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|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2016 day arrangement
- 1476 – War of the Castilian Succession: Although the Battle of Toro was militarily inconclusive, it assured Ferdinand and Isabella the throne of Castile, forming the basis for modern Spain.
- 1692 – Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were brought before local magistrates in Salem Village, Massachusetts, beginning the Salem witch trials.
- 1896 – Ethiopia defeated Italy at the Battle of Adwa, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War.
- 1936 – Hoover Dam (pictured), on the Colorado River along the Arizona–Nevada border, was completed and turned over to the Federal government of the United States.
- 1956 – The NATO phonetic alphabet, today the most widely used spelling alphabet, was first implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization.
- 1444 – The League of Lezhë, an alliance of the regional chieftains, was established in Venetian Albania with Skanderbeg as its commander.
- 1825 – Roberto Cofresí, one of the last successful Caribbean pirates, was defeated in combat and captured by authorities.
- 1919 – Communist, revolutionary socialist, and syndicalist delegates met in Moscow to establish the Communist International.
- 1949 – The B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II landed in Fort Worth, Texas, after completing the first non-stop around-the-world airplane flight in 94 hours and one minute.
- 1978 – Aboard the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 28, Czech Vladimír Remek (pictured) became the first person not from the Soviet Union or the United States to go into space.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: Samuel Nicholas and the Continental Marines successfully landed on New Providence and captured Nassau in the Bahamas.
- 1875 – French composer Georges Bizet's opera Carmen, based on the novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée, premiered at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.
- 1924 – The Free State of Fiume, a short-lived independent free state located in the modern city of Rijeka, Croatia, was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy.
- 1951 – Jackie Brenston, with Ike Turner and his band, recorded "Rocket 88", often cited as "the first rock and roll record", at Sam Phillips' recording studios in Memphis, Tennessee.
- 2009 – The building housing the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne, one of the largest communal archives in Europe, collapsed (ruins pictured).
- 306 – Roman Herculian guard Adrian of Nicomedia, who had converted to Christianity after being impressed with the faith of Christians that he had been torturing, was martyred.
- 1461 – Wars of the Roses in England: Lancastrian King Henry VI was deposed by his Yorkist cousin, who then became King Edward IV.
- 1769 – French astronomer Charles Messier first noted the Orion Nebula (pictured), a bright nebula situated south of Orion's Belt, later cataloguing it as Messier 42 in his list of Messier objects.
- 1941 – Second World War: British Commandos successfully executed Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands of Norway.
- 2009 – The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity regarding his actions during the War in Darfur.
- 1279 – The Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order suffered a great loss when 71 knights died in the Battle of Aizkraukle.
- 1616 – Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, describing his heliocentric theory of the Solar System, was prohibited by the Roman Catholic Church.
- 1811 – Peninsular War: In the Battle of Barrosa, an Anglo-Spanish-Portuguese force trying to lift the Siege of Cádiz was able to defeat a French attack, although they were ultimately unable to break the siege itself.
- 1936 – The prototype of the Supermarine Spitfire (pictured), a British single-seat fighter that was later used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, flew for the first time.
- 1966 – BOAC Flight 911 disintegrated and crashed near Mount Fuji shortly after departure from Tokyo International Airport, killing all 113 passengers and 11 crew members on board.
- 961 – The Muslim Emirate of Crete was conquered by the Byzantine Empire.
- 1447 – Tomaso Parentucelli became Pope Nicholas V.
- 1869 – Dmitri Mendeleev (pictured) presented the first periodic table of elements to the Russian Chemical Society.
- 1930 – Organized by the Communist International, hundreds of thousands of people in major cities around the world marched to protest mass unemployment associated with the Great Depression.
- 1988 – In Operation Flavius, the British Special Air Service killed three Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteers conspiring to bomb a parade of British military bands in Gibraltar.
- 1277 – Étienne Tempier, Bishop of Paris, promulgated a Condemnation of 219 philosophical and theological propositions that were being discussed at the University of Paris.
