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|<<||Selected anniversaries for March||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2021 day arrangement
March 1: Nineteen-Day Fast begins (Baháʼí Faith, 2021); Independence Day in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992); Saint David's Day in Wales; Yap Day in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia
- 1872 – Yellowstone National Park, the first national park in the world, was established with the majority of it in the U.S. state of Wyoming.
- 1896 – Ethiopia defeated Italy at the Battle of Adwa, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War.
- 1921 – The Australian cricket team, led by Warwick Armstrong (pictured), became the first team to complete a whitewash in the Ashes, an achievement that would not be repeated for 86 years.
- 2014 – A group of knife-wielding terrorists attacked passengers at Kunming railway station in Kunming, China, leaving 31 victims dead and more than 140 others injured.
- 1444 – The League of Lezhë, an alliance of regional chieftains, was established in Venetian Albania with Skanderbeg as its commander.
- 1865 – New Zealand Wars: Carl Sylvius Völkner (pictured), a Protestant missionary, was killed by Hauhau militants in Ōpōtiki for working as an agent for George Grey, Governor-General of New Zealand.
- 1937 – The Steel Workers Organizing Committee, precursor to the United Steel Workers of America, had a major success when it signed a collective-bargaining agreement with U.S. Steel.
- 1962 – Led by General Ne Win, the Burmese military seized power in a coup d'état.
- 2017 – A naming ceremony for the chemical elements moscovium, tennessine, and oganesson took place at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow.
- 1875 – The first indoor game of ice hockey was played at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal by James Creighton and students of McGill University.
- 1891 – Shoshone National Forest, in the U.S. state of Wyoming, was established as the country's first national forest.
- 1924 – The Ottoman Caliphate, the world's last widely recognized caliphate, was abolished.
- 1991 – Motorist Rodney King (pictured) was beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers during an arrest, causing public outrage that increased tensions between the African-American community and the police department over police brutality and social inequality.
- 2012 – Two passenger trains collided near Szczekociny, Poland, resulting in 16 deaths and 58 injuries.
- 1386 – Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło (pictured), beginning the Jagiellonian dynasty.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: Using artillery transported from Ticonderoga, the Continental Army occupied Dorchester Heights, forcing the British to abandon Boston two weeks later.
- 1918 – A case of influenza was recorded at Camp Funston, Kansas, conventionally marking the beginning of the Spanish flu.
- 1941 – Second World War: British Commandos successfully executed a raid on the Lofoten Islands in German-occupied Norway.
- 2009 – President Omar al-Bashir of Sudan was indicted by the International Criminal Court on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the War in Darfur.
- 363 – Roman–Persian Wars: Roman emperor Julian and his army set out from Antioch to attack the Sasanian Empire.
- 1811 – Peninsular War: At the Battle of Barrosa, Anglo-Iberian forces trying to lift the Siege of Cádiz defeated a French attack but could not break the siege itself.
- 1943 – World War II: The Gloster Meteor, the Allies' only operational jet aircraft, made its maiden flight.
- 1963 – American country-music performers Patsy Cline, Cowboy Copas, and Hawkshaw Hawkins were killed when their PA-24 crashed shortly after takeoff in Camden, Tennessee.
- 1981 – The ZX81 (example pictured), a pioneering British home computer, was launched by Sinclair Research, and went on to sell more than 1.5 million units around the world.
- 961 – With the conclusion of the Siege of Chandax, the Muslim Emirate of Crete was conquered by the Byzantine Empire.
- 1836 – Texas Revolution: Mexican troops captured the Alamo Mission (pictured) in San Antonio from Texian forces after a 13-day siege.
- 1902 – The Spanish professional football club Real Madrid, one of the world's richest, was founded as Madrid Football Club.
- 1953 – Following Joseph Stalin's death, Georgy Malenkov succeeded him as Premier of the Soviet Union.
- 1988 – The Troubles: In Operation Flavius, the Special Air Service killed three volunteers of the Provisional Irish Republican Army conspiring to bomb a parade of British military bands in Gibraltar.
