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|<<||Selected anniversaries for July||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2021 day arrangement
- 1643 – The Westminster Assembly of Divines, assembled to restructure the Church of England, first convened in Westminster Abbey, London.
- 1874 – The Remington No. 1, the first commercially successful typewriter, went on sale.
- 1943 – The municipality of Tokyo City was dissolved, with its territory forming the special wards of the newly established Tokyo Metropolis (government building pictured).
- 2008 – Rioting erupted in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, over allegations of fraud surrounding the recent legislative election.
- 1298 – Albert I's army defeated the forces of the deposed Adolf of Nassau at the Battle of Göllheim following Albert's election to replace Adolf as King of Germany.
- 1816 – The French frigate Méduse ran aground off the coast of present-day Mauritania, with the survivors escaping on a makeshift raft, depicted in Théodore Géricault's painting The Raft of the Medusa (pictured).
- 1881 – U.S. president James A. Garfield was fatally shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station in Washington, D.C.
- 1941 – An SS unit arrived in Vilnius, Lithuania, and began the systematic execution of up to 100,000 people over the next three years.
- 2013 – The International Astronomical Union announced that the fourth and fifth moons of Pluto to be discovered would be named Kerberos and Styx, respectively.
- 324 – Roman emperor Constantine the Great defeated his former colleague Licinius at the Battle of Adrianople.
- 1863 – Pickett's Charge, a futile Confederate infantry assault against Union Army positions, occurred during the final and bloodiest day of fighting in the Battle of Gettysburg, marking a turning point in the American Civil War.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Royal Navy attacked the French fleet at Mers El Kébir (ship pictured), fearing that the ships would fall into Axis hands after the French–German armistice.
- 1970 – Dan-Air Flight 1903 crashed into the slopes of the Montseny Massif in Catalonia, Spain, killing all 112 people aboard.
- 2013 – General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to depose Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi in a coup d'état, suspending the constitution.
- 1837 – The Grand Junction Railway, the world's first long-distance railway with steam traction, opened between Birmingham and Newton Junction.
- 1855 – The first edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass was published, and it went on to become one of the most important collections of American poetry.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: During the German occupation of Latvia, a number of synagogues in Riga were set on fire, killing many Jews who were confined within.
- 1951 – William Shockley announced the invention of the junction transistor (example pictured), for which he, John Bardeen, and Walter Houser Brattain later won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
- 1814 – War of 1812: American troops invading Upper Canada were victorious in the Battle of Chippawa.
- 1841 – Thomas Cook (pictured), founder of the travel company Thomas Cook & Son, organised his first excursion, escorting about 500 people from Leicester to Loughborough.
- 1946 – Named after Bikini Atoll, the site of the nuclear weapons test Operation Crossroads in the Marshall Islands, the modern bikini was introduced at a fashion show in Paris.
- 1954 – Elvis Presley recorded his first single, "That's All Right", at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee.
- 2006 – The United Nations Security Council held an emergency meeting hours after North Korea reportedly tested at least seven separate ballistic missiles.
- 1614 – The Ottoman Empire made a final attempt to conquer the island of Malta, but were repulsed by the Knights Hospitaller.
- 1892 – During a steelworkers' strike in Homestead, Pennsylvania, a day-long battle between strikers and Pinkerton agents resulted in at least ten deaths and dozens of people wounded.
- 1936 – A major breach of the Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal (pictured) in England sent millions of gallons of water cascading 300 feet (90 m) into the River Irwell.
- 1971 – After visiting several Asian communist countries, Romanian leader Nicolae Ceaușescu gave a speech on a number of neo-Stalinist and socialist-realist ideals, which became known as the July Theses.
- 1575 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: In the last major battle between England and Scotland, a "Truce Day" at Carter Bar near Redesdale became a fight in which the English side was routed.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British forces caught up with American troops withdrawing from Ticonderoga, capturing more than 200 men at the Battle of Hubbardton.
- 1937 – The Peel Commission published a report stating that the League of Nations' Mandate for Palestine had become unworkable and recommended the partition of British-administered Mandatory Palestine into two states.
- 1991 – Yugoslav Wars: The signing of the Brioni Agreement ended the Ten-Day War between SFR Yugoslavia and Slovenia.
- 2016 – A U.S. Army Reserve veteran ambushed and shot at police officers (memorial service pictured) in Dallas, Texas, killing five of them and injuring nine others, before being killed by a bomb attached to a police robot.
- 1663 – Charles II of England granted Baptist minister John Clarke the Rhode Island Royal Charter, described by one historian as "the grandest instrument of human liberty ever constructed".
- 1709 – Great Northern War: Swedish forces under Charles XII were defeated by Russian troops led by Peter the Great at the Battle of Poltava, effectively ending Sweden's role as a major European power.
