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|<<||Selected anniversaries for March||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2020 day arrangement
March 1: Nineteen-Day Fast begins (Baháʼí Faith, 2020); Independence Day in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992); National Pig Day in the United States; Saint David's Day in Wales; Yap Day in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia
- 1811 – Muhammad Ali Pasha, governor of Ottoman Egypt, killed the Mamluk leaders of Cairo and seized power.
- 1896 – French physicist Henri Becquerel discovered the principle of radioactive decay when he exposed photographic plates to uranium salts.
- 1936 – Hoover Dam (pictured), straddling the Arizona–Nevada border on the Colorado River, was completed.
- 1950 – In a trial lasting less than 90 minutes, German–British physicist Klaus Fuchs was convicted of violating the Official Secrets Act by supplying information from the Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union.
- 2014 – A group of knife-wielding terrorists attacked passengers at Kunming railway station in Kunming, China, leaving 31 victims dead and more than 140 others injured.
- 1484 – The College of Arms, one of the few remaining official heraldic authorities in Europe, was incorporated by royal charter in the City of London.
- 1791 – French inventor Claude Chappe and his brothers first demonstrated the semaphore telegraph, a system that conveys information by means of visual signals, using towers (replica pictured) with pivoting crossarms.
- 1901 – U.S. Steel, the first billion-dollar corporation and once the world's largest producer of steel, was founded by financier J. P. Morgan.
- 1943 – World War II: Australian and U.S. air forces attacked and destroyed a large Japanese naval convoy in the Bismarck Sea, north of Papua New Guinea.
- 1995 – Researchers at Fermilab in Illinois announced the discovery of the top quark, the most massive of all observed elementary particles.
- 1284 – The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted, introducing English common law to the Principality of Wales.
- 1820 – The U.S. Congress passed the Missouri Compromise, which balanced the admission of Missouri as a slave state with that of Maine as a free state.
- 1891 – Shoshone National Forest, in the U.S. state of Wyoming, was established as the country's first national forest.
- 1945 – A Polish Home Army unit massacred at least 150 Ukrainian civilians in Pawłokoma, Poland.
- 1972 – The British rock band Jethro Tull (pictured) released Thick as a Brick, a parody concept album allegedly adapted from an epic poem by an eight-year-old boy.
- 1461 – Wars of the Roses: Henry VI, the Lancastrian king of England, was deposed by his Yorkist cousin, who succeeded him as Edward IV.
- 1890 – The Forth Bridge (pictured), a railway bridge connecting Edinburgh to Fife over the Firth of Forth, opened, eventually becoming an internationally recognised Scottish landmark.
- 1966 – During an interview, John Lennon of the Beatles argued that the band had become "more popular than Jesus".
- 1990 – College basketball player Hank Gathers died after collapsing during a West Coast Conference Tournament semifinal game in Los Angeles.
- 1496 – King Henry VII of England issued letters patent to John Cabot and his sons, authorising them to explore undiscovered lands.
- 1770 – American Revolution: British soldiers fired into a crowd (engraving shown) in Boston, killing five people.
- 1825 – Roberto Cofresí, one of the last Caribbean pirates, was apprehended after his flagship sloop Anne was captured by authorities.
- 1960 – Cuban photographer Alberto Korda took his iconic photograph Guerrillero Heroico of Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara.
- 845 – The Abbasid Caliphate executed 42 Byzantine officials who had been captured in the Sack of Amorium of 838 for refusing to convert to Islam.
- 1853 – Giuseppe Verdi's La traviata premiered at La Fenice in Venice, but the performance was considered so bad that it caused him to revise portions of the opera.
- 1930 – Organized by the Communist International, hundreds of thousands of people in major cities around the world marched to protest mass unemployment associated with the Great Depression.
- 1943 – World War II: National Liberation Front forces defeated Italian occupiers in the Battle of Fardykambos, a major sign of the Greek Resistance's growth.
- 1945 – Petru Groza (pictured) of the Ploughmen's Front became the first prime minister of the Communist Party-dominated government of Romania.
- 1277 – Bishop Étienne Tempier promulgated a condemnation of 219 heretical propositions that were being discussed at the University of Paris.