- 321 – Emperor Constantine I decreed that Sunday, the day honoring the sun god Sol Invictus (disc pictured), would be the Roman day of rest.
- 1850 – United States senator Daniel Webster delivered a speech advocating compromise on slavery, which proved to be unpopular with abolitionists in his home state.
- 1871 – José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco, began a four-year premiership as Prime Minister of the Empire of Brazil, the longest in the state's history.
- 1941 – The German submarine U-47, one of the most successful U-boats of World War II, disappeared with 45 men on board.
- 2009 – Dissident Irish republican campaign: Two off-duty British Army soldiers were shot dead by Real IRA paramilitaries outside Massereene Barracks in Antrim, Northern Ireland.
- 1576 – A Spanish colonial officer wrote a letter to King Philip II containing the first mention of the Maya ruins of Copán (pictured) in present-day Honduras.
- 1658 – After a devastating defeat in the Second Northern War, King Frederick III of Denmark–Norway was forced to give up nearly half his Danish territory to Sweden to save the remainder.
- 1910 – French aviator Raymonde de Laroche became the first woman to receive a pilot's licence.
- 1924 – Three violent explosions at a coal mine near Castle Gate, Utah, killed all 171 miners working there.
- 1966 – Nelson's Pillar, a large granite pillar topped by a statue of Lord Nelson in Dublin, Ireland, was severely damaged by a bomb.
- 1776 – Scottish political economist Adam Smith's book The Wealth of Nations, the first modern work in the field of economics, was first published.
- 1842 – Awaking from a nap under a tree at Rancho San Francisco, Francisco López made the first popularly documented discovery of gold in California.
- 1946 – Thirty-three people were killed in a human crush at Burnden Park, a football stadium in Bolton, England.
- 1967 – Svetlana Alliluyeva (pictured), the daughter of former Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, defected to the United States.
- 1978 – The Jagorawi Toll Road, the first toll highway in Indonesia, was inaugurated by President Suharto.
- 1915 – The Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the first deliberately planned British offensive of the First World War, began.
- 1945 – World War II: The United States Army Air Forces conducted a firebombing raid on Tokyo that killed at least 90,000 people.
- 1959 – An anti-Chinese uprising began as thousands of Tibetans surrounded the Potala Palace in Lhasa to prevent the Dalai Lama from leaving or being removed by the Chinese army.
- 1990 – Eighteen months after seizing power, Prosper Avril was ousted as the military head of state of Haiti.
- 2006 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (artist's impression pictured) reached and entered orbit around Mars.
- 222 – Disaffected with Roman emperor Elagabalus's disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos, the Praetorian Guard assassinated him and his mother, throwing his mutilated body into the Tiber.
- 1851 – Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto premiered at La Fenice in Venice.
- 1946 – Rudolf Höss, the first commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, was captured by British troops.
- 1978 – After hijacking a bus north of Tel Aviv, Israel, members of the Palestine Liberation Organization faction Fatah engaged in a shootout with police, resulting in the deaths of 38 civilians and most of the perpetrators.
- 2011 – A massive earthquake and tsunami struck northeastern Japan (damage pictured) and triggered a nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.
- 1881 – Andrew Watson captained the Scotland national football team against England, becoming the world's first black international footballer.
- 1913 – At a ceremony at Kurrajong Hill, Lady Denman, wife of Governor-General Lord Denman, announced that Canberra would be the name of the future capital of Australia.
- 1933 – U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (pictured) delivered the first of his fireside chats, addressing the nation directly via radio.
- 1952 – British diplomat Lord Ismay was appointed the first secretary general of NATO.
- 1971 – The Turkish Armed Forces executed a "coup by memorandum", forcing the resignation of Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel.
- 1567 – A Spanish mercenary army surprised a band of rebels at the Battle of Oosterweel in the Habsburg Netherlands, beginning the Eighty Years' War.
