosmic alien covered in spots who sprinkled him with magic dust. I'm not sure if that is the correct show. smurrayinchester(User), (Talk), (Recent Contrib) 16:00, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

This cartoon was definately not Super Ted and I think the teddy bear in question was actually a koala

Hmm, the closest thing I'm finding is Adventures of the Little Koala [56] [57] which was either Korean or Japanese, depending on who you ask. However, it featured no human characters. Incidentally, please note that "animé" is French animation and "anime" is Japanese animation. Garrett Albright 17:03, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Oh wait, I found it! Nozzles [58] should be what you're looking for. Garrett Albright 17:05, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
I think Garrett meant Noozles.--Commander Keane 18:06, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
Wow! I was lookin for the name of that show for ages! ☢ Kieff | Talk 23:27, 14 October 2005 (UTC)
D'oh. Garrett Albright 00:53, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

Thanks for your help. That's the cartoon exactly. Now I can finally rest.


In one sentence, explain the basic tenet of positivism.

State one basic similarity between Comte and Durkheim.

Explain why Weber insited on the use of the Vestehen in sociological research?(one sentence)

State one major difference between the interpretivist and the positivist approach to research.

  • Okay:
  • The glass is half-full rather than half-empty.
  • They were both French.
  • He didn't. He insisted on verstehen.
  • The interpretivist feels he has to explain why it's important to do your own homework, while the positivist will congratulate you for finding a creative way to get other people to do it.
--Diderot 11:04, 14 October 2005 (UTC)


— Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs) 19:53, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

Do you mean Pankaj Mullick? —Charles P. (Mirv) 20:14, 14 October 2005 (UTC)

Rita Hayworth[edit]

Educational information of Rita Hayworth. Did Rita Hayworth graduated from High School? What schools did she attended to?

According to this website [59] Rita Hayworth attended Alexander Hamilton High School and Carthay School in Los Angeles. Her father once owned a dance school, so you could probably assume that she spent a fair amount of time there too. --Quasipalm 00:02, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

19th Century British History[edit]

Why did women not win the vote in the 19th century?

They did (Timeline of women's suffrage) but only unmarried women in local elections. I'm not sure what Act of paliament allowed this but the Representation of the People Act 1884 says it "sought to enfranchise the morally worthy and industrious." Now don't hate me for Victorian values but housewives were probably not considered industrious and they would obviously vote how their husbands did anyway. MeltBanana 02:15, 15 October 2005 (UTC)
On an interesting, but slightly different note, the suffragette movement—mostly 20th century—is regarded by some as impeding the course of votes for women. Tactics like hunger strikes were enough to demonstrate to some that women could not be trusted to vote. Don't vote: it only encourages them. MeltBanana 02:58, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

what was the climate in california in the 1870's[edit]

just need help for a report...i tried google and yahoo..but can't seem to find anything...

If you're speaking in terms of weather, then I doubt it was much different than the way it is now; that is, quite different depending on which part of California you're speaking of, from the roasting Death Valley to the chilly Sierra Nevada mountain range. See California#Climate for more. Garrett Albright 00:51, 15 October 2005 (UTC)
Much of the American Southwest has seen considerable desertification since then (not that there wasn't a desert before, but that it's probably expanded).--Pharos 01:40, 17 October 2005 (UTC)

Movies that haunt me[edit]

I'm not sure what my question is, but hopefully it will emerge. When I was about 9 (in about 1960), my Dad took me to see a special series of movies shown over a period of a few weeks. They have haunted me ever since. Every time I see any of them, I am filled with an indescribable sense of nostalgia and melancholy. They were: Hamlet (Olivier version), The Red Shoes, Tom Brown's School Days (1951; John Howard Davies in title role), Great Expectations (David Lean), Oliver Twist (David Lean; also starring John Howard Davies), War and Peace (Audrey Hepburn/Mel Ferrer/Henry Fonda), Ulysses (Kirk Douglas), and possibly The Winslow Boy (Robert Donat). I've tried to find the organisation that presented the series of movies, or any other information, but to no avail. Does this resonate with anybody else out there? Cheers JackofOz 02:39, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

Game: Rabbit-Lion (also known as Angel-Devil?)[edit]

I am trying to find information about this group game. (I have already searched through the article game and related categories.) Here is how the game works: It is usually played outdoors (or in an area with lots of space). It requires a bare-minimum of three players, and there is no maximum. First each person picks (without telling anyone) two other people - one who is thier 'Lion' or 'Devil' (the person they have to stay away from) and one who is their 'Rabbit' or 'Angel' (the person who protects them). Then, once everyone has selected a Devil and an Angel, the game starts, and everyone begins moving around, each person trying to keep their Angel in between them and their Devil. Sometimes the game stabilizes quickly (everyone stops moving, everyone is protected) and sometimes it never stabilizes. After everyone stops or everyone is just too tired to keep moving, each person goes around an says who is their Devil and who is their Angel.

Questions: Anyone know if there is already a wikipedia article about this game? If not, what other names is this game called? What category does it fit into on the article game? Thank you, 20:27, 11 October 2005 (UTC).

  • How does each person know whose Devil they are (i.e. who to go after), and what happens if your devil "gets" you? Superm401 | Talk 20:42, 15 October 2005 (UTC)
Thank you for the question! The answer is that each person DOES NOT know who to go after-- no one is actually going after anyone-- each person is just trying to STAY AWAY from their Devil. So everyone moves around because, although each person doesn't know who (if anyone) has chosen her/him as their devil, each person DOES KNOW who they are trying to stay away from.
Specifically, each person is actually trying to keep her/his Angel in between her/him and her/his Devil. Example: Person C is the Devil of person A (A has to stay away from C). Person B is person A's Angel. When the game starts, person A moves around to keep person B in between herself/himself and person C. Of course persons B and C are also moving around, worring about their Angels and Devils.
If you don't believe me that it works, try it! It's actually really fun! (Yes, even for grownups...) Just MAKE SURE that each person has chosen a Devil AND an Angel (without telling anyone) before the game starts. After the game is over, people go around and tell everyone who was their Devil and who was their Angel. Djbaniel 23:16, 16 October 2005 (UTC)


Who is the Countess of Chester (as in the hospital). I have heard claims that it is Princess Diana, but have found no proof. smurrayinchester(User), (Talk) 10:15, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

The current Countess of Chester is Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall but previously it was indeed Princess Diana. Her full titles were: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester and Countess of Carrick. source . The British Royal family do like their titles. As the hospital in Chester was opened by Diana in 1984 link, I'm sure they used her lesser known Countess title as it was connected with the city. Besides there are several other hospitals called Princess of Wales but using the Countess of Chester title made them unique. Majts 10:55, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

Lonnie Coleman (author of the novel Orphan Jim)[edit]

Is Lonnie Coleman a white American or a black American? Where shall I get more details on this author? --Arunadevi 14:45, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

He is a black author. But I was not able to find a good site for his biography.

--Aytakin 15:15, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

Supreme Court[edit]

In the history of the US Supreme Court, I would like to know how many justices of the supreme Court were never judges before they where nominated and confirmed?

thank you
Thomas Gasior

Which is the artist of this Portaite Painting?[edit]

I visit the specific site, and I have seen the Portrait painting of Eleonora di Arborea and I whould like to know the artist name and the year of makeing. Thank you in advince, Charris.

I've asked the uploader, Alberia torkenkluvin to answer you here. Superm401 | Talk 20:53, 15 October 2005 (UTC)

Average weight of Irish people[edit]