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|<<||Selected anniversaries for November||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2018 day arrangement
- 1214 – Byzantine–Seljuq wars: Seljuq Turks captured the important port city of Sinope.
- 1914 – World War I: The first contingent of the First Australian Imperial Force departed Albany.
- 1941 – American photographer Ansel Adams shot Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico, one of his most famous photographs.
- 1959 – After being struck in the face with a hockey puck, Jacques Plante played the rest of the game wearing a face mask (pictured), now mandatory equipment for goaltenders in ice hockey.
- 1998 – The European Court of Human Rights was instituted as a permanent court with full-time judges to monitor compliance by the signatory parties of the European Convention on Human Rights.
- 619 – Emperor Gaozu allowed the assassination of a khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate by Eastern Turkic rivals, one of the earliest events in the Tang campaigns against the Western Turks.
- 1932 – The Australian military began a "war against emus", a flightless native bird (specimen pictured) blamed for widespread damage to crops in Western Australia.
- 1949 – The Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference ended with the Netherlands agreeing to transfer sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies to the United States of Indonesia.
- 1957 – A large number of people witnessed a fiery object in the sky near Levelland, Texas, which the United States Air Force said was ball lightning.
- 2007 – In Tbilisi, Georgia, up to 100,000 people demonstrated against the allegedly corrupt government of president Mikheil Saakashvili.
- 1838 – The Times of India, the world's highest-circulation English-language daily broadsheet newspaper, was founded as the The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.
- 1881 – Indigenous Mapuches rebelled against Chile's occupation of Araucanía.
- 1942 – World War II: U.S. Marines and U.S. Army forces began an attempt to encircle and destroy a regiment of Imperial Japanese Army troops on Guadalcanal.
- 1957 – The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 2 spacecraft, carrying Laika (pictured on stamp) the Russian space dog as the first living creature from Earth to enter orbit.
- 1969 – U.S. President Richard Nixon made a plea to the "silent majority", referring to those Americans who did not join in the large demonstrations against the Vietnam War at the time.
- 1847 – Scottish physician James Young Simpson discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform.
- 1890 – London's City and South London Railway (locomotive pictured), the first deep-level underground railway in the world, opened, running a distance of 3.2 mi (5.1 km) between the City of London and Stockwell.
- 1960 – At the Kasakela Chimpanzee Community in Tanzania, Jane Goodall observed a chimpanzee using a grass stalk to extract termites from a termite hill, the first recorded case of tool use by animals.
- 1970 – Authorities in Temple City, California, discovered a 13-year-old feral child known as "Genie", who had spent almost her entire life in social isolation.
- 1995 – Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by Yigal Amir while at a peace rally at the Kings of Israel Square in Tel Aviv.
- 1138 – Lý Anh Tông was enthroned as emperor of Đại Việt at the age of two, starting a 37-year reign.
- 1828 – Greek War of Independence: The French Morea expedition to recapture Morea (now the Peloponnese) ended when the last Ottoman forces departed the peninsula.
- 1943 – World War II: An unknown aircraft dropped four bombs on Vatican City, which maintained neutrality during the war.
- 1967 – A train derailed near Hither Green maintenance depot in London, killing 49 people and injuring 78 others.
- 2007 – Led by Google, 34 companies established the Open Handset Alliance to develop open standards for mobile devices, leading to the development of the Android operating system (logo pictured).
- 447 – A powerful earthquake destroyed large portions of the Walls of Constantinople, including 57 towers.
- 1217 – The Charter of the Forest was issued at St Paul's Cathedral, London, by King Henry III, which re-established the rights of access to the royal forest for free men.
- 1856 – Scenes of Clerical Life, the first work by English author George Eliot (pictured), was submitted for publication.
- 1868 – Red Cloud was among the last to sign the second Treaty of Fort Laramie, ending Red Cloud's War and establishing the Great Sioux Reservation
- 1977 – The Kelly Barnes Dam in Stephens County, Georgia, U.S., collapsed, and the resulting flood killed 39 people and caused $2.8 million in damages.