- 1573 – A peace treaty brought the Ottoman–Venetian War to an end, ceding Cyprus from the Republic of Venice to the Ottoman Empire.
- 1900 – The German ocean liner SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse became the first ship to send a wireless telegraph message to an onshore receiver.
- 1945 – World War II: At the beginning of the Battle of Remagen, Allied forces unexpectedly captured the Ludendorff Bridge, which possibly hastened the war's conclusion.
- 1965 – Unarmed civil rights activists marching from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, were attacked by police (pictured) on "Bloody Sunday".
- 1576 – A letter was written to King Philip II of Spain, containing the first European mention of the Maya ruins of Copán (pictured) in present-day Honduras.
- 1655 – The court of Northampton County, Virginia, issued a ruling that made John Casor the first person of African descent in the Thirteen Colonies to be declared a slave for life as a result of a civil suit.
- 1963 – The Ba'ath Party came to power in a coup d'état by a clique of quasi-leftist Syrian Army officers calling themselves the National Council for the Revolutionary Command.
- 1978 – BBC Radio 4 began broadcasting Douglas Adams's The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, a science fiction radio series that was later adapted into novels, a television series, and other formats.
- 1009 – The first known record of the name of Lithuania appeared in an entry of the Annals of Quedlinburg, written in Saxony-Anhalt, present-day Germany.
- 1842 – Nabucco (costume pictured), an opera by Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi that established his reputation, premiered at La Scala in Milan.
- 1945 – World War II: In a coup d'état, Imperial Japanese Army officers ousted the government of French Indochina.
- 2010 – The first legal U.S. same-sex marriages south of the Mason–Dixon line took place in the District of Columbia.
- 241 BC – The Roman Republic defeated Carthage in the Battle of the Aegates off the western coast of Sicily, the final battle of the First Punic War.
- 1916 – The final letter in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence was written, agreeing that Britain would recognise Arab independence in return for the Sharif of Mecca launching a revolt against the Ottoman Empire.
- 1959 – An anti-Chinese uprising erupted in Lhasa, as thousands of Tibetans surrounded the Potala Palace to prevent the Dalai Lama from leaving or being removed by the Chinese army.
- 1967 – British progressive-rock band Pink Floyd released their first single, "Arnold Layne".
- 1977 – Astronomers using NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory discovered a faint ring system (pictured) around Uranus.
- 1669 – Mount Etna in Sicily began erupting (depicted), eventually producing the largest lava flow in the volcano's history, and damaging Catania and other towns.
- 1708 – Queen Anne withheld royal assent from the Scottish Militia Bill, in the most recent veto by a British monarch of a bill that had been passed by Parliament.
- 1845 – Māori forces, led by chiefs Te Ruki Kawiti and Hōne Heke, attacked the British settlement of Kororāreka, New Zealand, beginning the Flagstaff War.
- 1993 – The U.S. Senate unanimously confirmed Janet Reno as the country's first female attorney general.
- 2010 – During the inauguration of Chilean president Sebastián Piñera, an earthquake registering 6.9 MW struck the O'Higgins Region near the city of Pichilemu, causing widespread damage.
- 1913 – At a ceremony at Kurrajong Hill, Lady Denman, the wife of Governor-General Lord Denman, announced that the future capital of Australia would be named Canberra.
- 1930 – Mahatma Gandhi (pictured with Sarojini Naidu) began the Salt March, a 24-day nonviolent walk to defy the British salt tax in colonial India.
- 1940 – The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed, ending the Winter War between Finland and the Soviet Union.
- 1989 – Tim Berners-Lee submitted a memorandum at CERN with details of an information-management system, the first proposal for what would become the World Wide Web.
- 1567 – A Spanish mercenary army surprised and killed a band of rebels in the Battle of Oosterweel near Antwerp in the Habsburg Netherlands, beginning the Eighty Years' War.
- 1639 – Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was named after its first principal donor, clergyman John Harvard.
- 1920 – The Kapp Putsch (participants pictured), an attempted coup aiming to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, briefly ousted the government of the Weimar Republic.
