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title=Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1959
United Nations Security Council chamber
One of the hydrogen bombs recovered from the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash
National Day in ( Menorca 1287)
1377 – entered Pope Gregory XI Rome after a four-month journey from Avignon, returning the Papacy to its original city and effectively becoming the last Avignon Pope.
needs more biographical info
1524 – Italian explorer set sail westward from Giovanni da Verrazzano Madeira to find a sea route to the Pacific Ocean.
1781 – American Revolutionary War: American forces won a surprising victory over the British at the , one of the most pivotal battles of the war.
Battle of Cowpens unreferenced section
1885 – Mahdist War: British troops defeated Mahdist Sudanese forces at the in Battle of Abu Klea Khartoum, Sudan.
needs more footnotes
1899 – The United States took possession of in the Pacific Ocean.
Wake Island multiple issues
1904 – Russian playwright Anton Chekhov's last play, , premiered at the The Cherry Orchard Moscow Art Theatre.
1915 – World War I: During the Caucasus Campaign's , Russian troops defeated Ottoman forces who were ill-prepared for winter conditions.
Battle of Sarikamish refimprove section
1917 – Denmark sold of the their portion Virgin Islands archipelago to the United States for US$25 million.
1929 – American cartoonist 's character E. C. Segar first appeared in his newspaper comic strip Popeye Thimble Theater.
1945 – Swedish diplomat , who had saved thousands of Jews from Raoul Wallenberg the Holocaust, was taken into Soviet custody while in Hungary, and was never publicly seen again.
1955 – , the first USS Nautilus nuclear-powered submarine, put to sea for the first time from Groton, Connecticut, with the message, "Underway on nuclear power."
1961 – Former Congolese Prime Minister was murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the governments of Belgium and the United States.
Patrice Lumumba refimprove section
1977 – Convicted murderer was Gary Gilmore executed by firing squad in Utah, ending a four-year moratorium on the death penalty in the United States.
1981 – President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos lifted , eight years and five months after declaring it.
martial law multiple issues
1991 – , the current Harald V King of Norway, succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father .
Olav V refimprove section
1994 – A 6.7 M w killed 72 people, injured more than 9,000 others, and caused an estimated earthquake US$20 billion in damage in the San Fernando Valley area of Los Angeles.
1995 – The struck near Great Hanshin earthquake Kobe, Japan, killing over 6,000 people and causing over ¥10 trillion ( US$200 billion) worth of damage.
2002 – erupted in the Mount Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the town of Goma, destroying 4,500 buildings and leaving about 120,000 people homeless.
1946 – The , the organ of the United Nations Security Council United Nations charged with the maintenance of international peace and security, held its first meeting at Church House in London.
1961 – Three days before leaving office, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivered , in which he warned about the dangers of the a farewell speech to the nation military–industrial complex.
1966 – A U.S. Air Force B-52 Stratofortress with a collided KC-135 Stratotanker during aerial refueling over the Mediterranean Sea, dropping three hydrogen bombs on land near Palomares, Spain, and a fourth one into the sea.
1989 – Patrick Purdy in an elementary school in opened fire Stockton, California, killing five and wounding 30 others.
2010 – The first spate of began in violence between Muslims and Christians Jos, Nigeria, and would end in more than 200 deaths. Born/died:
(b. 1612) Thomas Fairfax · (b. 1820) Anne Brontë · (d. 1996)