- 1850 – In support of the Compromise of 1850, United States Senator Daniel Webster gave his "Seventh of March" speech, which was so unpopular among his constituency he was forced to resign.
- 1936 – Nazi German forces re-occupied the demilitarized Rhineland, violating both the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaties that were signed after World War I.
- 1985 – The charity single "We Are the World" by the supergroup USA for Africa was released, and would go on to sell over 20 million copies.
- 2009 – Two off-duty soldiers of the British Army's 38 Engineer Regiment were shot dead by the Real IRA in Antrim town, Northern Ireland.
- 1658 – After a devastating defeat in the Second Northern War, King Frederick III of Denmark–Norway was forced to give up nearly half his Danish territory to Sweden to save the rest.
- 1736 – Nader Shah (pictured), founder of the Afsharid dynasty, was crowned Shah of Iran.
- 1924 – Three violent explosions at a coal mine near Castle Gate, Utah, US, killed all 171 miners working there.
- 1963 – The Ba'ath Party came to power in Syria in a coup d'état by a clique of quasi-leftist Syrian Army officers calling themselves the National Council of the Revolutionary Command.
- 1983 – The Cold War: During a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando, Florida, U.S. President Ronald Reagan described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire".
- 1009 – The first known record of the name of Lithuania appeared in an entry in the annals of the Quedlinburg Abbey in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
- 1842 – The first documented discovery of gold in California occurred at Rancho San Francisco, six years before the California Gold Rush.
- 1932 – Éamon de Valera (pictured), one of the dominant political figures in twentieth-century Ireland, became President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State.
- 1946 – Thirty-three people were killed in a stampede at Burnden Park, a football stadium in Bolton, England.
- 1956 – In Tbilisi, Georgia, Soviet military troops suppressed mass demonstrations against Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policy.
- 1607 – Susenyos defeated the combined armies of Yaqob and Abuna Petros II at the Battle of Gol in Gojjam, making him Emperor of Ethiopia.
- 1830 – By royal decree, the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army was established to be the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Dutch East Indies.
- 1876 – Alexander Graham Bell made his first successful bi-directional telephone call, saying, "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you."
- 1959 – An anti-Chinese uprising erupted in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, as about 300,000 Tibetans surrounded the Potala Palace to prevent the 14th Dalai Lama from leaving or being removed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
- 1966 – Military Prime Minister of South Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ sacked rival General Nguyễn Chánh Thi, precipitating large-scale civil and military dissension in parts of the nation.
- 2006 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (artist's conception pictured) attained orbit around Mars.
- 1843 – Eta Carinae flared up to become the second brightest star in the night sky.
- 1851 – Italian Romantic composer Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto was first performed at La Fenice in Venice.
- 1946 – Rudolf Höss, the first commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, was captured by British troops.
- 1978 – After hijacking a bus north of Tel Aviv, members of Palestine Liberation Organization faction Fatah engaged in a shootout with the Israel Police, resulting in the deaths of 38 civilians and most of the perpetrators.
- 2006 – Michelle Bachelet (pictured) was inaugurated as the first female President of Chile.
- 1864 – American Civil War: The Union Army began the ill-fated Red River Campaign, in which not a single objective was fully accomplished.
- 1881 – Andrew Watson made his debut with the Scotland national football team and became the world's first black international football player.
- 1912 – Juliette Gordon Low (pictured) founded a youth organization for girls that grew into the Girl Scouts of the USA.
- 1934 – Supported by the Estonian Army, Konstantin Päts staged a coup d'état, beginning the Era of Silence.
- 1993 – A series of thirteen coordinated bomb explosions took place in Bombay, India, killing over 250 civilians and injuring over 700 others.
- 624 – Led by Muhammad, the Muslims of Medina defeated the Quraysh of Mecca in Badr, present-day Saudi Arabia.
- 1781 – Astronomer and composer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus (pictured) while in the garden of his house in Bath, Somerset, thinking it was a comet.
