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|<<||Selected anniversaries for October||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2021 day arrangement
- 1800 – With the signing of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France in return for territories in the Italian region of Tuscany.
- 1868 – St Pancras railway station (pictured) in London, now the terminus of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, opened to the public.
- 1906 – A deputation of Muslim leaders led by the Aga Khan III met Indian viceroy Lord Minto to secure greater political representation, eventually leading to the founding of the All-India Muslim League.
- 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: Yugoslav People's Army forces invaded the area surrounding Dubrovnik, Croatia, beginning a seven-month siege of the city.
- 1263 – Scottish–Norwegian War: Norwegian and Scottish armies fought the Battle of Largs, an inconclusive engagement near the present-day town of Largs, Scotland.
- 1835 – Mexican dragoons dispatched to disarm settlers at Gonzales in Mexican Texas encountered stiff resistance from a Texian militia at the Battle of Gonzales, the first armed engagement of the Texas Revolution.
- 1937 – President Rafael Trujillo announced that Dominican troops had begun mass killings of Haitians living in the Dominican Republic.
- 1971 – Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (pictured) was re-elected unopposed as President of South Vietnam.
- 1996 – A maintenance worker's failure to remove tape covering the aircraft's static ports caused Aeroperú Flight 603 to crash into the ocean near Lima, Peru, killing all 70 people on board.
- 2333 BC – According to Korean legend, Dangun established Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom.
- 1792 – Spanish forces departed Valdivia, Chile, to suppress the Huilliche uprising.
- 1951 – The First Battle of Maryang-san, widely regarded as one of the Australian Army's greatest accomplishments during the Korean War, began.
- 1981 – The hunger strike by Irish Republican Army prisoners at HM Prison Maze in Belfast ended after seven months and ten deaths (memorial pictured).
- 1991 – Nadine Gordimer became the first South African to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
- 1602 – Anglo-Spanish War: An English fleet intercepted and attacked six Spanish galleys in the Dover Straits (depicted).
- 1779 – American Revolution: James Wilson and his colleagues were forced to defend themselves after a mob, angered by his successful legal defense of 23 people from exile, converged on his house, resulting in six deaths.
- 1925 – Great Syrian Revolt: Rebels led by Fawzi al-Qawuqji captured the city of Hama from the French Mandate of Syria.
- 1941 – Willie Gillis, one of Norman Rockwell's trademark characters, debuted on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post.
- 1958 – The current Constitution of France was signed into law, establishing the French Fifth Republic.
- 1607 – Venetian statesman Paolo Sarpi survived an attack by assassins sent by Pope Paul V.
- 1869 – During construction of the Eastman tunnel in St. Anthony, Minnesota (now Minneapolis), the Mississippi River broke through the tunnel's limestone ceiling, nearly destroying Saint Anthony Falls.
- 1903 – Samuel Griffith (pictured) became the first Chief Justice of Australia, while Edmund Barton and Richard O'Connor became the first Puisne Justices of the High Court of Australia.
- 1973 – Seven nations signed the European Patent Convention, providing an autonomous legal system according to which European patents are granted.
- 2011 – Two Chinese cargo ships were attacked on a stretch of the Mekong River in the Golden Triangle area of Southeast Asia, and their crews murdered.
- 618 – Wang Shichong's army defeated that of Li Mi, allowing Wang to consolidate his power and soon depose China's Sui dynasty.
- 1762 – Seven Years' War: The Battle of Manila concluded with a British victory over Spain, leading to a twenty-month occupation.
- 1927 – The Jazz Singer (poster pictured), one of the first feature-length motion pictures with a synchronized recorded music score, was released.
- 1976 – Two bombs placed by the CIA-linked Cuban dissident group Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations exploded on Cubana Flight 455, killing all 73 aboard.
- 1985 – Police constable Keith Blakelock was killed during rioting in the Broadwater Farm housing estate in Tottenham, London.
- 1513 – War of the League of Cambrai: A Venetian army under Bartolomeo d'Alviano was decisively defeated by the Spanish army commanded by Ramón de Cardona and Fernando d'Ávalos.
- 1849 – American writer Edgar Allan Poe (pictured) died under mysterious circumstances at Washington Medical College four days after being found on the streets of Baltimore, Maryland, in a delirious and incoherent state.
- 1944 – The Holocaust: Sonderkommando work-unit members in Auschwitz concentration camp revolted upon learning that they were due to be killed; although a few managed to escape, most were massacred on the same day.
