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|<<||Selected anniversaries for January||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2021 day arrangement
- 1068 – Having been pardoned by Eudokia Makrembolitissa, the regent of the Byzantine Empire, for attempting to usurp the throne, Romanos IV Diogenes married her to become Byzantine emperor.
- 1818 – Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, a novel by the British author Mary Shelley, was first published anonymously in London.
- 1892 – The immigration station on Ellis Island (pictured) in New York Harbor opened, and would process almost 12 million immigrants to the United States over the course of its existence.
- 1957 – The revised Thai criminal code came into force, strengthening the law on lèse-majesté in Thailand to include insult, and treating it as a crime against national security.
- 2011 – A suicide bombing took place outside a Coptic Orthodox church in Alexandria, Egypt, following a New Year service, killing 23 people.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: American forces under the command of George Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek near Trenton, New Jersey.
- 1941 – Second World War: Llandaff Cathedral (pictured) in Cardiff, Wales, was severely damaged by German bombing during the Cardiff Blitz.
- 1991 – Sharon Pratt Dixon was sworn in as the mayor of Washington, D.C., becoming the first African-American woman to hold the position.
- 2016 – Nimr al-Nimr, a prominent Shia cleric in Saudi Arabia, was executed by the Saudi government along with 46 other people.
- 1749 – The first issue of Berlingske, Denmark's oldest continually operating newspaper, was published.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: American forces under General George Washington defeated British troops at the Battle of Princeton (depicted).
- 1911 – A gun battle in the East End of London left two dead and sparked a political row over the involvement of Winston Churchill, then Home Secretary.
- 1961 – All twenty-five people on board Aero Flight 311 died in Finland's worst civilian air accident when the plane crashed near Kvevlax.
- 1798 – After his investiture as Prince of Wallachia, Constantine Hangerli (pictured) arrived in Bucharest to assume the throne.
- 1853 – Solomon Northup regained his freedom after having been sold into slavery in the American South; his memoir Twelve Years a Slave later became a national bestseller.
- 1912 – The Boy Scouts Association was incorporated throughout the British Empire by royal charter.
- 1951 – Korean War: Chinese and North Korean troops captured Seoul from United Nations forces.
- 2018 – A passenger train collided with a truck and derailed in the Free State, South Africa, killing 21 people and injuring 254 others.
- 1675 – Franco-Dutch War: French troops defeated Austrian and Brandenburg forces at the Battle of Turckheim in Alsace.
- 1757 – Louis XV of France survived an assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens, who later became the last person in the country to be executed by being drawn and quartered.
- 1941 – Second World War: Australian and British troops defeated Italian forces in Bardia, Libya, the first battle of the war in which an Australian Army formation (pictured) took part.
- 1976 – The Troubles: In response to the killings of six Catholics the night before, South Armagh Republican Action Force gunmen killed ten Protestants in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.
- 1991 – Georgian troops attacked Tskhinvali, the South Ossetian capital, beginning the First South Ossetia War.
- 1449 – Four years before the Fall of Constantinople, Constantine XI Palaiologos, the last Byzantine emperor, assumed the throne.
- 1540 – King Henry VIII of England married his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves; the marriage was annulled six months later.
- 1907 – Italian educator Maria Montessori (pictured) opened her first school and day-care centre for working-class children in Rome, employing the philosophy of education that now bears her name.
- 1941 – During his State of the Union address, U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt presented his Four Freedoms as fundamental freedoms that all people ought to enjoy.
- 1953 – The first Asian Socialist Conference, an organisation of socialist political parties in Asia, opened in Rangoon with 177 delegates, observers and fraternal guests.
- 1797 – The Italian tricolour was adopted for the first time as official flag, by the government of the Cispadane Republic.
- 1904 – The Marconi International Marine Communication Company specified CQD as the distress signal to be used by its operators.
- 1939 – The French physicist Marguerite Perey identified francium, the last element first discovered in nature, rather than by synthesis.
