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|<<||Selected anniversaries for November||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2020 day arrangement
- 1214 – Byzantine–Seljuq wars: Seljuq Turks captured the important port city of Sinope.
- 1503 – Giuliano della Rovere was elected pope, taking the name Julius II in emulation of Julius Caesar.
- 1914 – World War I: The first contingent of the First Australian Imperial Force (soldiers pictured) departed Albany, Western Australia.
- 1959 – Dominique Mbonyumutwa, one of the few Hutu sub-chiefs in colonial Rwanda, was attacked by Tutsi activists, precipitating the Rwandan Revolution.
- 1917 – The British government issued the Balfour Declaration in support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a small minority Jewish population.
- 1932 – The Australian military began a "war against emus" (man with dead emu pictured), flightless native birds blamed for widespread damage to crops in Western Australia.
- 1960 – In the trial R v Penguin Books Ltd, publisher Penguin Books was acquitted of obscenity for the publication of Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence.
- 2016 – The Chicago Cubs defeated the Cleveland Indians in the 2016 World Series, ending the longest championship drought in Major League Baseball history.
- 1848 – A new constitution drafted by Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was proclaimed, limiting the powers of the Dutch monarchy.
- 1881 – Indigenous Mapuche began an uprising against the occupation of Araucanía by Chile.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: The largest massacre of Jews by German forces began at Majdanek concentration camp.
- 1957 – The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2, carrying the space dog Laika (depicted) as the first living creature to enter orbit around Earth.
- 1996 – Abdullah Çatlı, a leader of the ultra-nationalist Grey Wolves, was killed in a car crash near Susurluk, Turkey, sparking a scandal that exposed the depth of the state's complicity in organized crime.
- 1847 – Scottish physician James Young Simpson discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on humans.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Nathan Bedford Forrest led a cavalry division in an attack on a Union Army supply base at Johnsonville, Tennessee, resulting in the capture of 150 prisoners.
- 1938 – The deportation of several thousand Jews from Slovakia by the Hlinka Guard and police began.
- 1970 – Authorities in California discovered a 13-year-old feral child known as Genie, who had spent almost her entire life in social isolation.
- 1995 – Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin (pictured) was assassinated by ultranationalist Yigal Amir while at a peace rally at Kings of Israel Square in Tel Aviv.
- 1556 – At the Second Battle of Panipat, forces of the Mughal emperor Akbar captured Hemu, the Hindu emperor of north India.
- 1757 – Seven Years' War: Prussian forces led by Frederick the Great defeated the allied French and Habsburg armies at the Battle of Rossbach.
- 1925 – Sidney Reilly (pictured), known as the "Ace of Spies" and an inspiration for James Bond, was executed by the Soviet secret police.
- 1950 – Korean War: The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade succeeded in preventing a Chinese breakthrough at the Battle of Pakchon.
- 1995 – André Dallaire was thwarted in his attempt to assassinate Canadian prime minister Jean Chrétien at 24 Sussex Drive in Ottawa when Chrétien's wife locked the door.
- 447 – A powerful earthquake destroyed large portions of the Walls of Constantinople, including 57 towers.
- 1789 – Pope Pius VI appointed Father John Carroll as the first Catholic bishop in the United States.
- 1856 – The first story from the collection Scenes of Clerical Life by English author George Eliot (pictured) was submitted for publication.
- 1963 – Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ was appointed to head the South Vietnamese government by General Dương Văn Minh's junta, five days after the latter deposed and assassinated President Ngô Đình Diệm.
- 1977 – The Kelly Barnes Dam in Stephens County, Georgia, collapsed; the resulting flood killed 39 people and caused US$2.8 million in damages.
- 680 – The Third Council of Constantinople convened to settle the theological controversies of monoenergism and monothelitism.
- 1811 – Tecumseh's War: American forces led by William Henry Harrison defeated the forces of Shawnee leader Tecumseh's growing confederation at the Battle of Tippecanoe near present-day Battle Ground, Indiana.
- 1917 – World War I: British forces captured Gaza when the Ottoman garrison retreated.
- 1987 – Tunisian prime minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali deposed and replaced President Habib Bourguiba by declaring him medically unfit for the duties of the office.
- 2000 – Hillary Clinton (pictured) was elected a US senator, the first time a first lady had been elected to public office.
- 1520 – Following a successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces under Christian II, scores of Swedish leaders in Stockholm were imprisoned and later executed (depicted) despite Christian's promise of general amnesty.
- 1644 – The Shunzhi Emperor, the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, was enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China.