- 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: The Yugoslav People's Army conducted an air strike on Banski dvori, the official residence of the president of Croatia in Zagreb.
- 1076 – Demetrius Zvonimir, the last native king who exerted any real power over the entire Croatian state, was crowned.
- 1871 – Five large fires broke out in the United States, including the Great Chicago Fire in Illinois and the Peshtigo fire in Wisconsin, the latter being the deadliest in U.S. history.
- 1904 – The Canadian city of Edmonton, Alberta (Downtown Edmonton pictured), was incorporated.
- 1952 – Three trains collided at Harrow & Wealdstone station in London, killing 112 people and injuring 340 others.
- 2019 – Anti-government protests calling for free and fair elections began in Baku, Azerbaijan.
- 1793 – French Revolution: After a month-long siege, the leaders of Lyon surrendered, ending their revolt against the National Convention.
- 1888 – The Washington Monument (pictured) in Washington, D.C., at the time the world's tallest building, officially opened to the general public.
- 1913 – Carrying a cargo hold full of highly flammable chemicals, the ocean liner SS Volturno caught fire in the north Atlantic and sank, resulting in 136 deaths.
- 1986 – The Phantom of the Opera, a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber and currently the longest-running Broadway show in history, opened in London's West End.
- 2019 – Syrian civil war: Turkish forces began an offensive into north-eastern Syria following the withdrawal of U.S. troops from the region.
- 1760 – In a treaty with the Dutch colonial authorities, the Ndyuka people of Suriname gained territorial autonomy.
- 1846 – English astronomer William Lassell discovered Triton (pictured), the largest moon of Neptune.
- 1933 – In the first proven act of sabotage in the history of commercial aviation, a Boeing 247 operated by United Airlines exploded in mid-air near Chesterton, Indiana, killing all seven people aboard.
- 1943 – World War II: The Kenpeitai, the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army, arrested and tortured fifty-seven civilians and civilian internees on suspicion of their involvement in a raid on Singapore Harbour during Operation Jaywick.
- 1967 – The Outer Space Treaty, a treaty that forms the basis of international space law, entered into force.
- 1311 – The peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England published the Ordinances of 1311 to restrict King Edward II's powers.
- 1531 – Swiss Reformation leader Huldrych Zwingli was killed in battle when Zürich forces were attacked by Catholic cantons in response to a food blockade being applied by his alliance.
- 1840 – Bashir Shihab II (pictured) surrendered to the Ottoman Empire and was removed as Emir of Mount Lebanon after an imperial decree by Sultan Abdülmecid I.
- 1937 – Edward, Duke of Windsor, and Wallis, Duchess of Windsor, arrived at Friedrichstraße station in Berlin to begin their tour of Germany.
- 1991 – During the confirmation hearings upon the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court of the United States, Anita Hill testified that he had sexually harassed her several years earlier.
- 1398 – The Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen signed the Treaty of Salynas, the third attempt to cede Samogitia to the Knights.
- 1799 – Jeanne Geneviève Garnerin (pictured) became the first woman to make a parachute descent, falling 900 m (3,000 ft) in a hot-air balloon gondola.
- 1871 – The Criminal Tribes Act entered into force in British India, giving law enforcement sweeping powers to arrest, control, and monitor the movements of the members of ethnic or social communities that were defined as "habitually criminal".
- 1984 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated a bomb at the Grand Hotel in Brighton, England, in a failed attempt to assassinate British prime minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet.
- 1773 – French astronomer Charles Messier discovered the Whirlpool Galaxy (pictured), an interacting, grand design spiral galaxy located an estimated 31 million light-years away.
- 1843 – B'nai B'rith, the world's oldest continually operating Jewish service organization, was founded in New York City.
- 1921 – The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia signed the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, establishing the current borders between Turkey and the Caucasian states.
- 1961 – Newly elected Burundian prime minister Louis Rwagasore was assassinated by his political rivals.
- 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: French forces under Marshal Michel Ney defeated Austrian forces in Elchingen, present-day Germany.
- 1888 – French inventor Louis Le Prince filmed Roundhay Garden Scene (featured), the earliest surviving motion picture, in Leeds, England.
- 1926 – The first book featuring English author A. A. Milne's fictional bear Winnie-the-Pooh was published.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: Prisoners at Sobibor extermination camp revolted, killing 11 SS officers and staging a mass escape.