- 1978 – An article entitled "Iran and Red and Black Colonization" was published in the newspaper Ettela'at attacking Ruhollah Khomeini, then in exile in Iraq.
- 1993 – The Fourth Republic of Ghana was inaugurated with Jerry Rawlings (pictured), the country's former military ruler, as president.
- 1697 – Scottish student Thomas Aikenhead became the last person in Great Britain to be executed for blasphemy.
- 1735 – George Frideric Handel's opera Ariodante premiered at the Covent Garden Theatre (pictured) in London.
- 1981 – In Trans-en-Provence, France, a local farmer reported a UFO sighting claimed to be "perhaps the most completely and carefully documented sighting of all time".
- 2011 – Jared Lee Loughner opened fire at a public meeting held by U.S. representative Gabby Giffords in Tucson, Arizona, killing six people and injuring twelve others.
- 1909 – Ernest Shackleton, leading the Nimrod Expedition, planted the British flag (pictured) 97.5 nautical miles (180.6 km; 112.2 mi) from the South Pole, the farthest south explorers had reached at the time.
- 1917 – First World War: Troops of the British Empire defeated Ottoman forces at the Battle of Rafa on the Sinai–Palestine border in present-day Rafah.
- 1996 – First Chechen War: Chechen separatists launched raids in the city of Kizlyar, Dagestan, which turned into a massive hostage crisis involving thousands of civilians.
- 2011 – In poor weather conditions, Iran Air Flight 277 crashed near Urmia Airport, Iran, killing 78 people.
- 236 – Pope Fabian, said to have been chosen by the Holy Spirit when a dove landed on his head, began his papacy.
- 1776 – Common Sense, a pamphlet by Thomas Paine denouncing British rule in the Thirteen Colonies, was published.
- 1901 – The first great gusher (pictured) of the Texas oil boom was discovered in the Spindletop oil field near Beaumont.
- 1946 – The first session of the United Nations General Assembly convened at the Methodist Central Hall in London with representatives from 51 member states.
- 1966 – India and Pakistan signed the Tashkent Declaration to end the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
- 1654 – Arauco War: The Mapuche-Huilliche of southern Chile defeated a slave-hunting Spanish army at the Battle of Río Bueno.
- 1787 – German-born British astronomer William Herschel discovered two Uranian moons, later named Oberon and Titania by his son.
- 1912 – Immigrant textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, went on strike in response to a pay cut corresponding to a new state law shortening the working week.
- 1946 – The People's Republic of Albania was proclaimed, with Enver Hoxha as the country's de facto head of state.
- 1986 – The Gateway Bridge (pictured) in Brisbane, Australia, opened as the largest prestressed-concrete, single-box bridge in the world.
- 475 – Basiliscus became Byzantine emperor after Zeno was forced to flee Constantinople.
- 1808 – John Rennie's scheme to defend St Mary's Church (pictured) in Reculver from coastal erosion was abandoned in favour of demolition, despite the church being an exemplar of Anglo-Saxon architecture.
- 1916 – Oswald Boelcke and Max Immelmann became the first German aviators to be awarded the Pour le Mérite, Germany's highest military honour.
- 1967 – Seventy-three-year-old psychology professor James Bedford became the first person to be cryonically preserved with intent of future resuscitation.
- 2007 – Comet McNaught reached perihelion, becoming the brightest comet in over 40 years, with an apparent magnitude of −5.5.
- 1435 – Pope Eugene IV promulgated the papal bull Sicut dudum, forbidding the enslavement of the native Guanche of the Canary Islands by the Spanish.
- 1884 – Welsh physician William Price was arrested for attempting to cremate his deceased infant son; he was acquitted in the subsequent trial, which eventually led to the legalisation of cremation in the United Kingdom.
- 1953 – An article published in Pravda accused nine eminent doctors in Moscow of taking part in a plot to poison members of the top Soviet political and military leadership.
