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|<<||Selected anniversaries for January||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2022 day arrangement
- 417 – Galla Placidia was forced by her brother Honorius into marriage with his magister militum, Constantius III.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The town of Norfolk, Virginia, was burned and destroyed by the combined actions of British and Whig forces.
- 1945 – Second World War: The Luftwaffe launched Operation Bodenplatte in an attempt to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries.
- 1965 – The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, which later helped the country become a republic, was founded.
- 2019 – The NASA space probe New Horizons flew by the trans-Neptunian object Arrokoth (pictured), making it the farthest object visited by a spacecraft.
- 533 – Mercurius, a Roman priest, was elected Pope John II; he was apparently the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy.
- 1680 – Trunajaya rebellion: Amangkurat II of Mataram of Java and his courtiers stabbed Trunajaya to death a week after the rebel leader surrendered to VOC forces.
- 1860 – French mathematician Urbain Le Verrier (pictured) announced the putative discovery of the planet Vulcan at a meeting at the French Academy of Sciences in Paris.
- 1944 – World War II: The United States and Australia successfully landed 13,000 troops in Papua New Guinea in an attempt to cut off a Japanese retreat.
- 1963 – Vietnam War: The Viet Cong won its first major victory at the Battle of Ap Bac.
- 1521 – Pope Leo X issued Decet Romanum Pontificem, excommunicating Martin Luther for refusing to retract 41 alleged errors found in his 95 Theses and other writings.
- 1888 – The 36-inch (91 cm) refracting telescope (pictured) at the Lick Observatory near San Jose, California, the largest in the world until 1897, was used for the first time.
- 1919 – Emir Faisal of Iraq signed an agreement with Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann on the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and an Arab nation in a large part of the Middle East.
- 1976 – The multilateral International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, part of the International Bill of Human Rights, came into effect.
- 2002 – Israeli forces seized MV Karine A, which was carrying 50 tonnes of smuggled weapons on behalf of the Palestinian National Authority.
- 1698 – Most of London's Palace of Whitehall, the main residence of English monarchs since 1530, was destroyed by fire.
- 1885 – Sino-French War: French troops under General Oscar de Négrier defeated a larger Qing Chinese force at the Battle of Núi Bop in northern Vietnam.
- 1948 – Burma achieved independence from the British Empire, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first president.
- 1972 – Rose Heilbron (pictured) became the first female judge to sit at the Central Criminal Court of England and Wales.
- 2010 – The Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest structure, officially opened in Dubai.
- 1675 – Franco-Dutch War: French troops defeated Austrian and Brandenburg forces at the Battle of Turckheim in Alsace.
- 1757 – Louis XV of France survived an assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens, who later became the last person in the country to be executed by being drawn and quartered (depicted).
- 1949 – In his State of the Union speech, U.S. president Harry S. Truman announced: "Every segment of our population, and every individual, has a right to expect from his government a fair deal."
- 2000 – Sri Lankan Tamil politician Kumar Ponnambalam was killed in an assassination suspected to have been sanctioned by President Chandrika Kumaratunga.
- 1066 – Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon monarch before the Norman Conquest, was crowned King of England.
- 1322 – Stefan Dečanski became King of Serbia, succeeding his half-brother Stefan Konstantin, whom he later defeated in battle.
- 1839 – The worst storm to hit Ireland in 300 years damaged or destroyed more than 20 per cent of houses in Dublin with 100-knot (190 km/h) winds.
- 1907 – Italian educator Maria Montessori (pictured) opened her first school and day-care centre for working-class children in Rome, employing the philosophy of education that now bears her name.
- 1994 – Two-time American Olympic figure-skating medalist Nancy Kerrigan was hit on the leg with a police baton by an assailant hired by the ex-husband of her rival Tonya Harding.
- 1610 – Through his telescope, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei made the first observation of Jupiter's Galilean moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, although he was not able to distinguish the first two until the following night.
- 1782 – The Bank of North America opened in Philadelphia as the first de facto central bank of the United States.
- 1931 – Australian aviator Guy Menzies (pictured) flew from Sydney to New Zealand's West Coast, making the first solo trans-Tasman flight.