- 1781 – William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus from the garden of his house in Bath, England, initially considering it to be a comet.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: Nazi troops began the final liquidation of the Kraków Ghetto in Poland, sending about 2,000 Jews to the Płaszów labor camp (deportation pictured), with the remaining 5,000 either killed or sent to Auschwitz.
- 1986 – Claiming the right of innocent passage, the American warships Yorktown and Caron entered Soviet territorial waters in the Black Sea.
- 2013 – Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected Pope Francis, making him the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, and the first from the Southern Hemisphere.
- 1593 – Japanese invasions of Korea: A force of 3,000 Korean soldiers successfully defended Haengju Fortress against 30,000 Japanese invaders.
- 1757 – Royal Navy Admiral John Byng (pictured) was executed by firing squad for failing to "do his utmost" during the Battle of Minorca at the start of the Seven Years' War.
- 1931 – Alam Ara, the first Indian sound film, premiered at the Majestic Cinema in Bombay.
- 1972 – Italian publisher Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, known for his translation of Boris Pasternak's novel Doctor Zhivago after it had been smuggled out of the Soviet Union, died in an explosion.
- 1988 – China defeated Vietnam in a naval battle as the former attempted to establish oceanographic observation posts on the Spratly Islands.
- 44 BC – Julius Caesar, the dictator of the Roman Republic, was stabbed to death (depicted) by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus.
- 1783 – George Washington delivered a speech to Continental Army officers in Newburgh, New York, asking them to support the supremacy of the Congress of the Confederation, defusing a potential coup.
- 1927 – In rowing, Oxford defeated Cambridge in the inaugural edition of the Women's Boat Race.
- 1951 – The Iranian oil industry was nationalized in a movement led by Mohammad Mosaddegh.
- 2019 – A lone gunman carried out two consecutive mass shootings during Friday prayers at mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, resulting in 51 deaths.
- 597 BC – Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II captured Jerusalem and installed Zedekiah as King of Judah.
- 1621 – Samoset, a member of the Abenaki tribe, walked into Plymouth Colony and greeted the Pilgrims in English (depicted).
- 1689 – The Royal Welch Fusiliers, one of the oldest line-infantry regiments of the British Army, was founded.
- 1918 – Finnish Civil War: The Whites won the Battle of Länkipohja, after which they executed at least 70 Reds.
- 2003 – American peace activist Rachel Corrie was crushed to death by an Israel Defense Forces armored bulldozer in Rafah while protesting the demolition of a Palestinian house.
- 1452 – Reconquista: Combined Castilian and Murcian forces defeated the Emirate of Granada at the Battle of Los Alporchones around the city of Lorca.
- 1860 – New Zealand Wars: A property dispute between the colonial government and Māori landowners in Waitara instigated the First Taranaki War.
- 1957 – A plane crash (wreckage pictured) on the slopes of Mount Manunggal killed Philippine president Ramon Magsaysay and 24 others.
- 1991 – In a referendum, nearly 70 percent of voters in nine Soviet republics agreed that the Soviet Union should be preserved.
- 2011 – First Libyan Civil War: The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1973, authorizing military intervention in Libya to protect civilians.
- 1241 – First Mongol invasion of Poland: Mongol forces defeated the Polish armies of Sandomierz and Kraków at the Battle of Chmielnik.
- 1793 – War of the First Coalition: Habsburg and Dutch Republic troops repulsed a series of French assaults after bitter fighting near Neerwinden in present-day Belgium.
- 1938 – Mexican president Lázaro Cárdenas issued a decree expropriating foreign-owned oil reserves and facilities, which were later incorporated into Pemex (headquarters pictured), a state-owned petroleum company.
- 1977 – The punk group the Clash released their first single, "White Riot", described as their "most controversial song".
- 1996 – The deadliest fire in Philippine history broke out at a nightclub in Quezon City, causing 162 deaths.
- 1279 – Mongol conquest of Song China: Emperor Bing, the last emperor of the Song dynasty, drowned at the end of the Battle of Yamen, bringing the dynasty to an end after three centuries.