- 1968 – American singer Johnny Cash (pictured) recorded his landmark album At Folsom Prison live at Folsom State Prison in California.
- 2001 – The first of two large earthquakes struck El Salvador, killing at least 944 people and destroying over 100,000 homes.
- 1907 – An earthquake registering 6.2 Mw struck Kingston, Jamaica (damage pictured), resulting in approximately 1,000 deaths.
- 1933 – The England cricket team employed bodyline tactics against Australia during a Test match at the Adelaide Oval, the peak of a major controversy in the sport.
- 1943 – Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Charles de Gaulle, and Henri Giraud met in Casablanca to plan the Allies' European strategy for the next phase of World War II.
- 1953 – Josip Broz Tito was inaugurated as the first president of Yugoslavia.
- 1867 – In Regent's Park, London, the ice on the lake broke (depicted), plunging skaters into the water and causing 40 deaths from drowning or hypothermia.
- 1934 – At least 10,700 people died when an earthquake registering 8.0 Mw struck Nepal and the Indian state of Bihar.
- 1951 – Ilse Koch, the wife of the commandant of the Buchenwald and Majdanek concentration camps, was sentenced to life imprisonment by a West German court.
- 1981 – The American serial police-procedural television show Hill Street Blues aired its pilot episode, "Hill Street Station".
- 1991 – Queen Elizabeth II signed letters patent instituting the Victoria Cross for Australia; the country became the first Commonwealth realm with a separate Victoria Cross award in its honours system.
- 1862 – A pumping engine at a colliery in New Hartley, England, broke and fell down the shaft, trapping miners below and resulting in 204 deaths.
- 1942 – World War II: During the Battle of Bataan, U.S. Army sergeant Jose Calugas (pictured) organized a squad of volunteers to man an artillery position under heavy fire, which later earned him the Medal of Honor.
- 1964 – The musical Hello, Dolly! opened at the St. James Theatre on Broadway, and went on to win ten Tony Awards, a record that stood for 37 years.
- 2018 – In Mrauk U, Myanmar, police fired into a crowd protesting the ban of an event to mark the anniversary of the end of the Kingdom of Mrauk U, resulting in seven deaths and twelve injuries.
- 1377 – Gregory XI, the last Avignon pope, entered Rome after a four-month journey from Avignon, returning the papacy to its original city.
- 1893 – Lorrin A. Thurston and the Citizens' Committee of Public Safety led the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom and the government of Queen Liliʻuokalani.
- 1946 – The United Nations Security Council (chamber pictured), the organ of the United Nations charged with the maintenance of international peace and security, held its first meeting at Church House, Westminster.
- 2002 – Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo began erupting, killing hundreds and leaving about 120,000 people homeless in the nearby town of Goma.
- 1535 – Francisco Pizarro founded Ciudad de los Reyes (present-day Lima, Peru) as the capital of the lands conquered for the Spanish crown.
- 1871 – A number of previously independent states unified to form the German Empire, with Wilhelm I (pictured) as its emperor.
- 1915 – Japanese prime minister Ōkuma Shigenobu issued the Twenty-One Demands to China in a bid to increase Japan's power in East Asia.
- 1943 – World War II: In Operation Iskra, the Red Army established a narrow land corridor to Leningrad, partially easing the protracted German siege.
- 1419 – Hundred Years' War: The Siege of Rouen ended with English troops capturing the city from Norman French forces.
- 1795 – The Batavian Republic was established the day after William V (pictured) fled the Dutch Republic as a result of the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam.
- 1915 – World War I: The first major attack of the German bombing campaign against Britain took place when Zeppelins bombed several towns in Norfolk.
- 1996 – A tank barge and a tug grounded on a beach in Rhode Island, U.S., spilling an estimated 828,000 U.S. gallons (3,130,000 l) of home heating oil.
- 2007 – Turkish-Armenian journalist and human-rights activist Hrant Dink was assassinated by a Turkish nationalist in Istanbul.