- 1995 – Madagascar's Rova of Antananarivo, which served as the royal palace from the 17th to 19th centuries, was destroyed by fire.
- 680 – The Sixth Ecumenical Council convened in Constantinople to take a position on the theological positions of monoenergism and monothelitism.
- 1775 – Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of the British Colony of Virginia, signed a proclamation promising freedom for slaves of Patriots if they joined the British Armed Forces.
- 1861 – American Civil War: Future U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant engaged in his first combat leadership role in the Battle of Belmont in Mississippi County, Missouri.
- 1917 – World War I: British forces captured Gaza when the Ottoman garrison abandoned the area.
- 1987 – Singapore's first Mass Rapid Transit line was opened (train pictured), starting with train services between Yio Chu Kang and Toa Payoh stations.
- 960 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Having been the target of many raids by the Emirate of Aleppo, Byzantine forces led by Leo Phokas the Younger ambushed the Hamdanids and annihilated their army.
- 1644 – The Shunzhi Emperor, the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, was enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
- 1939 – Johann Georg Elser (pictured) unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler with a time bomb, but killed eight people and injured more than sixty-two others.
- 1972 – HBO, the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, began broadcasting to 325 subscribers.
- 1987 – A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb exploded during a Remembrance Sunday ceremony in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, killing twelve people and injuring sixty-three others.
- 1822 – USS Alligator (pictured) engaged three piratical schooners off the coast of Cuba in one of the West Indies anti-piracy operations of the United States.
- 1918 – The government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted the national flag (pictured) which is still used by the modern Republic of Azerbaijan, with minor modifications.
- 1938 – Kristallnacht began as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed and ransacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues in Germany and Austria, resulting in at least 90 deaths and the deportation of over 30,000 others to concentration camps.
- 1989 – Günter Schabowski mistakenly announced the immediate opening of the inner German border, causing the fall of Berlin Wall that night.
- 2016 – A tram derailed in Croydon, United Kingdom, killing seven people.
- 1202 – The Fourth Crusade began the Siege of Zara (now Zadar, Croatia), the first time Catholic crusaders attacked a Catholic city.
- 1865 – Henry Wirz, the superintendent of the Confederacy's Andersonville Prison, was hanged after a controversial conviction, becoming the only American Civil War soldier executed for war crimes.
- 1989 – Longtime Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov resigned and was replaced by Petar Mladenov (pictured).
- 2007 – At the Ibero-American Summit in Santiago, Chile, King Juan Carlos I of Spain asked President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez "Why don't you shut up?" after Chávez repeatedly interrupted a speech by Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.
- 1215 – The Fourth Lateran Council convened, during which it was declared that belief in the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation was obligatory.
- 1500 – During the Italian War of 1499–1504, Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon signed a secret treaty to divide the Mezzogiorno between themselves.
- 1934 – The Shrine of Remembrance (pictured), a memorial to all Australians who have served in war, opened in Melbourne.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Royal Navy launched the first all-aircraft ship-to-ship naval attack in history against the Italians in the Battle of Taranto.
- 1999 – The House of Lords Act was given royal assent, removing most hereditary peers from the British House of Lords.
- 1892 – William Heffelfinger was paid $525 by the Allegheny Athletic Association, becoming the first professional American football player on record.
- 1905 – In a referendum, 79% of voters opted to keep Norway a monarchy, paving the way for Haakon VII to take the throne.
- 1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, the decisive engagement in a series of naval battles between Allied and Japanese forces during the months-long Guadalcanal Campaign in the Solomon Islands, began.
- 1970 – A cyclone made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (Bangladesh), becoming the deadliest tropical cyclone in history, with up to 500,000 people killed.
- 2014 – The European Space Agency's Philae lander (artist's impression shown) became the first spacecraft to land on a comet when it touched down on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.
- 1002 – King Æthelred II (pictured) ordered the massacre of all Danes in England.
- 1642 – First English Civil War: The Royalist army engaged the much larger Parliamentarian army at the Battle of Turnham Green near Turnham Green, Middlesex.
- 1927 – The Holland Tunnel, connecting Manhattan with Jersey City, New Jersey, under the Hudson River, opened.