- 1563 – The Edict of Amboise was signed, ending the first war in the French Wars of Religion and inaugurating a period of official peace that lasted until 1567.
- 1911 – Established by Clara Zetkin (pictured), Käte Duncker, and others, International Women's Day was first observed.
- 1979 – The American cable television network C-SPAN, dedicated to airing non-stop coverage of government proceedings and public-affairs programming, was launched.
- 2011 – First Libyan Civil War: The French Air Force launched Opération Harmattan, beginning foreign military intervention in Libya.
- 1854 – The Republican Party was founded in Ripon, Wisconsin, by politicians opposing the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the expansion of slavery in the United States.
- 1883 – Eleven countries signed the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, one of the first intellectual-property treaties.
- 1939 – Germany issued an ultimatum to Lithuania, demanding the return of the Klaipėda Region under threat of invasion.
- 1987 – The antiretroviral drug zidovudine (chemical structure depicted) became the first treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for HIV/AIDS.
- 2014 – Taliban militants carried out a mass shooting at the Kabul Serena Hotel in Afghanistan, killing nine civilians.
- 1556 – Former Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer, one of the founders of Anglicanism, was burnt at the stake for heresy in Oxford, England.
- 1861 – Alexander H. Stephens, Vice President of the Confederate States of America, gave an extemporaneous speech laying out the Confederacy's rationale for seceding from the United States.
- 1968 – War of Attrition: The Battle of Karameh took place between the Israel Defense Forces and allied troops of the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Jordanian Armed Forces.
- 2006 – A man smashed the statue of Phra Phrom (pictured) at the Erawan Shrine in Bangkok, Thailand, with a hammer, and was subsequently beaten to death by bystanders.
- 106 – The Bostran era, the official era of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, began.
- 1638 – Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for her participation in the Antinomian Controversy.
- 1765 – The Parliament of Great Britain passed the Stamp Act, requiring that many printed materials in the Thirteen Colonies in British America carry a tax stamp.
- 1871 – William Woods Holden (pictured), Governor of North Carolina, became the first U.S. state governor to be removed from office through impeachment.
- 2004 – Palestinian imam Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, a founder and the spiritual leader of Hamas, was killed by an Israeli missile as he left early morning prayers.
- 1888 – Chaired by William McGregor (pictured), a meeting of ten English football clubs was held in London, which would eventually result in the establishment of the Football League.
- 1908 – American diplomat Durham Stevens, an employee of Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was fatally shot in San Francisco by two Korean immigrants unhappy with his support of increased Japanese presence in Korea.
- 1931 – Bhagat Singh, one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement, and two others were executed by the British authorities.
- 1991 – The Sierra Leone Civil War began with the invasion of the Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia, in an attempt to overthrow President Joseph Saidu Momoh.
- 1994 – Aeroflot Flight 593 crashed into a hillside in Russia's Kemerovo Oblast, killing all 75 people on board, after the pilot's 16-year-old son had unknowingly disabled the autopilot while seated at the controls.
- 1603 – James VI of Scotland succeeded to the thrones of England and Ireland as James I, uniting the realms under a single monarch.
- 1860 – Japanese chief minister Ii Naosuke (depicted) was assassinated by rōnin samurai upset with his role in the opening of Japan to foreign powers.
- 1882 – German physician Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
- 1921 – The 1921 Women's Olympiad, the first international women's-sports event, opened at the International Sporting Club of Monaco in Monte Carlo.
- 1989 – The tanker Exxon Valdez began to spill 10.8 million US gal (260,000 bbl; 41,000 m3) of crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska, causing one of the most devastating man-made maritime environmental disasters.
- 708 – Constantine (pictured) was selected as one of the last popes of the Byzantine Papacy; he would be the last pope to visit Constantinople (now Istanbul) until Paul VI in 1967.
- 1708 – Jacobite risings: A French fleet anchored near Fife Ness as part of a planned French invasion of Britain.
- 1948 – Meteorologists at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City, United States, issued the world's first tornado forecast after noticing conditions similar to another tornado that had struck five days earlier.