- 1954 – Việt Minh forces under General Võ Nguyên Giáp began a massive artillery bombardment on the French military, beginning the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the climactic battle of the First Indochina War.
- 1996 – A gunman killed sixteen children and a teacher at a primary school in Dunblane, Scotland, before committing suicide.
- 1674 – Third Anglo-Dutch War: The Royal Navy captured the Dutch East India Company ship Wapen van Rotterdam in Ronas Voe, Shetland.
- 1910 – Prospectors drilled into a pressurized deposit within the Midway-Sunset Oil Field in California, resulting in the largest accidental oil spill in history (pictured), which eventually released 9 million barrels (1.4 million m3) of crude oil over 18 months.
- 1931 – Alam Ara, the first Indian sound film, premiered at the Majestic Cinema in Bombay.
- 1972 – Italian publisher Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, known for his translation of Boris Pasternak's novel Doctor Zhivago after it had been smuggled out of the Soviet Union, died in a mysterious explosion.
- 1973 – Vietnam War: After having been captured by North Vietnamese forces five and a half years earlier, U.S. Navy pilot John McCain was released with 108 other prisoners of war.
- 856 – Byzantine emperor Michael III overthrew his mother Theodora's regency to assume power for himself.
- 1311 – In the Battle of Halmyros, the Catalan Company defeated the forces of Walter V, Count of Brienne, taking control of the Duchy of Athens, a Crusader state in present-day Greece.
- 1917 – Russian Revolution: Tsar Nicholas II (pictured) was forced to abdicate in the February Revolution, ending three centuries of Romanov rule.
- 1956 – The musical My Fair Lady, based on George Bernard Shaw's play Pygmalion, debuted at the Mark Hellinger Theatre on Broadway in New York City.
- 1990 – Iraqi authorities hanged Iranian freelance reporter Farzad Bazoft on charges of spying for Israel.
- 934 – Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period: Chinese general Meng Zhixiang proclaimed himself emperor and established Later Shu as a new state independent of Later Tang.
- 1244 – Albigensian Crusade: Following the successful Siege of Montségur, French royal forces burned about 210 unrepentant Cathars in a bonfire.
- 1802 – Congress passed the Military Peace Establishment Act, authorizing the establishment of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to operate the U.S. Military Academy (pictured) at West Point, New York.
- 1872 – In the first ever final of the FA Cup, the world's oldest association football competition, Wanderers defeated Royal Engineers 1–0 at The Oval in Kennington, London.
- 1988 – Iran–Iraq War: Iraqi forces began attacking the Kurdish town of Halabja with chemical weapons, killing up to 5,000 people.
- 1337 – Edward the Black Prince (effigy pictured) was created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first duke in English history.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The 11‑month Siege of Boston ended with the evacuation of the city's British garrison.
- 1950 – Scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory announced the synthesis of californium, a radioactive transuranium element.
- 1988 – Eritrean War of Independence: Eritrean People's Liberation Front troops encircled Ethiopian forces in the Battle of Afabet, gaining a decisive victory three days later.
- 2000 – Hundreds of followers of the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, a Ugandan sect, died in a mass murder committed by its leaders.
- 1068 – An estimated 20,000 people died across the Near East when a violent earthquake struck the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba.
- 1834 – The Tolpuddle Martyrs were sentenced to transportation to Australia for swearing a secret oath as members of a friendly society in Dorset, England.
- 1915 – First World War: In one of the largest naval battles of the Gallipoli campaign, Ottoman forces sank three Allied battleships (French battleship Bouvet pictured) and severely damaged three others.
- 1970 – U.S. postal workers began an eight-day strike after Congress raised their wages by only 4 percent despite increasing its own pay by 41 percent.
- 1990 – Thieves stole thirteen works of art collectively valued at $500 million from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, Massachusetts.
- 1279 – Mongol conquest of Song China: Emperor Bing, the last emperor of the Song dynasty, was killed by his official Lu Xiufu after losing the Battle of Yamen, bringing the dynasty to an end after three centuries.
- 1911 – Established by Clara Zetkin (pictured), Käte Duncker, and others, the first International Women's Day was observed.
- 1962 – Influential American musician Bob Dylan released his eponymous debut album, mainly comprising traditional folk songs.