- 1947 – Following reports of the capture of a "flying disc" by U.S. Army Air Force personnel near Roswell, New Mexico, the military said that the crashed object was a conventional weather balloon.
- 1994 – Upon the death of Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il (pictured) became the supreme leader of North Korea.
- 1640 – The Virginia Governor's Council made John Punch the first legally recognized slave in England's North American colonies.
- 1790 – Russo-Swedish War: During the Battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea, the Swedish Navy captured a third of the Russian fleet.
- 1958 – An earthquake struck Lituya Bay, Alaska; the subsequent megatsunami, the largest in modern times, reached an elevation of 1,720 ft (524 m).
- 1981 – Nintendo released the arcade game Donkey Kong (cabinet pictured), which featured the debut of Mario, one of the most famous characters in video-game history.
- 1995 – Sri Lankan Civil War: After advising civilians to take shelter in places of worship, the Sri Lanka Air Force bombed a church in Navaly, killing at least 147 people.
- 1553 – Lady Jane Grey (pictured) was proclaimed the successor to King Edward VI of England, beginning her de facto reign as the "Nine Days' Queen".
- 1806 – Indian sepoys mutinied against the East India Company at Vellore Fort.
- 1921 – Irish War of Independence: One day after a truce was agreed between the Irish Republican Army and British forces, violence broke out between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: Ethnic Poles murdered at least 340 Jewish residents of Jedwabne in German-occupied Poland.
- 2018 – The last members of a junior football team and their coach were rescued from a flooded cave in northern Thailand.
- 1405 – Admiral Zheng He's first expeditionary fleet of Chinese treasure ships departed Nanjing, beginning the Ming treasure voyages to the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.
- 1801 – French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons co-discovered the first of his 37 comets, more than any other person in history.
- 1921 – Former president William Howard Taft (pictured) was sworn in as Chief Justice of the United States, making him the only person to date to have held both offices.
- 1991 – Shortly after taking off from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria Airways Flight 2120 caught fire and crashed, killing all 261 people on board.
- 2011 – An explosion at the Evangelos Florakis Naval Base killed 13 people, including the head of the Cyprus Navy.
- 927 – King Æthelstan of England secured the submission of four northern rulers: Constantine II of Scotland, Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Ealdred I of Bamburgh, and Owain ap Dyfnwal of Strathclyde.
- 1801 – French Revolutionary Wars: A squadron of British ships of the line defeated a larger squadron of Spanish and French vessels in the Strait of Gibraltar.
- 1918 – An explosion in the ammunition magazine of the Japanese battleship Kawachi (pictured) resulted in the deaths of more than 600 officers and crewmen.
- 2006 – Hezbollah forces crossed the Israel–Lebanon border and attacked Israeli military positions while firing rockets and mortars at Israeli towns, sparking a five-week war.
- 1643 – English Civil War: Royalist forces defeated the Parliamentarians at the Battle of Roundway Down near Devizes, Wiltshire.
- 1793 – Charlotte Corday assassinated the French revolutionary leader Jean-Paul Marat in his bathtub (depicted); his death became a pretext for the subsequent Reign of Terror.
- 1878 – At the conclusion of the Congress of Berlin, the great powers of Europe signed the Treaty of Berlin to redraw the map of the Balkans.
- 1973 – Watergate scandal: Under questioning by Senate investigators, White House deputy chief of staff Alexander Butterfield revealed the existence of a secret taping system in the Oval Office.
- 2008 – War in Afghanistan: Taliban guerrillas attacked U.S. troops at the Battle of Wanat in Nuristan Province.
- 1789 – The fortress of the Bastille in Paris was stormed by a crowd in the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
- 1874 – A fire destroyed 812 structures and killed 20 people in Chicago, leading to reforms in the city's fire-prevention and firefighting efforts.
- 1902 – The mediaeval St Mark's Campanile in Venice collapsed (ruins pictured), also demolishing the Loggetta del Sansovino.
- 1987 – More than 100 mm (3.9 in) of rain fell in a two-and-a-half-hour period in Montreal, causing severe flooding and more than C$220 million in damage.
- 2003 – In an effort to discredit U.S. ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, who had written an op-ed criticizing the invasion of Iraq, his wife Valerie Plame's identity as a CIA operative was leaked to and published by journalist Robert Novak.
- 1815 – Aboard HMS Bellerophon, French emperor Napoleon surrendered to Royal Navy captain Frederick Lewis Maitland, concluding the Napoleonic Wars.
- 1910 – Emil Kraepelin (pictured) published a new edition of his Textbook of Psychiatry, including for the first time Alzheimer's disease, named after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.
- 1966 – Vietnam War: United States and South Vietnamese troops began Operation Hastings to push North Vietnamese forces out of the Demilitarized Zone.
- 2014 – A Moscow Metro train derailed, killing 24 people and injuring 160 others in the deadliest accident in the metro system's history.
