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Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen
Space Shuttle Challenger explodes
1077 – Pope lifted the Gregory VII excommunication of after the Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor from made his trek Speyer to Canossa Castle to beg the pope for forgiveness for his actions in the Investiture Controversy. refimprove
1521 – Emperor and the Charles V estates of the Holy Roman Empire convened at the to discuss Diet of Worms Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation. unreferenced section
1547 – Nine-year-old became the first Edward VI Protestant ruler of England, during whose reign Protestantism was established for the first time in the country with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the mass. refimprove section
1573 – The was signed, sanctioning Warsaw Confederation religious freedom in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. refimprove section
1724 – The , the Russian Academy of Sciences national academy of Russia, was established. refimprove section, external links
1846 – The British led by Sir Harry Smith defeated the Sikh Khalsa Army led by Ranjodh Singh Majithia at the , sometimes regarded as the turning point of the Battle of Aliwal First Anglo-Sikh War. needs more footnotes
1855 – A train on the made the world's first Panama Railway transcontinental crossing by rail, a 48-mile (77 km) trip from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean across the Isthmus of Panama. refimprove
1871 – French forces surrendered at the , leading to the end of the Siege of Paris Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of the German Empire. needs more footnotes
1896 – Cited for travelling at 8 miles per hour (13 km/h), Walter Arnold of East Peckham, Kent, England, became the first person ever convicted of exceeding the , and was fined one speed limit shilling. globalize
1932 – The , a short war fought in and around January 28 Incident Shanghai between the armies of the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, began. needs more footnotes
1982 – After having been kidnapped by the Italian Red Brigade 42 days earlier, General of the James L. Dozier United States Army was freed by the anti-terrorist force NOCS. refimprove section
1986 – The NASA Space Shuttle Challenger 73 seconds into its disintegrated tenth mission, killing all seven crew members. refimprove section
2006 – The roof of one of the buildings at the Katowice International Fair in Katowice, Poland, due to the weight of snow, killing 65 visitors. collapsed needs more footnotes
1069 – Robert de Comines, the Earl of Northumbria, was killed in Durham, causing William the Conqueror to embark on . a campaign to subjugate Northern England
1393 – King Charles VI of France was nearly killed when during a several dancers' costumes caught fire masquerade ball.
1754 – coined the word " Horace Walpole serendipity" in a letter he wrote to a friend, saying that he derived the term from the Persian fairy tale . The Three Princes of Serendip
1922 – Snowfall from the in biggest recorded snowstorm Washington, D.C., history caused the roof of the to collapse, killing 98 people. Knickerbocker Theatre
1964 – An unarmed U.S. Air Force T-39 Sabreliner on a training mission was over shot down Erfurt, East Germany, by a Soviet MiG-19, killing all three aboard.
1977 – hit A deadly blizzard upstate New York and Southern Ontario, creating snowdrifts of up to 30 ft (9 m) in affected areas.
1981 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan lifted price controls from petroleum products, helping usher in the . 1980s oil glut
(b. 1533) Paul Luther · (b. 1873) Colette · Crew of (d. 1986) Space Shuttle Challenger