- 1845 – German composer Felix Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto, one of the most popular and most frequently performed violin concertos of all time, was first played in Leipzig.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: Nazi German troops began liquidating the Jewish Ghetto in Kraków, Poland, sending about 8,000 Jews deemed able to work to the Plaszow labor camp, with the rest either killed or sent to Auschwitz.
- 1986 – Claiming the right of innocent passage, American warships USS Yorktown and USS Caron entered the Soviet territorial waters in the Black Sea, inciting Soviet combat readiness.
- 1794 – American inventor Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin (pictured), the first ever machine that quickly and easily separated cotton fibers from their seedpods.
- 1885 – The Mikado, Gilbert and Sullivan's most frequently performed Savoy opera, debuted at the Savoy Theatre in London.
- 1931 – Alam Ara, the first Indian film with sound, was released.
- 1978 – Israeli–Lebanese conflict: The Israel Defense Forces began Operation Litani, invading and occupying southern Lebanon, and pushing PLO troops north up to the Litani River.
- 1991 – The "Birmingham Six", wrongly convicted of the 1974 Birmingham pub bombings in England, were released after sixteen years in prison.
- 1783 – A potential uprising in Newburgh, New York, was defused when George Washington asked Continental Army officers to support the supremacy of Congress.
- 1892 – Liverpool F.C., one of England's most successful football clubs, was founded.
- 1916 – Six days after Pancho Villa (pictured) and his cross-border raiders attacked Columbus, New Mexico, US General John J. Pershing led a punitive expedition into Mexico to pursue Villa.
- 1941 – Philippine Airlines, the flag carrier of the Philippines took its first flight, making it the oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name.
- 2011 – Arab Spring: Protests erupted across Syria against the authoritarian government.
- 1244 – Following their successful siege of Montségur, French royal forces burned about 210 Cathar Perfecti and unrepentant credentes.
- 1802 – The United States Congress authorized the establishment of the US Army Corps of Engineers in order to operate the US Military Academy at West Point, New York.
- 1926 – American scientist Robert H. Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket, which flew for two-and-a-half seconds before falling to the ground.
- 1978 – Former Prime Minister of Italy Aldo Moro (pictured) was kidnapped in Rome by Mario Moretti and the Red Brigades.
- 1988 – Iran–Iraq War: Iraqi forces began attacking the Kurdish town of Halabja with chemical weapons, killing up to 5,000 people.
- 455 – After arranging for the assassination of Valentinian III, Petronius Maximus seized the throne of the Western Roman Empire, only to be killed 11 weeks later during the sack of Rome.
- 1860 – The First Taranaki War began at Waitara, New Zealand, marking an important phase of the New Zealand land wars.
- 1891 – The transatlantic steamship SS Utopia accidentally collided with the battleship HMS Anson in the Bay of Gibraltar, sinking in less than twenty minutes (pictured) and killing 562.
- 1950 – The synthesis of californium, a radioactive transuranium element, was announced.
- 1991 – Nearly 70% of voters in nine Soviet republics agreed that the Soviet Union should be preserved in the Soviet Union referendum.
- 1241 – First Mongol invasion of Poland: Mongols overwhelmed the Polish armies of Sandomierz and Kraków provinces in the Battle of Chmielnik and plundered the abandoned city of Kraków.
- 1741 – New York governor George Clarke's complex at Fort George was destroyed by a fire supposedly set by slaves, starting the New York Conspiracy of 1741.
- 1871 – French President Adolphe Thiers (pictured) ordered the evacuation of Paris after an uprising broke out as the result of France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, leading to the establishment of the Paris Commune government.
- 1906 – Romanian inventor Traian Vuia became the first person to fly a heavier-than-air monoplane with an unassisted takeoff.
- 1996 – The deadliest fire in Philippine history burned a nightclub in Quezon City, leaving 162 dead.
- 1279 – Emperor Bing, the last emperor of the Song dynasty, died during the Battle of Yamen, bringing the dynasty to an end after three centuries.
- 1911 – Socialist German politician Clara Zetkin (pictured) established the first International Women's Day.
- 1941 – The Tuskegee Airmen, the first all-African American unit of the United States Army Air Corps, was activated.