- 1265 – Simon de Montfort summoned local representatives to the Palace of Westminster to attend a parliament, considered the forerunner of the House of Commons of England.
- 1877 – The Constantinople Conference concluded with the Great Powers declaring the need for political reforms, which the Ottoman Empire refused to undertake, later resulting in the Russo-Turkish War.
- 1969 – Bengali student activist Amanullah Asaduzzaman was shot and killed by East Pakistani police, an event that led to the Bangladesh Liberation War.
- 2009 – During a national financial crisis, thousands of people protested (pictured) at the Icelandic parliament in Reykjavík.
- 763 – The Abbasid Caliphate crushed the Alid revolt when a rebel leader was mortally wounded in battle near Basra in present-day Iraq.
- 1789 – The Power of Sympathy by William Hill Brown, widely considered to be the first American novel, was published.
- 1968 – Cold War: A B-52 bomber carrying four nuclear weapons crashed onto sea ice near Thule Air Base, Greenland, causing localized radioactive contamination.
- 1981 – The DeLorean Motor Company completed the first production car of the DMC DeLorean (example pictured).
- 2011 – Demonstrations in Tirana against alleged corruption in the Albanian government led to the killings of three protesters by the Republican Guard.
- 565 – Eutychius, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, was arrested after he refused Byzantine emperor Justinian I's order to adopt the tenets of the Aphthartodocetae, a sect of non-Chalcedonian Christians.
- 1273 – Muhammad II became Sultan of Granada after his father's death in a riding accident.
- 1924 – Ramsay MacDonald took office as the first prime minister of the United Kingdom from the Labour Party.
- 1963 – France and West Germany signed the Élysée Treaty, establishing a new foundation for relations that ended centuries of rivalry.
- 1984 – During Super Bowl XVIII, Apple Computer introduced the Macintosh (pictured), the first successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface, with the television commercial "1984".
- 1264 – King Louis IX of France issued the Mise of Amiens, a settlement between King Henry III of England and barons led by Simon de Montfort heavily favouring the former, which later led to the Second Barons' War.
- 1915 – Rebels led by John Chilembwe (pictured) attacked local plantation owners, beginning an uprising regarded as a key moment in the history of Malawi.
- 1967 – The English new town of Milton Keynes was founded in Buckinghamshire, incorporating four towns and fifteen villages as well as planned new developments on intervening farmland.
- 2001 – Five people attempted to set themselves on fire in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, an act that many later claimed to have been staged by the Chinese Communist Party to frame Falun Gong and thus escalate their persecution.
- 1458 – The Estates unanimously proclaimed 14-year-old Matthias Corvinus King of Hungary after being persuaded to do so by his uncle Michael Szilágyi.
- 1848 – James W. Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill (reconstruction pictured) in Coloma, California, leading to the California Gold Rush.
- 1968 – Vietnam War: The 1st Australian Task Force launched Operation Coburg against the North Vietnamese army and the Viet Cong.
- 1977 – During the Spanish transition to democracy, neo-fascists attacked an office in Madrid, killing five people and injuring four others.
- 2011 – A North Caucasian jihadist carried out a suicide bombing at Moscow Domodedovo Airport, killing 37 people.
- 1533 – Anne Boleyn, already pregnant with the future Elizabeth I, secretly married Henry VIII of England in the second of his six marriages.
- 1890 – American journalist Nellie Bly completed a circumnavigation of the globe by land and sea in a then-record 72 days.
- 1971 – Idi Amin (pictured) seized power from Ugandan president Milton Obote in a coup d'état, beginning eight years of military rule.
- 2006 – Mexican professional wrestler Juana Barraza was arrested in conjunction with the serial killing of at least ten elderly women.
- 2011 – The Egyptian revolution began with protests on the "Day of Anger", eventually leading to the removal of President Hosni Mubarak after nearly 30 years of rule.
- 1699 – The signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz, concluding the Great Turkish War, marked the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe and the rise of the Habsburg Monarchy as the region's dominant power.