- 1992 – The High Court of Australia ruled in Dietrich v The Queen that although there is no absolute right to have publicly funded counsel, in most circumstances a judge should grant any request for an adjournment or stay when an accused is unrepresented.
- 2007 – An explosion hit the Batasang Pambansa complex in Quezon City, the Philippines, killing Congressman Wahab Akbar and at least four others.
- 1910 – Aviator Eugene Burton Ely performed the first takeoff from a ship (pictured), flying from a makeshift deck on the USS Birmingham in the U.S. state of Virginia.
- 1941 – Second World War: After suffering torpedo damage the previous day, the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sank as she was being towed to Gibraltar for repairs.
- 1970 – Southern Airways Flight 932, chartered by the Marshall University football team, crashed into a hill near Ceredo, West Virginia, U.S., killing all 75 people on board.
- 1995 – As a result of budget conflicts between President Bill Clinton and the United States Congress led by Newt Gingrich, the federal government was forced to shut down non-essential services.
- 2003 – Astronomers Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz discovered the trans-Neptunian object 90377 Sedna.
- 655 – Penda of Mercia was defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria at the Battle of the Winwaed in modern-day Yorkshire, England.
- 1760 – The chapel of the new Castellania Palace (pictured) in Valletta, Malta, was consecrated.
- 1889 – Brazilian Emperor Pedro II was overthrown in a coup led by Deodoro da Fonseca, and Brazil was proclaimed a republic.
- 1959 – Two men murdered a family in Holcomb, Kansas, U.S.; the events became the subject of Truman Capote's non-fiction novel In Cold Blood, a pioneering work of the true crime genre.
- 1968 – Vietnam War: American forces launched Operation Commando Hunt, a large-scale bombing campaign to prevent the People's Army of Vietnam from transporting personnel and supplies along the Ho Chi Minh trail.
- 1476 – With the help of Stephen the Great and Stephen V Báthory, Vlad the Impaler became the ruler of Wallachia for the third time after forcing Basarab Laiotă to flee to the Ottoman Empire.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British and Hessian units captured Fort Washington from the Patriots.
- 1967 – Aeroflot Flight 2230 crashed after takeoff from Koltsovo Airport, Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg), killing all 107 people aboard.
- 1992 – In Suffolk, England, a local man found the largest hoard of Roman silver and gold in Britain (sample pictured), including the largest collection of 4th/5th-century gold and silver coins ever discovered within the former Roman Empire.
- 1997 – Chinese dissident Wei Jingsheng was released for "medical reasons" after spending 17½ of the previous 18 years in prison, and was deported to the United States.
- 1558 – Elizabeth I (pictured) became Queen of England and Ireland, marking the beginning of the Elizabethan era.
- 1839 – Giuseppe Verdi's first opera Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio, was first performed at La Scala in Milan.
- 1871 – The United States' National Rifle Association was first chartered in the state of New York by William Conant Church and George Wood Wingate.
- 1894 – H. H. Holmes, one of the first modern serial killers, was arrested in Boston after having killed at least nine people.
- 1997 – Sixty-two people were killed by terrorists outside the Deir el-Bahri in Luxor, one of Egypt's top tourist attractions.
- 1809 – Napoleonic Wars: In the Bay of Bengal, a French frigate squadron captured three East Indiamen mainly carrying recruits for the Indian Army.
- 1872 – American suffragette Susan B. Anthony was arrested and fined $100 for having voted in the U.S. presidential election in Rochester, New York, two weeks prior.
- 1956 – In the Polish embassy in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said "We will bury you" while addressing Western envoys, prompting them to leave the room.
- 1978 – Jim Jones led more than 900 members of the Peoples Temple to mass murder/suicide in Jonestown, Guyana, hours after some of its members assassinated U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan (pictured).
- 2012 – Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria took office as the 118th Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
- 1794 – The United States and Great Britain signed the Jay Treaty, the basis for ten years of peaceful trade between the two nations.
- 1863 – American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
- 1942 – World War II: Soviet troops launched Operation Uranus at the Battle of Stalingrad, with the goal of encircling Axis forces, turning the tide of the battle in the Soviet Union's favour.
