Jump to navigation Jump to search
|<<||Selected anniversaries for November||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2021 day arrangement
- 1214 – Byzantine–Seljuq wars: Seljuq Turks captured the important port city of Sinope.
- 1503 – Giuliano della Rovere was elected pope, taking the name Julius II in emulation of Julius Caesar.
- 1914 – World War I: The first contingent of the First Australian Imperial Force (soldiers pictured) departed Albany, Western Australia.
- 1959 – Dominique Mbonyumutwa, one of the few Hutu sub-chiefs in colonial Rwanda, was attacked by Tutsi activists, precipitating the Rwandan Revolution.
- 1917 – The British government issued the Balfour Declaration in support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a small minority Jewish population.
- 1932 – The Australian military began a "war against emus" (man with dead emu pictured), flightless native birds blamed for widespread damage to crops in Western Australia.
- 1960 – In the trial R v Penguin Books Ltd, publisher Penguin Books was acquitted of obscenity for the publication of Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence.
- 2016 – The Chicago Cubs defeated the Cleveland Indians in the 2016 World Series, ending the longest championship drought in Major League Baseball history.
- 1848 – A new constitution drafted by Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was proclaimed, limiting the powers of the Dutch monarchy.
- 1881 – Indigenous Mapuche began an uprising against the occupation of Araucanía by Chile.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: The largest massacre of Jews by German forces began at Majdanek concentration camp.
- 1957 – The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2, carrying the space dog Laika (depicted) as the first living creature to enter orbit around Earth.
- 1996 – Abdullah Çatlı, a leader of the ultra-nationalist Grey Wolves, was killed in a car crash near Susurluk, Turkey, sparking a scandal that exposed the depth of the state's complicity in organized crime.
- 1847 – Scottish physician James Young Simpson discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on humans.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Nathan Bedford Forrest led a cavalry division in an attack on a Union Army supply base at Johnsonville, Tennessee, resulting in the capture of 150 prisoners.
- 1938 – The deportation of several thousand Jews from Slovakia by the Hlinka Guard and police began.
- 1970 – Authorities in California discovered a 13-year-old feral child known as Genie, who had spent almost her entire life in social isolation.
- 1995 – Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin (pictured) was assassinated by ultranationalist Yigal Amir while at a peace rally at Kings of Israel Square in Tel Aviv.
- 1556 – At the Second Battle of Panipat, forces of the Mughal emperor Akbar captured Hemu, the Hindu emperor of north India.
- 1757 – Seven Years' War: Prussian forces led by Frederick the Great defeated the allied French and Habsburg armies at the Battle of Rossbach.
- 1925 – Sidney Reilly (pictured), known as the "Ace of Spies" and an inspiration for James Bond, was executed by the Soviet secret police.
- 1950 – Korean War: The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade succeeded in preventing a Chinese breakthrough at the Battle of Pakchon.
- 1995 – André Dallaire was thwarted in his attempt to assassinate Canadian prime minister Jean Chrétien at 24 Sussex Drive in Ottawa when Chrétien's wife locked the door.
- 447 – A powerful earthquake destroyed large portions of the Walls of Constantinople, including 57 towers.
- 1789 – Pope Pius VI appointed Father John Carroll as the first Catholic bishop in the United States.
- 1856 – The first story from the collection Scenes of Clerical Life by English author George Eliot (pictured) was submitted for publication.
- 1963 – Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ was appointed to head the South Vietnamese government by General Dương Văn Minh's junta, five days after the latter deposed and assassinated President Ngô Đình Diệm.
- 1977 – The Kelly Barnes Dam in Stephens County, Georgia, collapsed; the resulting flood killed 39 people and caused US$2.8 million in damages.
- 680 – The Third Council of Constantinople convened to settle the theological controversies of monoenergism and monothelitism.
- 1811 – Tecumseh's War: American forces led by William Henry Harrison defeated the forces of Shawnee leader Tecumseh's growing confederation at the Battle of Tippecanoe near present-day Battle Ground, Indiana.
- 1917 – World War I: British forces captured Gaza when the Ottoman garrison retreated.
- 1987 – Tunisian prime minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali deposed and replaced President Habib Bourguiba by declaring him medically unfit for the duties of the office.
- 2000 – Hillary Clinton (pictured) was elected a US senator, the first time a first lady had been elected to public office.
- 1520 – Following a successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces under Christian II, scores of Swedish leaders in Stockholm were imprisoned and later executed (depicted) despite Christian's promise of general amnesty.