- 1808 – William Bligh (pictured), the governor of New South Wales, was deposed by the New South Wales Corps in the only military coup in Australian history.
- 1918 – A group of Red Guards hung a red lantern atop the tower of the Helsinki Workers' House, symbolically marking the start of the Finnish Civil War.
- 1991 – Somali Rebellion: Factions led by the warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid and his rebel group, the United Somali Congress, ousted President Siad Barre.
- 2001 – An earthquake in the Indian state of Gujarat killed at least 13,000 people, injured 167,000 others and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes.
- 98 – Trajan succeeded his adoptive father Nerva as Roman emperor; the Roman Empire reached its maximum extent under his rule.
- 1343 – Clement VI issued the papal bull Unigenitus, justifying the power of the pope and the use of indulgences.
- 1965 – South Vietnamese prime minister Trần Văn Hương was removed by the military junta of Nguyễn Khánh.
- 1996 – Mahamane Ousmane (pictured), the first democratically elected president of Niger, was deposed by Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara in a military coup d'état.
- 2011 – Arab Spring: The Yemeni Revolution began as more than 16,000 protesters demonstrated in Sanaa to demand governmental changes.
- 1142 – Despite having saved the southern Song dynasty from attempts by the northern Jin dynasty to conquer it, Chinese general Yue Fei was executed by the Song government.
- 1568 – Delegates of the Three Nations of Transylvania adopted the Edict of Torda, allowing local communities to freely elect their preachers in an unprecedented act of religious tolerance.
- 1933 – Choudhry Rahmat Ali published a pamphlet in which he called for the creation of a Muslim state in north-western India that he termed "Pakstan".
- 1958 – The Lego Group, a Danish toy company, filed a patent in Denmark for the design of Lego bricks (pictured).
- 1981 – U.S. president Ronald Reagan lifted price controls from petroleum products, contributing to the 1980s oil glut.
- 1814 – War of the Sixth Coalition: At the Battle of Brienne, both sides' commanders, Napoleon and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, were nearly captured.
- 1891 – Liliʻuokalani, the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Hawaiian Kingdom, ascended the throne.
- 1943 – World War II: The Battle of Rennell Island, the last major naval engagement between the United States Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Guadalcanal campaign, began.
- 1967 – The Mantra-Rock Dance (poster pictured), called the "ultimate high" of the hippie era, took place in San Francisco, featuring Swami Bhaktivedanta, Janis Joplin, the Grateful Dead, and Allen Ginsberg.
- 1991 – The first major ground engagement of the Gulf War began with the Iraqi invasion of Khafji, Saudi Arabia, recaptured three days later by Coalition forces.
- 1018 – The German–Polish War ended with the signing of the Peace of Bautzen between Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Bolesław I, the Piast ruler of Poland.
- 1661 – Two years after his death, Oliver Cromwell's remains were exhumed for a posthumous execution and his head was placed on a spike above Westminster Hall in London, where it remained until 1685.
- 1972 – The Troubles: On Bloody Sunday, members of the British Parachute Regiment shot 26 civil-rights protesters in Derry, Northern Ireland, killing at least thirteen people.
- 2013 – The Korea Aerospace Research Institute launched Naro-1 (pictured), South Korea's first carrier rocket and their first launch vehicle to achieve Earth orbit.
- 314 – Sylvester I, during whose pontificate many churches in Rome were constructed by Constantine the Great, began his reign as pope.
- 1747 – The London Lock Hospital, the first voluntary hospital specialising in the treatment of venereal diseases, opened.
- 1900 – Datu Muhammad Salleh, leader of a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, was shot dead in Tambunan, but his followers did not give up for five more years.
- 1961 – Aboard NASA's Mercury-Redstone 2, Ham the Chimp (pictured) became the first hominid launched into outer space.
- 2013 – A gas leak underneath the Pemex Executive Tower in Mexico City caused an explosion that killed at least 37 people and injured another 121.