From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|<<||Selected anniversaries for July||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2017 day arrangement
- 1770 – Lexell's Comet passed closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.015 AU.
- 1867 – The British North America Act came into effect, uniting the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia into the Canadian Confederation.
- 1932 – Australia's national broadcaster, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, was formed.
- 1963 – The British government revealed that former MI6 agent Kim Philby (pictured) had engaged in espionage for the Soviet Union.
- 2006 – The Qinghai–Tibet Railway, the world's highest railway and the only railway line to the Tibet Autonomous Region, was inaugurated.
- 706 – In China, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang interred the final bodies in the Qianling Mausoleum, which remained unopened until the 1960s.
- 1816 – The French frigate Méduse ran aground off the coast of today's Mauritania, with the survivors escaping on a makeshift raft, which was depicted in Théodore Géricault's painting The Raft of the Medusa (pictured).
- 1950 – A mentally ill Buddhist monk set fire to the Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji, destroying what is now one of the most popular tourist destinations in Japan.
- 1976 – More than a year after the end of the Vietnam War, North and South Vietnam officially united under communist rule to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
- 2002 – American aviator Steve Fossett became the first person to fly solo nonstop around the world in a balloon, completing an almost 14-day trip after landing in Queensland, Australia.
- 987 – Hugh Capet was crowned King of France, becoming the first monarch of the Capetian dynasty, which ruled France continuously until overthrown during the French Revolution in 1792.
- 1754 – French and Indian War: George Washington surrendered Fort Necessity in Pennsylvania, the only military surrender in his entire career.
- 1898 – In one of the key naval engagements of the Spanish–American War, the United States Navy destroyed the Spanish Navy's Caribbean Squadron.
- 1940 – Second World War: The British Navy attacked the French fleet (French destroyer Mogador pictured), fearing that the ships would fall into German hands after the armistice between those two nations.
- 1970 – The Troubles: The British Army imposed the Falls Curfew on Belfast, Northern Ireland, which only resulted in greater Irish republican resistance.
- 1054 – Chinese astronomers recorded the sudden appearance of a "guest star", which was in actuality the supernova that created the Crab Nebula (pictured).
- 1610 – Polish–Muscovite War: The outnumbered forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth defeated the Tsardom of Russia at the Battle of Klushino.
- 1855 – The first edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass was published, and it went on to become one of the most important collections of American poetry.
- 1941 – German AB-Aktion operation in Poland: After capturing Lwów, the Nazis executed professors of the University of Lwów along with their families.
- 1976 – Israel Defense Forces raided Uganda's Entebbe International Airport to free hostages taken by hijackers on Air France Flight 139.
- 1687 – The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton was first published, describing his laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation.
- 1946 – Named after Bikini Atoll, the site of the nuclear weapons test Operation Crossroads in the Marshall Islands, the modern bikini was introduced at a fashion show in Paris.
- 1977 – General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (pictured) overthrew Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in a military coup d'état.
- 2006 – The United Nations Security Council held an emergency meeting hours after North Korea reportedly tested at least seven separate ballistic missiles.
- 1253 – Mindaugas, the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania, was crowned as King of Lithuania, the only person to ever hold that title.
- 1809 – Napoleon's French forces defeated Archduke Charles' Austrian army at the Battle of Wagram, the decisive confrontation of the War of the Fifth Coalition.
- 1936 – A major breach of the Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal in England sent millions of gallons of water cascading 300 feet (90 m) into the River Irwell.
- 2006 – Nathu La (pictured), a mountain pass in the Himalayas connecting India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opened for trade after more than 40 years.
- 1456 – Twenty-five years after her death, Joan of Arc was declared innocent of heresy in a posthumous retrial.
- 1798 – The Quasi-War, an undeclared war fought entirely at sea, began after the United States rescinded its treaties with France.
- 1846 – Mexican–American War: American forces led by Commodore John D. Sloat (pictured) occupied Monterey, beginning the annexation of California.
- 1892 – The Philippine revolutionary secret society Katipunan was founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila.