- 1969 – Playing for Santos against Vasco da Gama in Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian footballer Pelé (pictured) scored his one thousandth goal.
- 2010 – The first of four explosions occurred at the Pike River Mine in the West Coast region of New Zealand in the nation's worst mining disaster in nearly a century.
November 20: Reciting the sermon on the night of the martyrdom of Imam Reza (Shia Islam, 2017); Transgender Day of Remembrance; National Sovereignty Day in Argentina
- 284 – Diocletian (pictured on coin) became the Roman emperor, eventually establishing reforms that ended the Crisis of the Third Century.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Fort Lee marked the invasion of New Jersey by British and Hessian forces and the subsequent general retreat of the Continental Army.
- 1917 – First World War: The Battle of Cambrai began with British forces having initial success over Germany's Hindenburg Line.
- 1990 – Andrei Chikatilo, one of the Soviet Union's most prolific serial killers with 56 convicted murders, was arrested in Novocherkassk.
- 1994 – In accordance with the Lusaka Protocol, the Angolan government signed a ceasefire with UNITA rebels in a failed attempt to end the Angolan Civil War.
- 1386 – Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur captured and sacked the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, forcing King Bagrat V to convert to Islam.
- 1894 – First Sino-Japanese War: After capturing the city of Lüshunkou, the Japanese Second Army killed more than 1,000 Chinese servicemen and civilians.
- 1918 – Polish troops and civilians began a three-day pogrom against Jews and Ukrainian Christians in Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine).
- 1977 – "God Defend New Zealand" (audio featured) became New Zealand's second national anthem, on equal standing with "God Save the Queen", which had been the traditional one since 1840.
- 2009 – An explosion in a coal mine in Heilongjiang, China, killed 108 miners.
- 1718 – The pirate Blackbeard was killed in battle by a boarding party of British sailors off the coast of North Carolina, ending his reign of terror in the Caribbean.
- 1812 – War of 1812: During a punitive expedition against Native American villages, a contingent of Indiana Rangers were ambushed by Kickapoo, Winnebago, and Shawnee warriors.
- 1910 – The crews of the Brazilian warships Minas Geraes, São Paulo, Bahia—all commissioned only months before—and several smaller vessels mutinied against what they called the "slavery" being practiced in the Brazilian Navy.
- 1935 – The China Clipper flying boat (pictured) took off from Alameda, California, U.S., to become the first service to deliver airmail cargo across the Pacific Ocean.
- 1967 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 242 in the aftermath of the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.
- 1867 – The Manchester Martyrs were hanged in Manchester, England, for killing a police officer while helping two Irish nationalists escape from police custody.
- 1876 – William "Boss" Tweed, a New York City politician who had been arrested for embezzlement, was handed to U.S. authorities after having escaped from prison to Spain.
- 1924 – Edwin Hubble published evidence in a newspaper that the Andromeda Nebula, previously believed to be part of the Milky Way, is actually another galaxy, one of many in the universe.
- 1992 – IBM introduced the Simon (pictured), a handheld, touchscreen mobile phone and PDA that is considered the first smartphone.
- 2007 – MS Explorer became the first cruise ship to sink in the Antarctic Ocean.
- 1542 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: England captured about 1,200 Scottish prisoners with its victory in the Battle of Solway Moss.
- 1642 – A Dutch expedition led by Abel Tasman reached what is now Tasmania, Australia.
- 1922 – Irish Civil War: Author and Irish nationalist Erskine Childers was executed by the Irish Free State for illegally carrying a semi-automatic pistol.
- 1963 – Businessman Jack Ruby shot and fatally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald (shooting pictured), the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, during a live television broadcast, fueling conspiracy theories on the matter.
- 2015 – A Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24M, claiming the latter had strayed into Turkish airspace and ignored warnings to change course.
- 1759 – The second of two strong earthquakes struck the Levant and destroyed all the villages in the Beqaa Valley.