- 1644 – The Shunzhi Emperor, the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, was enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China.
- 1940 – The Italian invasion of Greece failed as outnumbered Greek units repulsed the Italians at the Battle of Elaia–Kalamas.
- 1987 – A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb exploded during a Remembrance Sunday ceremony in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, killing 12 people and injuring 63 others.
- 2020 – Azerbaijani forces defeated the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh in the Battle of Shusha during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, reclaiming the town after 28 years.
- 1729 – Great Britain, France, and Spain signed the Treaty of Seville to end the Anglo-Spanish War, despite the underlying tensions being left unresolved.
- 1914 – World War I: Off the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Australian light cruiser Sydney sank Emden, the last active German warship in the Indian Ocean.
- 1989 – East German official Günter Schabowski mistakenly announced the immediate opening of the inner German border, resulting in the fall of the Berlin Wall that night (border crossing pictured).
- 2016 – A tram derailed in Croydon, London, killing seven people.
- 1202 – Fourth Crusade: The Siege of Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), the first attack on a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders, began.
- 1940 – An earthquake registering 7.7 Mw struck the Vrancea region of Romania (rescue efforts pictured).
- 1945 – Indonesian National Revolution: Following the killing of Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby a few weeks earlier, British forces retaliated by attacking Surabaya.
- 2007 – At the Ibero-American Summit in Santiago, Chile, King Juan Carlos I of Spain asked Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez "Why don't you shut up?" after Chávez repeatedly interrupted a speech by Spanish prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.
- 1778 – American Revolutionary War: British forces and their Iroquois allies attacked a fort and the village of Cherry Valley, New York, killing 14 soldiers and 30 civilians.
- 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: French, Austrian and Russian units all suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Dürenstein.
- 1920 – In London, the Cenotaph (pictured) was unveiled and the Unknown Warrior was buried in Westminster Abbey in remembrance of the First World War.
- 1960 – A coup attempt by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam against President Ngô Đình Diệm was crushed after Diệm falsely promised reform, allowing loyalists to rescue him.
- 1975 – During a constitutional crisis in Australia, Governor-General John Kerr dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam's government and dissolved Parliament for a double-dissolution election.
- 1928 – The British ocean liner SS Vestris sank in the western Atlantic Ocean with the loss of 111 lives.
- 1945 – Sudirman was elected the first commander-in-chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces.
- 1970 – The deadliest tropical cyclone in history made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (Bangladesh), killing at least 250,000 people.
- 2014 – The European Space Agency lander Philae (artist's impression shown) touched down on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, becoming the first spacecraft to land on a comet.
- 1642 – First English Civil War: The Royalist army engaged the much larger Parliamentarian army at the Battle of Turnham Green near Turnham Green, Middlesex.
- 1914 – Zaian War: Zaian Berber tribesmen routed French forces in Morocco at the Battle of El Herri.
- 1940 – Walt Disney's Fantasia, the first commercial film shown with stereophonic sound, premiered at the Broadway Theatre in New York City.
- 1985 – Nevado del Ruiz (pictured) erupted, causing a volcanic mudslide that buried the town of Armero, Colombia, and killed approximately 23,000 people.
- 1680 – German astronomer Gottfried Kirch discovered the Great Comet of 1680, the first comet to be discovered by telescope.
- 1970 – Southern Airways Flight 932, chartered by the Marshall University football team, crashed into a hill near Ceredo, West Virginia, killing all 75 people on board.
- 1990 – Music producer Frank Farian admitted that the German R&B duo Milli Vanilli (pictured) did not sing the vocals on their album Girl You Know It's True.
- 2010 – Red Bull Racing's Sebastian Vettel won the Drivers' Championship after winning the final race of the season, becoming the youngest Formula One champion.
- 655 – Penda of Mercia was defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria at the Battle of the Winwaed in present-day Yorkshire, England.
- 1859 – Sponsored by Greek businessman Evangelos Zappas, the first modern revival of the Olympic Games took place in Athens.
- 1935 – The Commonwealth of the Philippines was officially established, with Manuel L. Quezon inaugurated as its president (pictured).
- 1988 – Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat proclaimed the creation of the State of Palestine as "the state of Palestinians wherever they may be".
- 2012 – Xi Jinping replaced Hu Jintao as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and succeeded as the Paramount leader of China.