- 1232 – Muhammad ibn Yusuf, who later established the last Muslim state in Spain, was elected the ruler of Arjona.
- 1782 – Mozart's opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail premiered in Vienna, after which Emperor Joseph II anecdotally remarked that it had "too many notes".
- 1931 – Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie (pictured) promulgated the nation's first constitution, replacing the Fetha Nagast, which had been the supreme law since the Middle Ages.
- 1951 – The Catcher in the Rye, an American coming-of-age novel by J. D. Salinger, was first published.
- 1983 – A Sikorsky S-61 helicopter operated by British Airways crashed in thick fog in the Celtic Sea, killing 20 of the 26 people on board.
- 1048 – Damasus II began his 23-day-long papacy, one of the shortest in history.
- 1771 – Dene men, acting as guides to Samuel Hearne on his exploration of the Coppermine River in present-day Nunavut, Canada, massacred a group of about 20 Copper Inuit.
- 1968 – Led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party overthrew Iraqi president Abdul Rahman Arif.
- 1981 – A structural failure caused a walkway at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Kansas City, Missouri, U.S., to collapse (damage pictured), killing 114 people and injuring 216 others.
- 1806 – A gunpowder magazine explosion in Birgu, Malta, killed an estimated 200 people.
- 1841 – Pedro II, the last Emperor of Brazil, having reigned in minority since 1831, was acclaimed, crowned and consecrated.
- 1949 – Francisco Javier Arana, Chief of the Armed Forces of Guatemala, was killed in a shootout with supporters of President Juan José Arévalo.
- 1976 – At the Olympic Games in Montreal, Nadia Comăneci (pictured) became the first person to score a perfect 10 in a modern Olympics gymnastics event.
- 1989 – American actress Rebecca Schaeffer was shot and killed by Robert John Bardo, eventually prompting the passage of anti-stalking laws in California.
- 998 – Arab–Byzantine wars: After initial Byzantine gains at the Battle of Apamea, a lone Kurdish rider managed to kill Byzantine commander Damian Dalassenos, allowing Fatimid troops to turn the tide of the battle.
- 1702 – Great Northern War: Polish–Saxon forces were defeated by a Swedish army half their size at the Battle of Kliszów.
- 1981 – French president François Mitterrand privately showed U.S. president Ronald Reagan a dossier revealing that the Soviets had been stealing American technological research and development.
- 2013 – The NASA spacecraft Cassini took a photograph of Saturn with Earth in the distance (detail pictured), for which people were invited to "wave at Saturn".
- 1793 – Scottish explorer Alexander Mackenzie reached the Pacific coast at Bella Coola, British Columbia, completing the first recorded transcontinental crossing of North America north of Mexico.
- 1982 – Members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated two bombs in Hyde Park and Regent's Park in London, killing eleven British Army personnel and seven horses.
- 1997 – After being fully restored, USS Constitution (pictured), one of the original six frigates of the United States Navy, sailed for the first time in 116 years.
- 2001 – Twenty-three-year-old Italian anti-globalist Carlo Giuliani was shot dead by a police officer while protesting outside the 27th G8 summit held in Genoa, Italy.
- 365 – A large earthquake occurred near Crete and triggered a subsequent tsunami that caused widespread destruction around the eastern Mediterranean region.
- 1378 – Unrepresented labourers in Florence revolted and violently took over the city's government (depicted) to grant them political office.
- 1877 – Much of central Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was burned and looted during the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.
- 1977 – Libyan forces carried out a raid at Sallum, sparking a four-day war with Egypt.
- 2013 – Nour Ahmad Nikbakht, an Iranian diplomat in Yemen, was kidnapped by al-Qaeda militants and held hostage for the next two years.
- 1298 – English forces led by Edward I defeated William Wallace's Scottish troops at the Battle of Falkirk.
- 1802 – Gia Long conquered Hanoi and unified modern-day Vietnam, which had experienced centuries of feudal warfare.
- 1894 – Jules-Albert de Dion (pictured) finished first in the world's first motor race, but did not win as his steam-powered car was against the rules.
- 1983 – The Communist Polish government ended the 19-month period of martial law it had imposed in an attempt to counter political opposition.
- 1991 – American serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer was arrested in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, after police discovered human remains in his apartment.
- 1319 – A fleet led by the Knights Hospitaller sank 22 of 28 ships of the Turkish Aydınid emirate.
- 1860 – The trial of the Eastbourne manslaughter, which later became an important legal precedent in the United Kingdom for discussions of corporal punishment in schools, began in Lewes.
- 1921 – The first National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party opened in a house in Shanghai.
- 1984 – Vanessa Williams, the first African-American Miss America, was forced to resign after the magazine Penthouse published nude photos of her without consent.
- 2001 – Megawati Sukarnoputri (pictured) became the first female president of Indonesia after her predecessor Abdurrahman Wahid was removed from office.