- 1946 – Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini became the first American to be canonized as a saint.
- 2012 – The equivalent of five months of rain fell overnight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, causing flash floods and killing 171 people.
- 1283 – War of the Sicilian Vespers: An Aragonese fleet of galleys inflicted a crushing defeat on an Angevin fleet at Malta, forcing Charles I of Naples to postpone his plan to invade Sicily.
- 1758 – French and Indian War: French forces defeated the British at Fort Carillon on the shore of Lake Champlain in the British Colony of New York.
- 1808 – Joseph Bonaparte (pictured) approved the Bayonne Statute, a royal charter intended as the basis for his rule as King of Spain during the Peninsular War.
- 1889 – The first issue of The Wall Street Journal, the world's most circulated business daily newspaper, was published.
- 1962 – In response to student protests at Rangoon University, Burmese General Ne Win ordered the demolition of the school's Students Union building.
- 1745 – War of the Austrian Succession: The French victory in the Battle of Melle enabled their subsequent capture of Ghent.
- 1811 – British explorer David Thompson posted a notice at the confluence of the Columbia and Snake Rivers (in modern Washington state, US), claiming the area for Great Britain.
- 1943 – World War II: The Allies began their invasion of Sicily, a large scale amphibious and airborne operation, followed by six weeks of land combat.
- 1981 – Nintendo released the arcade game Donkey Kong (pictured), which featured the debut of Mario, one of the most famous characters in video game history.
- 2008 – Under the belief that Israel and the United States were planning to attack its nuclear programme, Iran conducted the Great Prophet III missile test and war games exercise.
- 1645 – English Civil War: The Parliamentarians destroyed the last Royalist field army at the Battle of Langport, ultimately giving Parliament control of the West of England.
- 1806 – Indian sepoys mutinied against the East India Company at Vellore Fort, killing at least 100 British troops.
- 1921 – One day after a truce between the Irish Republican Army and British forces, violence between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast resulted in sixteen dead.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: A group of non-Jewish ethnic Poles from around the nearby area murdered hundreds of Jewish residents of Jedwabne in occupied Poland (memorial pictured).
- 2011 – The British tabloid newspaper News of the World published its last edition before closing due to allegations that it hacked the voicemails of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler, victims of the 7/7 attacks and relatives of deceased British soldiers.
- 1302 – Flemish infantry defeat a large French army near Kortrijk at the Battle of the Golden Spurs.
- 1833 – Noongar warrior Yagan, wanted for leading attacks on white colonists in Western Australia, was killed, becoming a symbol of the unjust and sometimes brutal treatment of the indigenous peoples of Australia by colonial settlers.
- 1921 – Former President of the United States William Howard Taft (pictured) was sworn in as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, making him the only person to ever hold both positions.
- 1943 – In a massive ethnic cleansing operation, units of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army attacked various Polish villages in the Volhynia region of present-day Ukraine, killing the Polish civilians and burning those settlements to the ground.
- 1991 – Shortly after takeoff from King Abdulaziz International Airport, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria Airways Flight 2120 caught fire and crashed, killing all 261 occupants on board.
Bronwyn Oliver (d. 2006) ·
- 1543 – King Henry VIII of England married Catherine Parr (pictured), his sixth and last wife, at Hampton Court Palace.
- 1843 – Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, proclaimed a revelation recommending polygamy.
- 1920 – The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty was signed, with Soviet Russia agreeing to recognize an independent Lithuania.
- 1986 – The Homosexual Law Reform Act became law in New Zealand, decriminalising consensual homosexual sex.
- 2006 – Hezbollah forces crossed the Israel–Lebanon border and attacked Israeli military positions while firing rockets and mortars at Israeli towns, sparking a five-week war.
Ruth Norman (d. 1993) ·
- 1830 – Scottish Church College (pictured), the oldest continuously running Christian liberal arts and sciences college in India, was founded as the General Assembly's Institution.
- 1863 – Three days of rioting began in New York City by opponents of new laws passed by the United States Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.
- 1941 – The Communist Party of Yugoslavia initiated a general and popular uprising against Italian occupation forces in Montenegro that was suppressed within six weeks.