- 1795 – Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, was forced to abdicate after the Third Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- 1917 – World War I: German troops invaded Portuguese East Africa (fighting pictured) in an attempt to escape superior British forces to the north and resupply from captured Portuguese materiel.
- 1947 – McCarthyism: Executives from movie studios agreed to blacklist ten screenwriters and directors who were jailed for refusing to give testimony to the House Un-American Activities Committee.
- 1975 – Upon Suriname's independence from the Netherlands, Johan Ferrier became its first president.
- 1805 – The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, the longest aqueduct in Great Britain and the highest in the world, opened.
- 1842 – The University of Notre Dame (main building pictured) was founded by Rev. Edward Sorin, of the Congregation of Holy Cross, as an all-male institution in South Bend, Indiana, US.
- 1917 – Unable to resolve disputes with Eddie Livingstone, owner of the Toronto Blueshirts, the other ice hockey clubs of Canada's National Hockey Association officially agreed to break away and form the National Hockey League.
- 1942 – Casablanca, starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, premiered at the Hollywood Theatre in New York City to coincide with the Allied invasion of North Africa and the capture of Casablanca.
- 1977 – A speaker claiming to represent the "Intergalactic Association" interrupted the Southern Television broadcast in South East England, warning viewers that "All your weapons of evil must be destroyed."
- 1703 – The Great Storm of 1703, one of the most severe storms to strike southern Great Britain, destroyed the first Eddystone Lighthouse (pictured) off Plymouth.
- 1856 – King-Grand Duke William III unilaterally revised the constitution of Luxembourg, greatly expanding his powers.
- 1919 – The first fraternity exclusively for collegiate band members, Kappa Kappa Psi, was founded on the campus of Oklahoma State University in Stillwater.
- 1944 – Between 3,500 and 4,000 tonnes of ordnance exploded at the RAF Fauld underground munitions storage depot in the largest non-nuclear explosion in the United Kingdom.
- 2009 – A bomb exploded under a high-speed train travelling between Moscow and Saint Petersburg derailing it, killing 28 passengers and injuring more than 90 others.
- 1470 – Emperor Lê Thánh Tông of Annam (Vietnam) launched a military expedition against Champa, beginning the Cham–Annamese War.
- 1660 – At London's Gresham College, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, Christopher Wren and other leading scientists founded a learned society now known as the Royal Society (coat of arms pictured).
- 1895 – The first automobile race in the United States, the Chicago Times-Herald race, was held in Chicago.
- 1971 – Prime Minister of Jordan Wasfi al-Tal was assassinated by the Black September unit of the Palestine Liberation Organization in Cairo.
- 1987 – South African Airways Flight 295 suffered a catastrophic in-flight fire and crashed into the Indian Ocean east of Mauritius, killing all 159 on board.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British reinforcements brought an end to the Patriot attempt to capture Fort Cumberland in Nova Scotia.
- 1807 – Maria I of Portugal (pictured), the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people departed Lisbon for the colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded.
- 1947 – The United Nations General Assembly voted to approve the Partition Plan for Palestine, a plan to resolve the Arab–Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine by separating the territory into Jewish and Arab states.
- 1987 – Korean Air Flight 858 exploded over the Andaman Sea after two North Korean agents left a time bomb in an overhead compartment, killing all 115 people on board.
- 2007 – During their trial for the 2003 Oakwood mutiny, Philippine soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes staged a mutiny and temporarily seized a conference room in The Peninsula Manila hotel.
- 1853 – Crimean War: Russian warships led by Pavel Nakhimov destroyed an Ottoman fleet of frigates at the Battle of Sinop, providing France and the UK cause to join the war.
- 1872 – The first international football match took place at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow, between Scotland and England.
- 1939 – The Winter War broke out as the Soviet Red Army invaded Finland (Soviet prisoners of war pictured) and quickly advanced to the Mannerheim Line, an action judged illegal by the League of Nations.
- 1999 – Protests by anti-globalization activists against the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Seattle, Washington, U.S., forced the cancellation of its opening ceremonies.
- 2007 – Swami Rambhadracharya, a Hindu religious leader, released the first Braille version of the Bhagavad Gita scripture.