- 1411 – Scottish clansmen led by Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles, and Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, fought the Battle of Harlaw near Inverurie, Scotland.
- 1910 – Ottoman forces captured the city of Shkodër, ending the Albanian revolt of 1910.
- 1959 – Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev and U.S. vice president Richard Nixon held an impromptu debate (pictured) at the opening of the American National Exhibition at Sokolniki Park in Moscow.
- 1980 – At the Moscow Olympics, the Australian swimming team, nicknamed the Quietly Confident Quartet, won the men's 4 × 100 metre medley relay.
- 306 – Constantine the Great (sculpture pictured) was proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops after the death of Constantius Chlorus.
- 1139 – Prince Afonso Henriques led Portuguese troops to victory over the Almoravid Moors at the Battle of Ourique, which soon resulted in Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León.
- 1978 – Two Puerto Rican independence activists were killed in a police ambush at Cerro Maravilla in Ponce.
- 2007 – Pratibha Patil was sworn in as the first female president of India.
- 1759 – French and Indian War: Rather than defend Fort Carillon near present-day Ticonderoga, New York, from an approaching 11,000-man British force, French Brigadier General François-Charles de Bourlamaque withdrew his troops and attempted to blow up the fort.
- 1887 – L. L. Zamenhof (pictured) published Unua Libro, the first publication to describe Esperanto, a constructed international language.
- 1936 – The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, dedicated to the Canadian Expeditionary Force members killed during the First World War, was unveiled near Vimy, Pas-de-Calais, France.
- 2007 – After widespread controversy throughout Wales, Shambo, a black Friesian bull that had been adopted by the local Hindu community, was slaughtered due to concerns about bovine tuberculosis.
- 678 – Unable to penetrate the city's defences, the Sclaveni were forced to give up their siege of the Byzantine city of Thessalonica.
- 1302 – Byzantine–Ottoman wars: The Ottoman sultanate gained its first major victory against the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Bapheus in Bithynia.
- 1955 – The Austrian State Treaty came into effect, ending the Allied occupation of Austria, although the country was not free of Allied troops until October.
- 1983 – Madonna (pictured) released her self-titled debut album, which set the standard for the genre of dance-pop for decades.
- 2007 – While covering a police pursuit in Phoenix, Arizona, two news helicopters collided in mid-air, killing both crews.
- 1794 – French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, architects of the Reign of Terror, were executed after their arrest on the previous day.
- 1821 – Peruvian War of Independence: Argentine general José de San Martín declared the independence of Peru from the Spanish Empire.
- 1915 – U.S. Marines landed at Port-au-Prince to begin a twenty-year occupation of Haiti.
- 1976 – An earthquake registering 7.6 Mw, one of the deadliest in history, devastated Tangshan, China, and killed at least 240,000 people.
- 2001 – At the World Aquatics Championships in Fukuoka, Japan, Australian Ian Thorpe (pictured) became the first swimmer to win six gold medals at a single FINA world championship.
- 1693 – Nine Years' War: French troops defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance led by William III of England at the Battle of Landen in present-day Neerwinden, Belgium.
- 1914 – The Cape Cod Canal (pictured), connecting Cape Cod Bay and Buzzards Bay in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, opened on a limited basis.
- 1954 – The first part of J. R. R. Tolkien's high-fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings was published by Allen & Unwin.
- 1981 – An estimated worldwide television audience of 750 million people watched the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer at St Paul's Cathedral in London.
- 1865 – Off the coast of Crescent City, California, the steamer Brother Jonathan (depicted) struck an uncharted rock and sank, killing 225 people; its cargo of gold coins was not retrieved until 1996.
- 1916 – World War I: German agents sabotaged U.S.-made munitions in New York Harbor that were to be supplied to the Allies.
- 1930 – Uruguay defeated Argentina at the Estadio Centenario in Montevideo to win the inaugural FIFA World Cup.
- 1981 – Amid a widespread economic crisis and food shortages in Poland, up to 50,000 people, mostly women and children, took part in the largest of nationwide hunger demonstrations in Łódź.
- 2014 – At least 151 people were killed when heavy rains triggered a landslide in the village of Malin in Maharashtra, India.
- 781 – The first recorded eruption of Japan's Mount Fuji (pictured) took place.
- 1423 – Hundred Years' War: The English and their Burgundian allies were victorious over the French at the Battle of Cravant near Auxerre, France.
- 1777 – The Second Continental Congress passed a resolution commissioning the Marquis de Lafayette as a major general in the American revolutionary forces.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring authorised SS General Reinhard Heydrich to handle preparations for "the Final Solution of the Jewish question".
- 1991 – Soviet Special Purpose Police Unit troops killed seven Lithuanian customs officials in Medininkai in the most serious attack of their campaign against Lithuanian border posts.