- 1476 – With the help of Stephen III and Stephen Báthory, Vlad the Impaler ousted Basarab the Old and became the ruler of Wallachia for the third time.
- 1885 – After a five-day trial following the North-West Rebellion, the Canadian Métis leader and "Father of Manitoba" Louis Riel was hanged for high treason.
- 1920 – Qantas, Australia's national airline, was founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services (first office pictured).
- 1945 – The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded.
- 2002 – The first case of SARS, a zoonotic respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus, was recorded in Guangdong, China.
- 1558 – Elizabeth I became Queen of England and of Ireland, marking the beginning of the Elizabethan era.
- 1839 – Giuseppe Verdi's first opera, Oberto, premiered at La Scala in Milan.
- 1950 – The 14th Dalai Lama (pictured) assumed full temporal power as ruler of Tibet at the age of fifteen.
- 1997 – Sixty-two people were killed by Islamist terrorists outside Deir el-Bahari in Luxor, one of Egypt's top tourist attractions.
- 2013 – Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363 crashed during an aborted landing at Kazan International Airport, Russia, killing all fifty people on board and leading to the revocation of the airline's operating certificate.
- 1809 – Napoleonic Wars: In the Bay of Bengal, a French frigate squadron captured three East Indiamen mainly carrying recruits for the Indian Army.
- 1872 – American suffragette Susan B. Anthony (pictured) was arrested and fined $100 for having voted in the presidential election two weeks earlier.
- 1956 – At the Polish embassy in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said "We will bury you" while addressing Western envoys, prompting them to leave the room.
- 1978 – Jim Jones led more than 900 members of the Peoples Temple to mass murder/suicide in Jonestown, Guyana, hours after some of its members assassinated U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan.
- 1620 – The Mayflower (depicted), which brought the Pilgrims from England to the New World, sighted Cape Cod.
- 1863 – American Civil War: U.S. president Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
- 1942 – World War II: Soviet troops launched Operation Uranus at the Battle of Stalingrad with the goal of encircling Axis forces, turning the tide of the battle in their favour.
- 2010 – The first of four explosions occurred at the Pike River Mine in the West Coast in New Zealand's worst mining disaster in nearly a century.
- 1845 – Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata: The Argentine Confederation was defeated in the Battle of Vuelta de Obligado, but the losses ultimately made the United Kingdom and France give up the blockade.
- 1947 – Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King George VI, married Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten (both pictured), who was given the title Duke of Edinburgh.
- 1990 – Andrei Chikatilo, one of the Soviet Union's most prolific serial killers, was arrested in Novocherkassk.
- 2003 – Suicide bombers blew up the British consulate and the headquarters of HSBC Bank in Istanbul, killing 59 people, including consul general Roger Short and actor Kerem Yılmazer.
- 1386 – Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur captured and sacked the Georgian capital Tbilisi and forced King Bagrat V to convert to Islam.
- 1920 – Irish War of Independence: On Bloody Sunday in Dublin, the IRA assassinated a group of British intelligence agents, and British forces killed 14 civilians at a Gaelic football match at Croke Park.
- 1950 – Two trains collided near Valemount, Canada, killing 21 people; the subsequent trial brought future prime minister John Diefenbaker (pictured) to greater political attention.
- 1970 – Vietnam War: American forces raided the North Vietnamese Sơn Tây prison camp in an attempt to rescue 61 American POWs who were thought to be held there.
- 2015 – The Belgian government imposed a four-day security lockdown in Brussels based on information about potential terrorist attacks.
- 1718 – The pirate Blackbeard was killed in battle by a boarding party of British sailors off the coast of North Carolina.
- 1873 – The French steamship Ville du Havre collided with a Scottish iron clipper in the North Atlantic and sank with the loss of 226 lives.
- 1986 – Mike Tyson (pictured) defeated Trevor Berbick to win the World Boxing Council title, becoming the youngest heavyweight champion in history.
- 1995 – Toy Story, the first feature film created using only computer-generated imagery, was released in theaters in the United States.
- 1867 – The Manchester Martyrs were hanged in Manchester, England, for killing a police officer while helping two Irish nationalists escape from police custody.
- 1876 – William "Boss" Tweed (pictured), a New York City politician who had been arrested for embezzlement, was handed over to US authorities after having escaped from prison and fled to Spain.
- 1963 – The first episode of Doctor Who, the world's longest-running science fiction television show, was broadcast on BBC television, starring William Hartnell as the first incarnation of the title role.