- 1962 – Highly influential American musician Bob Dylan released his eponymous debut album.
- 2008 – The gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B, the farthest object that could be seen by the naked eye, was observed.
- 1602 – The Dutch East India Company—the first company to issue stock, one of the first multinational corporations, and possibly the first megacorporation—was established.
- 1760 – A fire of unknown cause broke out in Boston, Massachusetts, destroying 349 buildings and leaving over a thousand people homeless.
- 1942 – World War II: After being forced to flee the Philippines, US Army General Douglas MacArthur announced in Terowie, South Australia, "I shall return."
- 1987 – The antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) became the first antiviral drug approved for use against HIV and AIDS.
- 2006 – Cyclone Larry (pictured) made landfall in Far North Queensland, eventually causing nearly AU$1 billion in total damage and destroying over 80 percent of Australia's banana crop.
- 630 – Byzantine emperor Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem.
- 1800 – After being elected as a compromise candidate after several months of stalemate, Pope Pius VII was crowned in Venice with a temporary papal tiara made of papier-mâché.
- 1871 – Founder of the German Empire Otto von Bismarck was proclaimed as its first chancellor.
- 1946 – The Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League signed Kenny Washington, making him the first African American player in the league since 1933.
- 2006 – A man using a hammer smashed the statue of Phra Phrom (pictured) in the Erawan Shrine in Bangkok, Thailand, and was subsequently beaten to death by bystanders.
- 1508 – Ferdinand II of Aragon appointed Amerigo Vespucci to the post of Chief Navigator of Spain.
- 1638 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony expelled Anne Hutchinson from its ranks for dissenting from Puritan orthodoxy.
- 1913 – Phan Xích Long (pictured), the self-proclaimed Emperor of Vietnam, was arrested for organising a revolt against the colonial rule of French Indochina, which was nevertheless carried out by his supporters the following day.
- 1963 – Please Please Me, the first album recorded by The Beatles, was released.
- 2006 – The remaining three Christian Peacemaker Teams hostages were rescued from their Iraqi captors by a multinational force.
- 1775 – American Revolution: Patrick Henry made his "Give me liberty, or give me death!" speech to the House of Burgesses of Virginia, urging military action against the British Empire.
- 1848 – Scottish settlers on the John Wickliffe, captained by William Cargill, arrived at what is now Port Chalmers in the Otago Region of New Zealand.
- 1888 – Led by William McGregor, ten football clubs met in London for the purpose of founding The Football League, the oldest league competition in world football.
- 1931 – Bhagat Singh (pictured), one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement, and two others were executed by British authorities.
- 1991 – The Sierra Leone Civil War began when the Revolutionary United Front, with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia, invaded Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow Joseph Saidu Momoh.
- 1603 – King James VI of Scotland acceded to the thrones of England and Ireland, becoming James I of England and unifying the crowns of the kingdoms for the first time.
- 1869 – The last of Māori leader Titokowaru's forces surrendered to the New Zealand government, ending his uprising.
- 1934 – The Tydings–McDuffie Act came into effect, which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence from the United States after a period of ten years.
- 1989 – The tanker Exxon Valdez (pictured) spilled more than 10 million US gallons of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska, causing one of the most devastating man-made environmental disasters at sea.
- 2015 – The co-pilot of Germanwings Flight 9525 deliberately crashed the aircraft in a mass murder–suicide in the French Alps, killing all 150 people on board.
- 1410 – The Yongle Emperor (pictured) launched the first of his military campaigns against the Mongols, resulting in the fall of the Mongol khan Bunyashiri.
- 1807 – The Slave Trade Act became law, abolishing the slave trade in the British Empire.
- 1917 – Following the overthrow of the Russian tsar Nicholas II, Georgia's bishops unilaterally restored the autocephaly of the Georgian Orthodox Church.
- 1949 – The Soviet Union began mass deportations of more than 90,000 people from the Baltic states to Siberia.
- 2006 – A gunman in Seattle, Washington, US, entered a rave afterparty and opened fire, killing six and wounding two, before committing suicide.