- 1989 – Representatives of Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini delivered a letter to Mikhail Gorbachev, inviting him to consider Islam as an alternative to communism, and predicting the dissolution of the Soviet Bloc.
- 2012 – A hot air balloon flight from Carterton, New Zealand, collided with a power line while landing, causing it to crash and killing all eleven people on board.
- 1198 – Lotario de Conti was elected as Pope Innocent III; he later worked to restore papal power in Rome.
- 1889 – American statistician Herman Hollerith received a patent for his electromechanical tabulating machine for punched-card data.
- 1936 – Reza Shah issued the Kashf-e hijab decree in Iran, ordering police to physically remove hijabs from any women in public.
- 1972 – Following Pakistan's defeat in the Bangladesh Liberation War, President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto released Bangladeshi politician Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (pictured) from prison in response to international pressure.
- 1991 – Jeremy Wade Delle committed suicide in his high-school class in Richardson, Texas, inspiring the Pearl Jam song "Jeremy".
- 1857 – An earthquake registering 7.9 Mw ruptured part of the San Andreas Fault in central and southern California.
- 1917 – First World War: Troops of the British Empire defeated Ottoman forces at the Battle of Rafa on the Sinai–Palestine border in present-day Rafah.
- 1972 – The Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association lost to the Milwaukee Bucks, ending a 33-game winning streak, the longest of any team in American professional sports.
- 1992 – Radio astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail announced the discovery of two planets orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12 (depicted), generally considered the first definitive detection of an exoplanet.
- 2015 – Contaminated beer served at a funeral in Tete Province, Mozambique, killed 75 people and made at least 230 others ill.
- AD 9 – The Western Han dynasty of China ended after the throne was usurped by Wang Mang, who founded the Xin dynasty.
- 1475 – Moldavian–Ottoman Wars: Stephen the Great led Moldavian forces to defeat an Ottoman attack under Hadım Suleiman Pasha near Vaslui in what is now Romania.
- 1863 – Service began on the Metropolitan Railway (construction depicted) between Paddington and Farringdon Street, today the oldest segment of the London Underground.
- 1923 – Lithuanian residents of the Memel Territory rebelled against the League of Nations decision to leave the area as a mandated region under French control.
- 2007 – A general strike began in Guinea as an attempt to force President Lansana Conté to resign, eventually resulting in the appointment of two new prime ministers.
- 1055 – Theodora Porphyrogenita (pictured) became the sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire after the death of her brother-in-law Constantine IX Monomachos.
- 1787 – German-born British astronomer William Herschel discovered two Uranian moons, later named Oberon and Titania by his son John.
- 1863 – American Civil War: The Battle of Arkansas Post concluded with the Union Army capturing a fort near the mouth of the Arkansas River.
- 1923 – Troops from France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr to force the Weimar Republic to pay reparations in the aftermath of World War I.
- 2013 – French special forces failed in an attempted rescue of a DGSE agent, who had been taken hostage in 2009 by al-Shabaab, in Buulo Mareer, Somalia.
- 1554 – Bayinnaung, who later assembled the largest empire in the history of mainland Southeast Asia, was crowned king of the Burmese Toungoo dynasty.
- 1777 – Mission Santa Clara de Asís (pictured), a Spanish mission in California that formed the basis of both the city of Santa Clara and Santa Clara University, was established by the Franciscans.
- 1918 – An underground explosion at a coal mine in Staffordshire, England, killed 155 men and boys.
- 1964 – Rebels led by John Okello overthrew Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah, ending 200 years of Arab dominance in Zanzibar.
- 2010 – Iranian physicist Massoud Ali-Mohammadi was assassinated while leaving home for the University of Tehran, where he was a professor.
- 1797 – French Revolutionary Wars: A naval battle off the coast of Brittany between two British frigates and a French ship of the line ended with hundreds of deaths when the latter ran aground.
- 1842 – First Anglo-Afghan War: William Brydon, an assistant surgeon in the British Army, arrived at Jalalabad as the sole European of the 14,000 people retreating from Kabul to evade capture or death.
- 1915 – About 30,000 people were killed when an earthquake struck the Province of L'Aquila in Italy.