- 1980 – An earthquake struck the Irpinia region of Italy, killing at least 2,483 people, injuring more than 7,700 and leaving 250,000 homeless.
- 2007 – MS Explorer became the first cruise ship to sink in the Southern Ocean.
- 1542 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: England captured about 1,200 Scots with a victory at the Battle of Solway Moss.
- 1750 – Tarabai, the former regent of the Maratha Empire, had Rajaram II, whom she had previously claimed to be her grandson, arrested as an impostor.
- 1963 – During a live television broadcast, businessman Jack Ruby shot and fatally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald (shooting pictured), who assassinated U.S. president John F. Kennedy, fueling numerous conspiracy theories.
- 2015 – A Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24M after the latter had allegedly strayed into Turkish airspace and ignored warnings to change course.
- 1759 – The second of two strong earthquakes struck the Levant and destroyed all the villages in the Beqaa Valley.
- 1795 – Stanisław II Augustus, the last king of Poland, was forced to abdicate after the Third Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- 1940 – The de Havilland Mosquito (examples pictured), one of the most successful military aircraft in the Second World War, made its first flight.
- 1960 – Three of the four Mirabal sisters, who opposed the dictatorship of military strongman Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, were beaten and strangled to death.
- 1984 – Band Aid, a supergroup consisting of more than 30 leading British and Irish pop musicians, recorded the song "Do They Know It's Christmas?" to raise money for famine relief in Ethiopia.
- 1842 – The University of Notre Dame was founded by Edward Sorin, of the Congregation of Holy Cross, as an all-male institution in the U.S. state of Indiana.
- 1914 – A large internal explosion (pictured) destroyed HMS Bulwark near Sheerness, killing 741 people on board.
- 1940 – The Iron Guard killed 64 political detainees at a penitentiary near Bucharest and followed up with several high-profile assassinations, including that of former Romanian prime minister Nicolae Iorga.
- 1977 – A speaker claiming to represent the "Intergalactic Association" interrupted a Southern Television broadcast in South East England.
- 1161 – A Song dynasty fleet defeated Jin ships in a naval engagement on the Yangtze river during the Jin–Song Wars.
- 1815 – As specified by the Congress of Vienna, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland was signed for the newly recreated Polish state that was under Russian control.
- 1895 – Swedish chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel (pictured) signed his last will and testament, setting aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death.
- 1978 – San Francisco mayor George Moscone and openly gay supervisor Harvey Milk were assassinated by supervisor Dan White.
- 1470 – Đại Việt emperor Lê Thánh Tông launched a military expedition against Champa, beginning the Cham–Vietnamese War.
- 1895 – The Chicago Times-Herald race (winner pictured), the first automobile race in the U.S., was held in Chicago.
- 1903 – SS Petriana struck a reef near Point Nepean, leading to Australia's first major oil spill and a debate over the White Australia policy.
- 1966 – Michel Micombero abolished the Burundian monarchy and declared the country a republic with himself as president.
- 1549 – After the death of Pope Paul III, a papal conclave was convened with an unprecedented number of cardinals, who eventually elected Julius III more than two months later.
- 1854 – An estimated crowd of more than 10,000 demonstrators swore allegiance to the Eureka Flag (pictured) as a symbol of defiance, in advance of the Eureka Rebellion in Ballarat, Australia.
- 1899 – FC Barcelona, one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football, was founded by Swiss football pioneer Joan Gamper.
- 1972 – Atari announced the release of Pong, one of the first video games to achieve widespread popularity in both the arcade and home-console markets.
- 1987 – A time bomb planted by North Korean agents on Korean Air Flight 858 detonated over the Andaman Sea, killing all 115 people on board.
November 30: Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare; Saint Andrew's Day (Christianity); Guru Nanak Gurpurab (Sikhism, 2020)
- 1700 – Great Northern War: Swedish forces led by King Charles XII defeated the Russian army at the Battle of Narva.
- 1803 – An expedition led by Francisco Javier de Balmis departed A Coruña, Spain, with the aim of vaccinating millions in South America and Asia against smallpox.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese warships defeated the U.S. Navy in a nighttime naval battle off Tassafaronga, Guadalcanal.
- 1962 – Following the death of Dag Hammarskjöld, Burmese diplomat U Thant was elected secretary-general of the United Nations.
- 1999 – Protests by anti-globalization activists (pictured) against the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Seattle forced the cancellation of its opening ceremonies.