- 1344 – Reconquista: The Muslim city of Algeciras surrendered after a 21-month siege and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Castile.
- 1484 – William Caxton printed the first English translation of Aesop's Fables (page pictured).
- 1830 – The Book of Mormon, the defining sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, was first published.
- 1978 – Four days before the scheduled opening of Japan's Narita International Airport, a group of protesters destroyed much of the equipment in the control tower with Molotov cocktails.
- 1999 – Jack Kevorkian, an American advocate for and practitioner of physician-assisted suicide, was found guilty of murder in the death of a terminally ill patient.
- 1329 – Pope John XXII issued a papal bull declaring that some of the works of German theologian and mystic Meister Eckhart were heretical.
- 1794 – To protect American merchant ships from Barbary pirates, the United States Congress passed the Naval Act to establish a naval force, consisting of the USS Constitution (pictured) and five other frigates, which eventually became the United States Navy.
- 1941 – Encouraged by the British Special Operations Executive, a group of pro-Western Serb-nationalist Royal Yugoslav Air Force officers planned and conducted a coup d'état after Yugoslavia joined the Axis powers.
- 1976 – The Washington Metro, the second-busiest rapid transit system in the US, opened to commuters.
- 2009 – The dam holding Situ Gintung, an artificial lake in Tangerang District, Indonesia, failed, resulting in floods killing at least 100 people.
- 193 – Praetorian Guards assassinated Roman emperor Pertinax and sold the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus.
- 1802 – German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers (pictured) discovered 2 Pallas, the second asteroid known to man.
- 1920 – An outbreak of 37 tornadoes across the Midwestern and Southern United States left more than 380 people dead.
- 1930 – Turkey changed the name of its largest city Constantinople to Istanbul.
- 1979 – A partial core meltdown of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, resulted in the release of an estimated 43,000 curies (1.59 PBq) of radioactive krypton to the environment.
- 1999 – Serbian police and special forces killed at least 89 Kosovo Albanians in the village of Izbica, in the Drenica region of central Kosovo.
- 845 – Viking raiders possibly led by the legendary Ragnar Lodbrok captured Paris and held the city for a huge ransom.
- 1638 – Swedish settlers founded New Sweden near Delaware Bay, the first Swedish colony in America.
- 1871 – The Royal Albert Hall in Albertopolis, London, was officially opened by Queen Victoria.
- 1941 – Second World War: British Royal Navy and Australian Navy ships intercepted and sank or severely damaged the ships of the Italian Regia Marina near Crete.
- 1974 – NASA's Mariner 10 (pictured), launched in November 1973, became the first space probe to fly by the planet Mercury.
- 1282 – Sicilians began to rebel against the rule of the Angevin King Charles I of Naples, starting the War of the Sicilian Vespers.
- 1842 – American physician Crawford Long became the first person to use diethyl ether as an anesthetic in a surgical procedure.
- 1899 – A committee of the German Society of Chemistry invited other national scientific organizations to appoint delegates to form the International Committee on Atomic Weights.
- 1950 – Usmar Ismail (pictured) began filming Darah dan Doa, formally recognised as the first Indonesian film.
- 1972 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese forces began the Easter Offensive in an attempt to gain as much territory and destroy as many units of the South Vietnamese Army as possible.
- 627 – Muslim–Quraish Wars: A confederation of tribes began an ultimately unsuccessful siege of Yathrib (now Medina) against Muhammad and his army.
- 1146 – French abbot Bernard of Clairvaux preached a sermon to a crowd at Vézelay, with King Louis VII in attendance, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade.
- 1822 – Greek War of Independence: Ottoman troops began the massacre of over 20,000 Greeks on the island of Chios.
- 1942 – Second World War: Because of a mutiny by Indian soldiers against their British officers, Japanese troops captured Christmas Island without any resistance.
- 1964 – Brazilian Armed Forces led an overthrow of Brazilian President João Goulart (pictured) and established a military government that lasted for 21 years.