- 1949 – The Soviet Union began mass deportations of more than 90,000 people from the Baltic states to Siberia.
- 1971 – Vietnam War: South Vietnamese forces abandoned a campaign to cut off the Ho Chi Minh trail, which supplied North Vietnamese troops, in Laos.
- 1351 – War of the Breton Succession: Thirty knights and squires each from France and England fought to determine who would rule the Duchy of Brittany, later celebrated as a noble display of the ideals of chivalry.
- 1896 – An explosion at the Brunner Mine in New Zealand killed 65 coal miners in the country's deadliest mining accident.
- 1917 – First World War: Attempting to advance into Palestine, the British were defeated by Ottoman troops at the First Battle of Gaza.
- 1971 – East Pakistan declared its independence from Pakistan as Bangladesh, beginning the Bangladesh Liberation War.
- 1999 – A jury began deliberations in the trial of Jack Kevorkian (pictured), an American practitioner of physician-assisted suicide who was charged with murder in the death of a terminally ill patient.
- 1836 – At least 425 Texian prisoners of war were executed in the Goliad massacre (depicted), under orders from Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna.
- 1941 – World War II: A group of Serbian-nationalist officers of the Royal Yugoslav Army Air Force carried out a coup d'état after Yugoslavia joined the Axis powers.
- 1981 – The Solidarity movement in Poland staged a warning strike, the largest in the history of the Eastern Bloc, in which at least 12 million Poles walked off their jobs for four hours.
- 2002 – A suicide bomber killed about 30 Israeli civilians and injured about 140 others in Netanya, triggering Operation Defensive Shield, a large-scale counter-terrorist military incursion into the West Bank, two days later.
- 193 – The Praetorian Guard assassinated Roman emperor Pertinax and sold the imperial office in an auction to Didius Julianus.
- 1942 – Second World War: The port of Saint-Nazaire in occupied France was disabled by British naval forces (ship pictured).
- 1946 – The US Department of State released the Acheson–Lilienthal Report, a proposal for international control of nuclear weapons.
- 1999 – Serbian police and special forces killed about 93 Kosovo Albanians in the village of Izbica in the Drenica region of central Kosovo.
- 1430 – After an eight-year siege, the Ottoman Empire captured the city of Thessalonica from the Republic of Venice.
- 1807 – German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers discovered Vesta (pictured), the brightest asteroid and second-most massive body in the asteroid belt.
- 1941 – Second World War: British and Australian ships defeated Italian Regia Marina vessels at the Battle of Cape Matapan.
- 1981 – Dick Beardsley and Inge Simonsen jointly won the Men's Elite Race and Joyce Smith won the Women's Elite Race in the inaugural London Marathon.
- 1999 – The strongest earthquake to hit the foothills of the Himalayas in more than 90 years killed at least 100 people.
- 1822 – The United States merged East Florida and West Florida to create the Florida Territory.
- 1861 – British chemist William Crookes published his discovery of thallium using flame spectroscopy.
- 1918 – Four days of inter-ethnic clashes broke out in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in about 12,000 deaths.
- 1981 – John Hinckley Jr. shot and wounded U.S. president Ronald Reagan and three others outside the Washington Hilton (immediate aftermath pictured).
- 2009 – The Manawan Police Academy in Lahore, Pakistan, was attacked and held for several hours by 12 gunmen, resulting in 16 deaths and 95 injuries.
- 1521 – Ferdinand Magellan and fifty members of his crew went ashore to present-day Limasawa to participate in the first Catholic Mass in the Philippines.
- 1761 – Lisbon experienced its second major earthquake in six years, with effects felt as far north as Scotland.
- 1889 – The Eiffel Tower (pictured) in Paris was inaugurated.
- 1921 – The Australian Air Force was formed, replacing the short-lived Australian Air Corps and separating it from the army.
- 1995 – American singer-songwriter Selena, known as the "queen of Tejano music", was murdered by the president of her fan club, Yolanda Saldívar, in Corpus Christi, Texas, deeply affecting the Latino community.