- 1987 – American televangelist Jim Bakker resigned as the host of The PTL Club in the midst of a sex scandal.
- 2016 – Flydubai Flight 981 crashed during an aborted landing at Rostov-on-Don Airport, Russia, resulting in the deaths of all 62 passengers and crew on board.
- 235 – Maximinus Thrax (bust pictured) acceded to the throne of the Roman Empire as a so-called barracks emperor, who gained power by virtue of his command of the army.
- 1852 – Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, which had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the United States, was published.
- 1942 – World War II: After being forced to flee the Philippines for Australia, U.S. Army general Douglas MacArthur announced, "I came through and I shall return."
- 1987 – The antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) became the first treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration for HIV/AIDS.
- 1993 – The Troubles: Two children were killed by the second of two bomb attacks by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in Warrington, England.
- 1556 – Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer, one of the founders of Anglicanism, was burnt at the stake in Oxford, England, for heresy.
- 1814 – War of the Sixth Coalition: At the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, Napoleon suddenly realized his army was vastly outnumbered and hurriedly ordered a retreat.
- 1937 – The papal encyclical Mit brennender Sorge, condemning antisemitism and criticizing Nazism, was read from the pulpits of all German Catholic churches.
- 1960 – Police in Sharpeville, South Africa, opened fire on a group of unarmed black demonstrators (depicted) who were protesting pass laws, killing 69 people and wounding 180 others.
- 1980 – Dallas aired its "A House Divided" episode, which led to eight months of international speculation regarding "Who shot J.R.?"
- 238 – Gordian I and his son Gordian II were jointly proclaimed Roman emperor, the latter because of his father's advanced age.
- 1784 – The Emerald Buddha (pictured), considered the sacred palladium of Thailand, was installed in its current location at Wat Phra Kaew on the grounds of the Grand Palace in Bangkok.
- 1871 – Governor of North Carolina William Woods Holden became the first U.S. state governor to be removed from office through impeachment.
- 1942 – Second World War: British and Italian naval forces fought the Second Battle of Sirte in the Gulf of Sidra north of Libya.
- 1995 – Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov returned from the space station Mir aboard Soyuz TM-20 after 437 days in space, setting a record for the longest spaceflight.
- 1862 – American Civil War: General Stonewall Jackson of the Confederate States Army lost the First Battle of Kernstown, but was still able to prevent the Union Army from reinforcing the Peninsula campaign.
- 1889 – Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Islamic religious movement in British India.
- 1905 – About 1,500 Cretans, led by Eleftherios Venizelos (pictured), met at the village of Theriso to call for the island's unification with Greece, beginning the Theriso revolt.
- 1977 – British journalist David Frost began a series of interviews with former U.S. president Richard Nixon, starting with the Watergate scandal.
- 1991 – The Sierra Leone Civil War began with the invasion of the Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia, in an attempt to overthrow President Joseph Saidu Momoh.
- 1550 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: England and Scotland signed the Treaty of Boulogne, ending hostilities between the two nations in the Rough Wooing.
- 1869 – New Zealand Wars: Māori leader Tītokowaru's conflict ended with the last of his forces surrendering to the New Zealand colonial government.
- 1946 – Formulated at the initiative of British prime minister Clement Attlee, the Cabinet Mission arrived in New Delhi to discuss the transfer of power from the colonial government to Indian leadership.
- 1980 – One day after making a plea to Salvadoran soldiers to stop carrying out the government's repression, Archbishop Óscar Romero (pictured) was assassinated while celebrating Mass in San Salvador.
- 2008 – Led by Jigme Thinley, the Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party won 45 of 47 National Assembly seats in the country's first general election.
- 717 – Byzantine emperor Theodosius III abdicated in favour of Leo the Isaurian after he captured Theodosius's son.
- 1387 – Hundred Years' War: The English navy captured more than 80 ships and at least 8,000 tuns of wine from an allied French, Castilian and Flemish fleet at the Battle of Margate in the English Channel.
- 1903 – The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (ship pictured) anchored in the South Orkney Islands with the intention of establishing the first meteorological station in Antarctic territory.