- 1964 – Members of the Politburo voted to remove Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and replace him with Leonid Brezhnev.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Confederate forces captured Glasgow, Missouri, although it had little long-term benefit as Price's Missouri Expedition was defeated a week later.
- 1888 – George Lusk, the chairman of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee in London, received a letter allegedly from Jack the Ripper.
- 1917 – Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari (pictured) was executed by a firing squad for spying for Germany.
- 1954 – Hurricane Hazel made landfall in the Carolinas in the United States before moving north to Toronto in Canada later the same day, killing a total of 176 people in both countries.
- 2011 – Global demonstrations against economic inequality, corporate influence on government, and other issues, were held in more than 950 cities in 82 countries.
- 1793 – Marie Antoinette, queen consort of Louis XVI, was guillotined at the Place de la Révolution in Paris at the height of the French Revolution.
- 1869 – Girton College (pictured), one of the 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge and England's first residential college for women, was founded.
- 1923 – Roy and Walt Disney founded the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in Hollywood; it eventually grew to become one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world.
- 1964 – With the success of Project 596, China became the world's fifth nuclear power.
- 1991 – A man drove his vehicle through the window of a Luby's Cafeteria in Killeen, Texas, and opened fire, killing 23 people before fatally shooting himself.
- 1346 – Hundred Years' War: King David II of Scotland was captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross following his invasion of England under the terms of Scotland's Auld Alliance with France.
- 1660 – A series of executions of the commissioners who signed the death warrant of Charles I of England concluded; six were hanged, drawn and quartered for treason.
- 1931 – American gangster Al Capone (pictured) was convicted on five counts of income-tax evasion.
- 1952 – Indonesian Army elements surrounded the Merdeka Palace, demanding that President Sukarno disband the Provisional People's Representative Council.
- 2001 – Rehavam Ze'evi, the Israeli minister of tourism, was assassinated in revenge for the killing of PFLP leader Abu Ali Mustafa.
- 1561 – Sengoku period: The Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima (depicted), one of the most famous in Japanese history, was fought in present-day Nagano Prefecture.
- 1748 – The War of the Austrian Succession ended with the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
- 1929 – In the Persons Case, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council decided that women were eligible to sit in the Senate of Canada.
- 2019 – Protests in Santiago that started 11 days prior escalated into open battle against the Chilean national police, forcing President Sebastián Piñera to declare a state of emergency.
- 1596 – The Spanish ship San Felipe was shipwrecked on the Japanese island of Shikoku, and its cargo confiscated by the local daimyō.
- 1752 – The Pennsylvania Gazette published a statement by Benjamin Franklin describing a kite experiment (depicted) to determine the electrical nature of lightning.
- 1943 – World War II: Allied aircraft sank the German cargo ship Sinfra, killing mostly Italian POWs.
- 1955 – At a meeting of its general assembly, the European Broadcasting Union approved the staging of the first Eurovision Song Contest.
- 1987 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell by 22.6 percent on Black Monday, the largest one-day percentage decline in the stock market index's history.
- 1097 – Forces of the First Crusade arrived at Antioch, beginning an eight-month siege of the city.
- 1740 – Under the terms of the Pragmatic Sanction, Maria Theresa (pictured) ascended the Habsburg throne.
- 1951 – African-American college football player Johnny Bright was the victim of an on-field assault that eventually provoked changes in NCAA football rules that mandated the use of more protective helmets with face guards.
- 1991 – An earthquake struck the Indian state of Uttarakhand, killing at least 768 people and destroying thousands of homes.
- 2011 – First Libyan Civil War: Deposed leader Muammar Gaddafi was captured by rebel forces during the Battle of Sirte and killed shortly thereafter.
- 1096 – The Seljuk forces of Kilij Arslan destroyed the army of the People's Crusade as it marched toward Nicaea.
- 1858 – French composer Jacques Offenbach's operetta Orpheus in the Underworld, featuring the music most associated with the can-can (audio featured), was first performed at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- 1941 – World War II: German soldiers massacred nearly 2,800 Serbs in Kragujevac in reprisal for insurgent attacks in the district of Gornji Milanovac.
- 1968 – At the height of the Japanese university protests, protestors occupied Shinjuku Station and clashed violently with police.
- 1994 – North Korea and the United States signed the Agreed Framework to limit the former's nuclear weapons program and to normalize relations between the two countries.
- 1633 – Ming Chinese naval forces defeated a Dutch East India Company fleet in the Taiwan Strait, the largest naval encounter between Chinese and European forces before the First Opium War more than two hundred years later.
