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Bertha Benz's Patent-Motorwagen
Independence Day in ( Burkina Faso 1960); refimprove section
in Croatia Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day and the Day of Croatian defenders stub
1388 – Scottish forces defeated the English during near a border skirmish Otterburn, Northumberland. needs more footnotes
1600 – Scottish nobleman , died during a failed attempt to kidnap King John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie . James VI lead too short
1858 – American businessman and financier Cyrus West Field and his colleagues completed the first , crossing the Atlantic Ocean from transatlantic telegraph cable Valentia Island in Ireland to Heart's Content, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. refimprove section
1861 – With the passage of the Revenue Act, the United States issued its first : 3% of all incomes over $800 (later rescinded in 1872). income tax refimprove section
1925 – The Welsh political party Plaid Cymru with the goals of promoting the was founded Welsh language and the political independence of the Welsh nation. unreferenced section
2003 – A suicide bomber a car bomb outside the lobby of the detonated JW Marriott Hotel in Setiabudi, South Jakarta, Indonesia, killing twelve people and injuring 150. refimprove section
2010 – A cave-in at a mine north of Copiapó, Chile, approximately 2,300 ft (700 m) below the ground. trapped 33 miners appears on
October 13, date of rescue
2010 – War in Afghanistan: Ten foreign aid workers of the International Assistance Mission by persons unknown in were killed Kuran wa Munjan District of Badakhshan Province. expansion
AD 25 – Guangwu claimed the throne as after emperor of the Han dynasty Wang Mang, who had seized the throne himself and proclaimed the Xin dynasty, died when peasant rebels besieged Chang'an.
641 or 642 – King Penda of Mercia defeated and killed King Oswald of Northumbria at the , traditionally believed to have been fought in Battle of Maserfield Oswestry, Shropshire, England.
1583 – Explorer Humphrey Gilbert established the first English colony in North America at what is now , St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
1278 – King Alfonso X of Castile was forced to abandon the , the first of many on the city during the Spanish Siege of Algeciras Reconquista.
1772 – Russia, Prussia and Habsburg Austria began the to help restore the regional First Partition of Poland balance of power in Eastern Europe among those three countries.
1864 – American Civil War: Rear Admiral David Farragut successfully led the Union fleet through a mine field to victory in the . Battle of Mobile Bay
1888 – made the first long-distance automobile trip, going 106 km (66 mi) from Bertha Benz Mannheim to Pforzheim, Germany, in a Benz Patent-Motorwagen.
1916 – First World War: The British Empire's Sinai and Palestine Campaign began with a victory in the . Battle of Romani
1962 – Actress and model Marilyn Monroe was found dead in her home in Brentwood, Los Angeles, an event that has become the center of one of the most debated conspiracy theories.
1981 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan fired the 11,345 striking members of the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization en masse.
Henry I of England
1100 – Henry I (pictured) was crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey.
1796 – War of the First Coalition: The Austrian army the attempted to break Siege of Mantua, but were repelled by the French Army of Italy under Napoleon.
1816 – Sir John Barrow, Secretary of the Admiralty, rejected a proposal to use Francis Ronalds 's electrical telegraph, deeming it "wholly unnecessary".
1949 – A magnitude 6.8 earthquake M L near struck Ambato, Ecuador, killing 5,050 people.
2012 – A white supremacist went on at the a shooting spree Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, U.S., killing six people and wounding four others.
(d. 917) Euthymius I of Constantinople · (b. 1626) Richard Ottley · (b. 1988) Eddie Nolan