- 1972 – Bernice Gera won a sex-discrimination lawsuit against the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, allowing her to become the first female professional baseball umpire.
- 2012 – The Italian cruise ship Costa Concordia ran aground on a reef and capsized (wreck pictured) off Isola del Giglio, Tuscany.
- 1301 – King Andrew III died without any male heirs, ending the Árpád dynasty, which had ruled Hungary since the late 9th century.
- 1900 – Giacomo Puccini's opera Tosca, based on the play La Tosca by French dramatist Victorien Sardou, premiered at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome.
- 1939 – Norway claimed Queen Maud Land, a 2.7-million km2 (1.0-million sq mi) region of Antarctica, as a dependent territory.
- 1957 – Hindu spiritual leader Kripalu Maharaj (pictured) was named the fifth original jagadguru, meaning 'world teacher'.
- 1973 – Elvis Presley's concert Aloha from Hawaii via Satellite was broadcast live, setting a record as the most watched broadcast by an individual entertainer in television history.
- 1815 – War of 1812: American frigate USS President, commanded by Commodore Stephen Decatur, was captured by a squadron of four British frigates.
- 1937 – Spanish Civil War: Nationalist and Republican forces both withdrew after suffering heavy losses, ending the Second Battle of the Corunna Road.
- 1947 – The mutilated corpse of the Black Dahlia, a 22-year-old woman whose murder is one of the most famous unsolved crimes in the U.S., was found in Leimert Park, Los Angeles.
- 1962 – The Derveni papyrus (fragment pictured), the oldest surviving manuscript in Europe, was discovered in Macedonia, northern Greece.
- 1975 – Portugal and the nationalist factions UNITA, the MPLA and the FNLA signed the Alvor Agreement, ending the Angolan War of Independence.
- 1537 – Sir Francis Bigod began an armed rebellion of English Catholics against King Henry VIII and the English Parliament.
- 1780 – Anglo-Spanish War: The Royal Navy gained their first major naval victory over their European enemies in the war when they defeated a Spanish squadron in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
- 1905 – Despite being blind in one eye, ice hockey player Frank McGee (pictured) set the record for most goals in a Stanley Cup game when he scored 14 against the Dawson City Nuggets.
- 1942 – TWA Flight 3 crashed into Potosi Mountain in Nevada, killing actress Carole Lombard and all of the other 21 people on board.
- 2016 – After gunmen took hostages the previous night at a restaurant in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, government commandos stormed the premises to bring the situation to an end.
- 1562 – Catherine de' Medici, the regent of France, promulgated the Edict of Saint-Germain, providing limited tolerance to the Protestant Huguenots.
- 1899 – The United States took possession of Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean.
- 1912 – Robert Falcon Scott's ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition reached the South Pole, only to find that Roald Amundsen's team had beaten them by 33 days.
- 1961 – Former Congolese prime minister Patrice Lumumba (pictured) was murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the Belgian and US governments and the UN.
- 2002 – Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo began erupting, killing hundreds and leaving about 120,000 people homeless in the nearby town of Goma.
- 474 – Seven-year-old Leo II became sole Byzantine emperor upon the death of his grandfather Leo I.
- 1535 – Francisco Pizarro founded Ciudad de los Reyes (present-day Lima, Peru) as the capital of the lands he conquered for the Spanish crown.
- 1866 – Wesley College, one of the largest schools in Australia by enrolment, was established in Melbourne.
- 1958 – Willie O'Ree of the Boston Bruins played his first game in the National Hockey League, becoming the first black Canadian who competed in the NHL.
- 1990 – In a sting operation conducted by the FBI, Marion Barry (pictured), the mayor of Washington, D.C., was arrested for possession of crack cocaine.
- 649 – Conquest of the Western Turks: Kuchean forces surrendered after a siege, establishing Tang control over the northern Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, China.
- 1511 – War of the League of Cambrai: Troops led by Pope Julius II captured Mirandola after a brief siege.
- 1930 – In Watsonville, California, tensions between nativists and Filipino Americans escalated into riots that later spread to other cities in the state.
- 1972 – The French newspaper L'Aurore revealed that the former Nazi SS officer Klaus Barbie (pictured), the "Butcher of Lyon", had been found to be living in Peru.