- 1940 – The Italian invasion of Greece failed as outnumbered Greek units repulsed the Italians at the Battle of Elaia–Kalamas.
- 1987 – A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb exploded during a Remembrance Sunday ceremony in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, killing 12 people and injuring 63 others.
- 1729 – Great Britain, France, and Spain signed the Treaty of Seville to end the Anglo-Spanish War, despite the underlying tensions being left unresolved.
- 1914 – World War I: Off the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Australian light cruiser Sydney sank Emden, the last active German warship in the Indian Ocean.
- 1989 – East German official Günter Schabowski mistakenly announced the immediate opening of the inner German border, resulting in the fall of the Berlin Wall that night (border crossing pictured).
- 2016 – A tram derailed in Croydon, London, killing seven people.
- 1202 – Fourth Crusade: The Siege of Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), the first attack on a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders, began.
- 1940 – An earthquake registering 7.7 Mw struck the Vrancea region of Romania (rescue efforts pictured).
- 1945 – Indonesian National Revolution: Following the killing of Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby a few weeks earlier, British forces retaliated by attacking Surabaya.
- 2007 – At the Ibero-American Summit in Santiago, Chile, King Juan Carlos I of Spain asked Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez "Why don't you shut up?" after Chávez repeatedly interrupted a speech by Spanish prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.
- 1778 – American Revolutionary War: British forces and their Iroquois allies attacked a fort and the village of Cherry Valley, New York, killing 14 soldiers and 30 civilians.
- 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: French, Austrian and Russian units all suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Dürenstein.
- 1920 – In London, the Cenotaph (pictured) was unveiled and the Unknown Warrior was buried in Westminster Abbey in remembrance of the First World War.
- 1960 – A coup attempt by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam against President Ngô Đình Diệm was crushed after Diệm falsely promised reform, allowing loyalists to rescue him.
- 1975 – During a constitutional crisis in Australia, Governor-General John Kerr dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam's government and dissolved Parliament for a double-dissolution election.
- 1928 – The British ocean liner SS Vestris sank in the western Atlantic Ocean with the loss of 111 lives.
- 1945 – Sudirman was elected the first commander-in-chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces.
- 1970 – The deadliest tropical cyclone in history made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (Bangladesh), killing at least 250,000 people.
- 2014 – The European Space Agency lander Philae (artist's impression shown) touched down on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, becoming the first spacecraft to land on a comet.
- 1642 – First English Civil War: The Royalist army engaged the much larger Parliamentarian army at the Battle of Turnham Green near Turnham Green, Middlesex.
- 1914 – Zaian War: Zaian Berber tribesmen routed French forces in Morocco at the Battle of El Herri.
- 1940 – Walt Disney's Fantasia, the first commercial film shown with stereophonic sound, premiered at the Broadway Theatre in New York City.
- 1985 – Nevado del Ruiz (pictured) erupted, causing a volcanic mudslide that buried the town of Armero, Colombia, and killed approximately 23,000 people.
- 1680 – German astronomer Gottfried Kirch discovered the Great Comet of 1680, the first comet to be discovered by telescope.
- 1970 – Southern Airways Flight 932, chartered by the Marshall University football team, crashed into a hill near Ceredo, West Virginia, killing all 75 people on board.
- 1990 – Music producer Frank Farian admitted that the German R&B duo Milli Vanilli (pictured) did not sing the vocals on their album Girl You Know It's True.
- 2010 – Red Bull Racing's Sebastian Vettel won the Drivers' Championship after winning the final race of the season, becoming the youngest Formula One champion.
- 655 – Penda of Mercia was defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria at the Battle of the Winwaed in present-day Yorkshire, England.
- 1760 – The chapel of the newly constructed Castellania in Valletta, Malta, was consecrated.
- 1859 – Sponsored by Greek businessman Evangelos Zappas, the first modern revival of the Olympic Games took place in Athens.
- 1935 – The Commonwealth of the Philippines was officially established, with Manuel L. Quezon inaugurated as its president (pictured).
- 1988 – Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat proclaimed the creation of the State of Palestine as "the state of Palestinians wherever they may be".
- 1476 – With the help of Stephen III and Stephen Báthory, Vlad the Impaler ousted Basarab the Old and became the ruler of Wallachia for the third time.
- 1885 – After a five-day trial following the North-West Rebellion, the Canadian Métis leader and "Father of Manitoba" Louis Riel was hanged for high treason.
- 1920 – Qantas, Australia's national airline, was founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services (first office pictured).