- 1934 – Enrico Fermi published his discovery of neutron-induced radioactivity, for which he was later awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938.
- 1971 – Vietnam War: South Vietnamese forces abandoned a campaign to cut off the Ho Chi Minh trail, which supplied North Vietnamese troops, in Laos.
- 1697 – The Safavid Empire began a four-year occupation of the Ottoman city of Basra on the Persian Gulf.
- 1873 – A Dutch military expedition was launched to bombard Banda Aceh, the capital of the Aceh Sultanate in present-day Indonesia, beginning the Aceh War.
- 1953 – Jonas Salk announced the successful test of his polio vaccine on a small group of adults and children (vaccination pictured).
- 1979 – With the signing of a peace treaty in Washington, D.C., Egypt became the first Arab country officially to recognize Israel.
- 2010 – An explosion, allegedly caused by a North Korean torpedo, sank the South Korean warship ROKS Cheonan near Baengnyeongdo in the Yellow Sea, killing 46 sailors.
- 1884 – Outraged by a jury's decision to convict a man of manslaughter instead of murder, a mob in Cincinnati, Ohio, began three days of rioting.
- 1941 – Encouraged by the British Special Operations Executive, a group of pro-Western Serb-nationalist Royal Yugoslav Army Air Force officers planned and conducted a coup d'état after Yugoslavia joined the Axis powers.
- 1945 – World War II: The United States Army Air Forces began Operation Starvation, laying naval mines in many of Japan's vital water routes and ports to disrupt enemy shipping.
- 1958 – Nikita Khrushchev (pictured), First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, assumed the office of premier.
- 1980 – Brothers Nelson Bunker Hunt and William Herbert Hunt failed in their attempt to corner the world silver market, causing panic in commodity and futures exchanges.
- 1802 – German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers discovered Pallas, the second asteroid ever identified, but then considered to be a planet.
- 1862 – American Civil War: An invasion of the New Mexico Territory by the Confederate States Army was halted by Union forces at the Battle of Glorieta Pass.
- 1910 – French aviator Henri Fabre's floatplane, the Fabre Hydravion (pictured), became the first aircraft to take off from water under its own power at the Étang de Berre near Martigues in southern France.
- 2015 – A siege of a hotel in Mogadishu by Al-Shabaab militants, which began the previous day and killed at least 20 people, ended with the Somali Armed Forces recapturing the premises.
- 845 – Viking expansion: Viking raiders, possibly led by the legendary Ragnar Lodbrok, plundered and occupied Paris (depicted), holding the city for a large ransom.
- 1911 – The M1911 pistol, developed by American firearms designer John Browning, became the standard-issue sidearm in the United States Army.
- 1982 – Queen Elizabeth II granted royal assent to the Canada Act 1982, which ended any remaining constitutional dependence of Canada on the United Kingdom by a process known as "patriation".
- 2010 – Islamist Chechen separatists detonated two bombs on the Moscow Metro, killing 40 people and injuring 102 others.
- 1861 – British chemist William Crookes published his discovery of thallium, which he had achieved using flame spectroscopy.
- 1867 – U.S. secretary of state William H. Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia for US$7.2 million.
- 1950 – Usmar Ismail began shooting Darah dan Doa, widely recognised as the first Indonesian film.
- 1972 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese forces began the Easter Offensive in an attempt to gain as much territory and destroy as many South Vietnamese units as possible.
- 1981 – Trying to impress actress Jodie Foster, obsessed fan John Hinckley Jr. shot and wounded U.S. president Ronald Reagan and three others outside the Washington Hilton hotel (immediate aftermath pictured).
- 1146 – French abbot Bernard of Clairvaux preached a sermon to a crowd at a council in Vézelay, with King Louis VII in attendance, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade.
- 1913 – Arnold Schoenberg conducted the Vienna Concert Society in a concert of expressionist music that so shocked the audience that they began to riot (depicted).
- 1930 – To avoid government censorship, Hollywood movie studios instituted their own set of industry censorship guidelines, popularly known as the Hays Code.
- 1970 – Nine Japanese communists armed with samurai swords and pipe bombs hijacked Japan Airlines Flight 351 en route from Tokyo to Fukuoka.