- 2012 – The Hong Kong–based file-sharing website Megaupload was shut down by the FBI.
- 1356 – Edward Balliol, whose father John was briefly King of Scotland, gave up his claim to the throne in exchange for an English pension.
- 1877 – The Constantinople Conference concluded with the Great Powers declaring the need for political reforms, which the Ottoman Empire refused to undertake, later resulting in the Russo-Turkish War.
- 1942 – The Holocaust: Reinhard Heydrich and other senior Nazi officials met at the Wannsee Conference near Berlin to discuss the implementation of the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question".
- 1992 – Air Inter Flight 148 crashed into the Vosges while circling to land at Strasbourg Airport, France, resulting in 87 deaths.
- 2009 – In Washington, D.C., more than one million people attended the inauguration of Barack Obama (pictured) as the first African-American president of the United States.
- 763 – The Abbasid Caliphate crushed the Alid revolt when a rebel leader was mortally wounded in battle near Basra in present-day Iraq.
- 1789 – The Power of Sympathy by William Hill Brown, widely considered to be the first American novel, was published.
- 1919 – The First Dáil (members pictured) convened at the Mansion House in Dublin and adopted a declaration of independence calling for the establishment of the Irish Republic.
- 1972 – Tripura, formerly part of the independent Twipra Kingdom, became a state of India.
- 2017 – An estimated five million people participated in the worldwide Women's March, to advocate for legislation and policies on human rights and other issues.
- 1506 – The first contingent of 150 Swiss Guards (example depicted) arrived in Rome to provide security for the pope.
- 1689 – The Convention Parliament met to decide the fate of the throne after James II, the last Catholic monarch of England, fled to France following the Glorious Revolution.
- 1906 – SS Valencia was wrecked off the coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, in a location so treacherous it was known as the Graveyard of the Pacific.
- 1987 – After being convicted of receiving bribes, Pennsylvania state treasurer R. Budd Dwyer shot and killed himself in front of television cameras during a press conference.
- 2012 – Croatia held a referendum, in which it voted to become a member of the European Union.
- 1556 – One of the deadliest earthquakes in history struck Shaanxi, China, resulting in at least 100,000 direct deaths.
- 1849 – Elizabeth Blackwell (pictured) graduated from Geneva Medical College in New York, making her the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States.
- 1909 – Two men committed an armed robbery in Tottenham, London, and led police on a two-hour chase, partially by tram, that ended in the perpetrators' suicides.
- 1942 – World War II: Japan began an invasion of the island of New Britain in the Australian Territory of New Guinea.
- 2002 – American journalist Daniel Pearl was kidnapped and later murdered by al-Qaeda agents in Karachi, Pakistan.
January 24: Mother's Day in Iran (2022): Day of the Unification of the Romanian Principalities in Romania
- AD 41 – Cassius Chaerea and disgruntled Praetorian Guards murdered the Roman emperor Caligula, replacing him with his uncle Claudius.
- 1857 – The University of Calcutta (pictured), the first modern university in the Indian subcontinent, was established.
- 1915 – First World War: British ships of the Grand Fleet intercepted and surprised a German High Seas Fleet squadron in the North Sea, sinking a cruiser and damaging several other vessels.
- 1966 – Air India Flight 101, en route to London from Bombay, crashed into Mont Blanc in Switzerland, killing all 117 people on board.
- 1989 – American serial killer Ted Bundy was executed by electric chair in Florida for the murders of 30 young women.
- 1704 – English colonists from the Province of Carolina and their native allies began a series of raids against a largely peaceful population of Apalachee in Spanish Florida.
- 1792 – Thomas Hardy founded the London Corresponding Society to seek a "radical reform of parliament", later influencing the reform movements of early 19th-century England.
- 1917 – Serving as a troop ship, SS Laurentic (depicted) was sunk by German mines off the northern coast of Ireland, resulting in 354 deaths.
- 1967 – South Vietnamese junta leader Nguyễn Cao Kỳ fired rival Nguyễn Hữu Có while the latter was overseas on a diplomatic visit.