- 1962 – In an unprecedented action, British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan dismissed seven members of his Cabinet.
- 2008 – War in Afghanistan: Taliban guerrillas attacked NATO troops near the village of Wanat in the Waygal district in Afghanistan's far eastern province of Nuristan.
- 756 – Emperor Xuanzong fled the Tang capital Chang'an as An Lushan's forces advanced toward the city during the An Lushan Rebellion.
- 1791 – The Priestley Riots began, in which Joseph Priestley and other religious Dissenters were driven out of Birmingham, England.
- 1865 – A seven-man team made the first ascent of the Matterhorn (pictured), marking the end of the golden age of alpinism.
- 1933 – With the enactment of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, the Nazi Party began its eugenics program.
- 2003 – In an effort to discredit U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, who had written an op-ed critical of the invasion of Iraq, his wife Valerie Plame's identity as a CIA operative was leaked to and published by Washington Post columnist Robert Novak.
Constance Stokes (d. 1991) ·
- 1410 – The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald, the decisive engagement of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
- 1799 – French soldiers uncovered the Rosetta Stone (pictured) in Fort Julien, near the Egyptian port city of Rashid.
- 1870 – Manitoba and the Northwest Territories were established following the transfer of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory from the Hudson's Bay Company to Canada.
- 1916 – William Boeing incorporated the Pacific Aero Products Company, which was later renamed Boeing.
- 2016 – Organized as the Peace at Home Council, a faction in the Turkish Armed Forces attempted a coup d'état against the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
- 1782 – Mozart's opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail made its premiere, after which Emperor Joseph II anecdotally made the comment that it had "too many notes".
- 1862 – David Farragut (pictured) became the first person to be promoted to the rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy.
- 1990 – A 7.8 MS earthquake struck the densely populated Philippine island of Luzon, killing an estimated 1,621 people.
- 2013 – At least 23 students died and dozens more fell ill at a primary school in the village of Dharmashati Gandaman in the Saran district of the Indian state of Bihar after eating a Midday Meal contaminated with pesticide.
- 1791 – French Revolution: Members of the National Guard fired into a large crowd that was gathered at the Champ de Mars, Paris, to sign a petition demanding the removal of King Louis XVI.
- 1863 – The New Zealand Wars resumed as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron began their Invasion of the Waikato.
- 1918 – RMS Carpathia, which had rescued the survivors of the RMS Titanic sinking, was itself sunk by a German U-boat.
- 1936 – Nationalist rebels attempted a coup d'état against the Second Spanish Republic, sparking the Spanish Civil War.
- 1996 – TWA Flight 800 exploded in mid-air (wreckage pictured) and crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York.
- 1389 – France and England agreed to the Truce of Leulinghem, establishing a 13-year peace during the Hundred Years' War.
- 1806 – A gunpowder magazine explosion in Birgu, Malta, kills around 200 people.
- 1863 – American Civil War: Led by Union Army Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, the first formal African American military unit, spearheaded an assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina.
- 1976 – At the Olympic Games in Montreal, Nadia Comăneci (pictured) became the first person to score a perfect 10 in a modern Olympics gymnastics event.
- 1995 – Selena's album Dreaming of You, instrumental in popularizing Tejano music, was released posthumously.
- 1553 – Lady Jane Grey was replaced by Mary I as Queen of England after holding that title for just nine days.
- 1702 – Great Northern War: A numerically superior Polish–Saxon army of Augustus II the Strong, operating from an advantageous defensive position, was defeated by a Swedish army half its size in the Battle of Kliszów.
- 1843 – SS Great Britain (pictured), the first ocean-going ship that had both an iron hull and a screw propeller, launched from Bristol, UK.
- 1903 – French cyclist Maurice Garin won the first Tour de France.
- 1916 – First World War: "The worst 24 hours in Australia's entire history" occurred when Australian forces suffered heavy losses in their unsuccessful assault on the Germans at the Battle of Fromelles in France.