- 1945 – The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded.
- 2002 – The first case of SARS, a zoonotic respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus, was recorded in Guangdong, China.
- 1558 – Elizabeth I became Queen of England and of Ireland, marking the beginning of the Elizabethan era.
- 1839 – Giuseppe Verdi's first opera, Oberto, premiered at La Scala in Milan.
- 1950 – The 14th Dalai Lama (pictured) assumed full temporal power as ruler of Tibet at the age of fifteen.
- 1997 – Sixty-two people were killed by Islamist terrorists outside Deir el-Bahari in Luxor, one of Egypt's top tourist attractions.
- 2013 – Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363 crashed during an aborted landing at Kazan International Airport, Russia, killing all fifty people on board and leading to the revocation of the airline's operating certificate.
- 1809 – Napoleonic Wars: In the Bay of Bengal, a French frigate squadron captured three East Indiamen mainly carrying recruits for the Indian Army.
- 1872 – American suffragette Susan B. Anthony (pictured) was arrested and fined $100 for having voted in the presidential election two weeks earlier.
- 1956 – At the Polish embassy in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said "We will bury you" while addressing Western envoys, prompting them to leave the room.
- 1978 – Jim Jones led more than 900 members of the Peoples Temple to mass murder/suicide in Jonestown, Guyana, hours after some of its members assassinated U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan.
- 1620 – The Mayflower (depicted), which brought the Pilgrims from England to the New World, sighted Cape Cod.
- 1863 – American Civil War: U.S. president Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
- 1942 – World War II: Soviet troops launched Operation Uranus at the Battle of Stalingrad with the goal of encircling Axis forces, turning the tide of the battle in their favour.
- 2010 – The first of four explosions occurred at the Pike River Mine in the West Coast in New Zealand's worst mining disaster in nearly a century.
- 1845 – Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata: The Argentine Confederation was defeated in the Battle of Vuelta de Obligado, but the losses ultimately made the United Kingdom and France give up the blockade.
- 1947 – Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King George VI, married Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten (both pictured), who was given the title Duke of Edinburgh.
- 1990 – Andrei Chikatilo, one of the Soviet Union's most prolific serial killers, was arrested in Novocherkassk.
- 2003 – Suicide bombers blew up the British consulate and the headquarters of HSBC Bank in Istanbul, killing 59 people, including consul general Roger Short and actor Kerem Yılmazer.
- 1386 – Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur captured and sacked the Georgian capital Tbilisi and forced King Bagrat V to convert to Islam.
- 1920 – Irish War of Independence: On Bloody Sunday in Dublin, the IRA assassinated a group of British intelligence agents, and British forces killed 14 civilians at a Gaelic football match at Croke Park.
- 1950 – Two trains collided near Valemount, Canada, killing 21 people; the subsequent trial brought future prime minister John Diefenbaker (pictured) to greater political attention.
- 1970 – Vietnam War: American forces raided the North Vietnamese Sơn Tây prison camp in an attempt to rescue 61 American POWs who were thought to be held there.
- 2015 – The Belgian government imposed a four-day security lockdown in Brussels based on information about potential terrorist attacks.
- 1718 – The pirate Blackbeard was killed in battle by a boarding party of British sailors off the coast of North Carolina.
- 1873 – The French steamship Ville du Havre collided with a Scottish iron clipper in the North Atlantic and sank with the loss of 226 lives.
- 1986 – Mike Tyson (pictured) defeated Trevor Berbick to win the World Boxing Council title, becoming the youngest heavyweight champion in history.
- 1995 – Toy Story, the first feature film created using only computer-generated imagery, was released in theaters in the United States.
- 1867 – The Manchester Martyrs were hanged in Manchester, England, for killing a police officer while helping two Irish nationalists escape from police custody.
- 1876 – William "Boss" Tweed (pictured), a New York City politician who had been arrested for embezzlement, was handed over to US authorities after having escaped from prison and fled to Spain.
- 1963 – The first episode of Doctor Who, the world's longest-running science fiction television show, was broadcast on BBC television, starring William Hartnell as the first incarnation of the title role.
- 1980 – An earthquake struck the Irpinia region of Italy, killing at least 2,483 people, injuring more than 7,700 and leaving 250,000 homeless.
- 2007 – MS Explorer became the first cruise ship to sink in the Southern Ocean.
- 1542 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: England captured about 1,200 Scottish prisoners with a victory at the Battle of Solway Moss.