- 1995 – A team of Norwegian and American scientists launched a Black Brant XII sounding rocket, which was mistaken for a Trident missile by Russian forces.
- 1699 – The signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz, concluding the Great Turkish War, marked the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe and the rise of the Habsburg Monarchy as the region's dominant power.
- 1808 – William Bligh (pictured), the governor of New South Wales, was deposed by the New South Wales Corps in the only military coup in Australian history.
- 1918 – A group of Red Guards hung a red lantern atop the tower of the Helsinki Workers' House, symbolically marking the start of the Finnish Civil War.
- 1991 – Somali Rebellion: Factions led by the warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid and his rebel group, the United Somali Congress, ousted President Siad Barre.
- 2001 – An earthquake in the Indian state of Gujarat killed at least 13,000 people, injured 167,000 others and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes.
- 98 – Trajan succeeded his adoptive father Nerva as Roman emperor; the Roman Empire reached its maximum extent under his rule.
- 1343 – Clement VI issued the papal bull Unigenitus, justifying the power of the pope and the use of indulgences.
- 1965 – South Vietnamese prime minister Trần Văn Hương was removed by the military junta of Nguyễn Khánh.
- 1996 – Mahamane Ousmane (pictured), the first democratically elected president of Niger, was deposed by Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara in a military coup d'état.
- 2011 – Arab Spring: The Yemeni Revolution began as more than 16,000 protesters demonstrated in Sanaa to demand governmental changes.
- 1142 – Despite having saved the southern Song dynasty from attempts by the northern Jin dynasty to conquer it, Chinese general Yue Fei was executed by the Song government.
- 1568 – Delegates of the Three Nations of Transylvania adopted the Edict of Torda, allowing local communities to freely elect their preachers in an unprecedented act of religious tolerance.
- 1933 – Choudhry Rahmat Ali published a pamphlet in which he called for the creation of a Muslim state in north-western India that he termed "Pakstan".
- 1958 – The Lego Group, a Danish toy company, filed a patent in Denmark for the design of Lego bricks (pictured).
- 1981 – U.S. president Ronald Reagan lifted price controls from petroleum products, contributing to the 1980s oil glut.
- 1814 – War of the Sixth Coalition: At the Battle of Brienne, both sides' commanders, Napoleon and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, were nearly captured.
- 1891 – Liliʻuokalani, the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Hawaiian Kingdom, ascended the throne.
- 1943 – World War II: The Battle of Rennell Island, the last major naval engagement between the United States Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Guadalcanal campaign, began.
- 1967 – The Mantra-Rock Dance (poster pictured), called the "ultimate high" of the hippie era, took place in San Francisco, featuring Swami Bhaktivedanta, Janis Joplin, the Grateful Dead, and Allen Ginsberg.
- 1991 – The first major ground engagement of the Gulf War began with the Iraqi invasion of Khafji, Saudi Arabia, recaptured three days later by Coalition forces.
- 1018 – The German–Polish War ended with the signing of the Peace of Bautzen between Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Bolesław I, the Piast ruler of Poland.
- 1661 – Two years after his death, Oliver Cromwell's remains were exhumed for a posthumous execution and his head was placed on a spike above Westminster Hall in London, where it remained until 1685.
- 1972 – The Troubles: On Bloody Sunday, members of the British Parachute Regiment shot 26 civil-rights protesters in Derry, Northern Ireland, killing at least thirteen people.
- 2013 – The Korea Aerospace Research Institute launched Naro-1 (pictured), South Korea's first carrier rocket and their first launch vehicle to achieve Earth orbit.
- 314 – Sylvester I, during whose pontificate many churches in Rome were constructed by Constantine the Great, began his reign as pope.
- 1747 – The London Lock Hospital, the first voluntary hospital specialising in the treatment of venereal diseases, opened.
- 1900 – Datu Muhammad Salleh, leader of a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, was shot dead in Tambunan, but his followers did not give up for five more years.
- 1961 – Aboard NASA's Mercury-Redstone 2, Ham the Chimp (pictured) became the first hominid launched into outer space.
- 2013 – A gas leak underneath the Pemex Executive Tower in Mexico City caused an explosion that killed at least 37 people and injured another 121.