- 1981 – French President François Mitterrand privately revealed to US President Ronald Reagan documents showing that the Soviets had been stealing American technological research and development.
- 1592 – During the Japanese invasion of Korea, Japanese forces led by Toyotomi Hideyoshi captured Pyongyang, although they were ultimately unable to hold it.
- 1779 – Tekle Giyorgis I began the first of his six reigns as Emperor of Ethiopia.
- 1936 – The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits was signed in Montreux, Switzerland, allowing Turkey to fortify the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus but guaranteeing free passage to ships of all nations in peacetime.
- 1976 – The Viking 1 lander (pictured) became the first spacecraft to successfully land on Mars and perform its mission.
- 2012 – Gunman James Eagan Holmes opened fire at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, US, killing 12 people and injuring 58 others.
- 365 – A large earthquake that occurred near Crete and its subsequent tsunami caused widespread destruction throughout the eastern Mediterranean region.
- 1831 – In Brussels, Leopold I was inaugurated as the first King of the Belgians.
- 1861 – In the First Battle of Bull Run, the first major land battle in the American Civil War, the Confederate Army under Joseph E. Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard routed Union Army troops under Irvin McDowell.
- 1969 – During the Apollo 11 mission, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin (pictured) became the first humans to walk on the Moon.
- 2012 – Turkish adventurer Erden Eruç became the first person in history to complete a solo human-powered circumnavigation of the Earth.
- 838 – Arab–Byzantine wars: The forces of the Abbasid Caliphate defeated Byzantine Empire troops, led by Emperor Theophilos himself, at the Battle of Anzen near present-day Dazman, Turkey.
- 1894 – Despite finishing in first place in the world's first auto race, Jules-Albert de Dion did not win, as his steam-powered car was against the rules.
- 1950 – Following an indecisive referendum, King Leopold III (pictured), accused of collaboration with Nazi Germany, returned to Belgium, beginning an escalation of the political crisis known as the Royal Question.
- 1991 – American serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer was arrested in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, after police discovered human remains in his apartment.
- 2002 – The Israeli Defense Forces dropped a bomb on the home of Salah Shehade, the leader of the military arm of Hamas, killing him and his family.
- 1829 – William Austin Burt was awarded a patent for the typographer, the first practical typewriting machine.
- 1914 – Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with an ultimatum to allow them to investigate the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, that Serbia would ultimately reject, leading to World War I.
- 1942 – The Holocaust: The gas chambers at Treblinka extermination camp began operation, killing 6,500 Jews who had been transported from the Warsaw Ghetto the day before.
- 1970 – Qaboos overthrew his father Said bin Taimur to become Sultan of Oman.
- 1986 – Sarah Ferguson (pictured) married Prince Andrew, Duke of York, at Westminster Abbey, joining the British Royal Family as the Duchess of York.
- 1783 – The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and the Russian Empire signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, establishing Georgia as a protectorate of Russia.
- 1847 – Brigham Young led the first group of Mormon pioneers into the Salt Lake Valley of Utah, at the time a part of Mexico.
- 1911 – In the Peruvian Andes, American explorer Hiram Bingham re-discovered Machu Picchu (pictured), then thought to be the "Lost City of the Incas".
- 1963 – Bluenose II, a replica fishing schooner and major Canadian symbol, was launched in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.
- 2001 – Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the last Tsar of Bulgaria when he was a child, was sworn in as Prime Minister of Bulgaria, becoming one of the first monarchs in history to regain political power through a democratic election to a different office.
- 306 – Constantine the Great was proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops after the death of Constantius Chlorus.
- 1814 – War of 1812: In present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario, the United States and Great Britain engaged in the Battle of Lundy's Lane, one of the deadliest ever fought on Canadian soil.
- 1893 – The Corinth Canal (pictured), which bisects the narrow Isthmus of Corinth, was formally opened, connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Aegean Sea's Saronic Gulf.
- 1978 – Two Puerto Rican pro-independence activists were killed in a police ambush at Cerro Maravilla in Ponce.