- 1750 – Tarabai, the former regent of the Maratha Empire, had Rajaram II, whom she had previously claimed to be her grandson, arrested as an impostor.
- 1963 – During a live television broadcast, businessman Jack Ruby shot and fatally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald (shooting pictured), who assassinated U.S. president John F. Kennedy, fueling numerous conspiracy theories.
- 2015 – A Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24M after the latter had allegedly strayed into Turkish airspace and ignored warnings to change course.
- 1759 – The second of two strong earthquakes struck the Levant and destroyed all the villages in the Beqaa Valley.
- 1795 – Stanisław II Augustus, the last king of Poland, was forced to abdicate after the Third Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- 1940 – The de Havilland Mosquito (examples pictured), one of the most successful military aircraft in the Second World War, made its first flight.
- 1960 – Three of the four Mirabal sisters, who opposed the dictatorship of military strongman Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, were beaten and strangled to death.
- 1984 – Band Aid, a supergroup consisting of more than 30 leading British and Irish pop musicians, recorded the song "Do They Know It's Christmas?" to raise money for famine relief in Ethiopia.
- 1842 – The University of Notre Dame was founded by Rev. Edward Sorin, of the Congregation of Holy Cross, as an all-male institution in South Bend, Indiana, U.S.
- 1914 – A large internal explosion (pictured) destroyed HMS Bulwark, killing 741 people on board.
- 1922 – Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon became the first people to enter the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun in over 3,000 years.
- 1942 – Casablanca, starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, premiered at the Hollywood Theatre in New York City to coincide with the Allied invasion of North Africa and the capture of Casablanca.
- 1977 – A speaker claiming to represent the "Intergalactic Association" interrupted the Southern Television broadcast in South East England, warning viewers that "All your weapons of evil must be destroyed."
- 1895 – Swedish chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel (pictured) signed his last will and testament, setting aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death.
- 1919 – The first fraternity exclusively for collegiate band members, Kappa Kappa Psi, was founded on the campus of Oklahoma State University in Stillwater.
- 1999 – The Labour Party defeated the governing National Party in the New Zealand general election, with Labour's Helen Clark becoming the country's first female prime minister to have won office at an election.
- 2009 – A bomb exploded under, and derailed, a Russian high-speed train travelling between Moscow and Saint Petersburg, killing 28 passengers.
- 1443 – Having deserted the Ottoman army, Skanderbeg arrived in the Albanian city of Krujë and, using a forged letter from Sultan Murad II to the governor of Krujë, became lord of the city.
- 1895 – The first automobile race in the United States, the Chicago Times-Herald race, was held in Chicago.
- 1925 – Grand Ole Opry, the longest-running radio broadcast in the United States, first aired on WSM in Nashville, Tennessee.
- 1967 – Jocelyn Bell Burnell noticed a "bit of scruff" in data (pictured) from a radio telescope, which turned out to be from PSR B1919+21, the first discovered pulsar.
- 1979 – Air New Zealand Flight 901 crashed into Antarctica's Mount Erebus, killing all 257 people on board.
- 1729 – Natchez Indians revolted against French colonists near modern-day Natchez, Mississippi, killing approximately 230 people.
- 1807 – Peninsular War: Maria I of Portugal, the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people departed Lisbon for the colony of Brazil just days before French forces invaded the city.
- 1890 – The National Diet of Japan (pictured in session), a bicameral legislature modelled after both the German Reichstag and the British Westminster system, first met in Tokyo.
- 1963 – Five minutes after taking off from Montreal, Trans-Canada Air Lines Flight 831 crashed in bad weather, killing all 118 people on board.
- 2007 – During their trial for the 2003 Oakwood mutiny, Philippine soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes mutinied and seized a conference room in The Peninsula Manila hotel in Makati.
November 30: Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare; Saint Andrew's Day (Christianity); Guru Nanak Gurpurab (Sikhism, 2020)
- 1700 – Great Northern War: Swedish forces led by King Charles XII defeated the Russian army of Tsar Peter the Great at the Battle of Narva.
- 1853 – Crimean War: Russian warships led by Pavel Nakhimov destroyed an Ottoman fleet of frigates at the Battle of Sinop, prompting France and Britain to enter the war.
- 1953 – Mutesa II, Kabaka of Buganda, was temporarily deposed and exiled to London by Andrew Cohen, the British governor of Uganda.
- 1979 – The Wall (performance pictured), a rock opera and concept album by the English band Pink Floyd, was first released.
- 1999 – Marconi Electronic Systems and British Aerospace merged to form BAE Systems, one of the world's largest defence companies.