- 2000 – Air France Concorde Flight 4590, en route from Paris to New York City, crashed in Gonesse, France, killing all 100 passengers and nine crew members, as well as four people on the ground.
- 1581 – Representatives of the States General of the Netherlands signed the Act of Abjuration, declaring the independence of the Dutch Low Countries from King Philip II of Spain.
- 1882 – Boer mercenaries declared their independence from the Transvaal Republic and established the Republic of Stellaland.
- 1936 – The Canadian National Vimy Memorial (pictured), dedicated to the Canadian Expeditionary Force members killed during the First World War, was unveiled near Vimy, Pas-de-Calais, France.
- 1953 – Fidel Castro and his brother Raúl led a group of approximately 160 rebels in an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks, thus beginning the Cuban Revolution.
- 2008 – One day after similar bombings in Bangalore, 21 bombs exploded in Ahmedabad, India, killing 56 people and injuring over 200 others.
- 1302 – Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman sultanate gained its first major victory against the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Bapheus in Bithynia.
- 1916 – British mariner Charles Fryatt (pictured) was executed at Bruges, Belgium, after a court-martial found him to be a franc-tireur.
- 1953 – An armistice was signed to end hostilities in the Korean War, officially making the division of Korea indefinite by creating an approximately 4 km (2.5 mi) wide demilitarized zone across the Korean Peninsula.
- 2002 – A Ukrainian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 aircraft crashed during an aerobatics presentation at an airshow near Lviv, Ukraine, killing 77 people and injuring over 500 others.
- 1821 – Peruvian War of Independence: Argentine general José de San Martín declared the independence of Peru from Spain.
- 1866 – At the age of 18, Vinnie Ream became the youngest artist and first woman to receive a commission from the United States government for a statue—that of Abraham Lincoln in the US Capitol rotunda.
- 1914 – Austria-Hungary declared war after rejecting Serbia's conditional acceptance of only part of the July Ultimatum following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, starting World War I.
- 1939 – The Sutton Hoo helmet (pictured) was discovered.
- 2001 – At the World Aquatics Championships in Fukuoka, Japan, Australian Ian Thorpe became the first swimmer to win six gold medals at a single World Championships.
- 1014 – Byzantine–Bulgarian wars: Forces of the Byzantine Empire defeated troops of the Bulgarian Empire at the Battle of Kleidion (pictured) in the Belasica Mountains near present-day Klyuch, Bulgaria.
- 1858 – Japan reluctantly signed the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, an unequal treaty giving the United States various commercial and diplomatic privileges.
- 1899 – The first Hague Convention, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in international law, was signed.
- 1958 – US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act into law, establishing a new federal non-military space agency known as NASA.
- 1987 – Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene signed the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to resolve the ongoing Sri Lankan Civil War.
- 1811 – Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, an early leader of the Mexican War of Independence, was executed by Spanish authorities.
- 1825 – Malden Island (pictured), now one of Kiribati's Line Islands, was discovered by Captain The 7th Lord Byron.
- 1916 – German agents caused a major explosion when they sabotaged American ammunition supplies in New Jersey to prevent the materiel from being used by the Allies of World War I.
- 1950 – Four striking workers were shot dead by the Gendarmerie in Belgium at the height of the political crisis known as the Royal Question.
- 2006 – Lebanon War: The Israeli Air Force attacked a three-story building near the South Lebanese village of Qana, killing at least 28 civilians, including 16 children.
- 1423 – Hundred Years' War: The English and their Burgundian allies were victorious over the French at the Battle of Cravant near Auxerre, France.
- 1777 – The Second Continental Congress passed a resolution allowing French nobleman the Marquis de Lafayette (pictured) to enter the American revolutionary forces as a Major General.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring ordered SS General Reinhard Heydrich to handle "the final solution of the Jewish question".
- 1991 – The Soviet Union and the United States signed the bilateral START I treaty, the largest and most complex arms control treaty in history, which eventually removed 80% of all strategic nuclear weapons then in existence.
- 2006 – Following intestinal surgery, Fidel Castro provisionally transferred the duties of the Cuban presidency to his brother Raúl.