- 1740 – A two-week massacre of ethnic Chinese in Batavia, Dutch East Indies, came to an end with at least 10,000 people killed.
- 1907 – A bank run forced New York's Knickerbocker Trust Company to suspend operations, which triggered the Panic of 1907.
- 1940 – After evading French and Spanish authorities, Belgian prime minister Hubert Pierlot (pictured) arrived in London, marking the beginning of the Belgian government in exile.
- 2001 – The controversial video game Grand Theft Auto III was first released to critical acclaim, and went on to popularise open-world and mature-content games.
- 1641 – Irish Catholic gentry in Ulster tried to seize control of Dublin Castle, the seat of English rule in Ireland, to force concessions to Catholics.
- 1850 – The first National Women's Rights Convention, presided over by Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis (pictured), began in Worcester, Massachusetts.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese troops began an unsuccessful attempt to recapture Henderson Field on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands from American forces.
- 1956 – The Hungarian Revolution began as a peaceful student demonstration that attracted thousands while marching through central Budapest to the parliament building.
- 1260 – Qutuz (bust pictured), the sultan of Egypt, was assassinated and replaced by fellow Mamluk leader Baibars.
- 1851 – William Lassell discovered the Uranian moons Umbriel and Ariel.
- 1931 – The George Washington Bridge, today the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting New York City to Fort Lee, New Jersey, was dedicated.
- 1945 – The UN Charter, the constitution of the United Nations, entered into force after being ratified by the five permanent members of the Security Council and a majority of the other signatories.
- 1960 – A prototype of the Soviet R-16 intercontinental ballistic missile exploded on the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Kazakh SSR.
- 1760 – George III (pictured) became King of Great Britain and Ireland.
- 1920 – Irish playwright and politician Terence MacSwiney died after a hunger strike in Brixton Prison, bringing the Irish struggle for independence to international attention.
- 1950 – Korean War: The People's Volunteer Army ambushed the South Korean II Corps and elsewhere engaged the 1st Infantry Division, marking China's entry into the war.
- 1980 – Proceedings on the Hague Abduction Convention, a multilateral treaty providing an expeditious method to return a child taken from one member nation to another, concluded at The Hague.
- 2010 – Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia, began an increasingly violent series of eruptions that lasted over a month.
- 1341 – The Byzantine army proclaimed chief minister John VI Kantakouzenos emperor, triggering a civil war between his supporters and those of John V Palaiologos, the heir to the throne.
- 1892 – Ida B. Wells (pictured) began to publish her research on lynching in the United States, for which she was posthumously awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 2020.
- 1955 – Ngô Đình Diệm proclaimed himself president of the newly created Republic of Vietnam after defeating former emperor Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum supervised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu.
- 1994 – Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty, settling relations between the two countries and pledging that neither would allow its territory to become a staging ground for military strikes by a third country.
- 2000 – Following protests against military leader Robert Guéï, Laurent Gbagbo became the first elected president of Ivory Coast.
- 1662 – King Charles II of England sold Dunkirk to King Louis XIV of France.
- 1942 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese Navy achieved a pyrrhic victory against the United States at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands.
- 1967 – American Catholic priest Philip Berrigan led a protest against the Vietnam War by pouring blood over Selective Service records in Baltimore, Maryland.
- 1999 – Armed men led by Nairi Hunanyan attacked the National Assembly of Armenia, killing prime minister Vazgen Sargsyan, president of the National Assembly Karen Demirchyan, and six others.
- 2011 – Michael D. Higgins (pictured) was elected president of Ireland with far more votes than any politician in the country's history.
- 1453 – Ladislaus the Posthumous (pictured) was crowned King of Bohemia, although George of Poděbrady remained in control of the government.
- 1707 – The Hōei earthquake ruptured all segments of the Nankai megathrust simultaneously – the only earthquake known to have done this.
- 1918 – The Czechoslovak provisional government declared the country's independence from Austria-Hungary, forming the First Czechoslovak Republic in Prague.
- 1940 – World War II: Italy invaded Greece after Greek prime minister Ioannis Metaxas rejected Benito Mussolini's ultimatum demanding the cession of Greek territory.
- 1995 – A fire broke out on a Baku Metro train in Azerbaijan's capital, killing 289 people and injuring 270 others in the world's deadliest subway disaster.
- 539 BC – Cyrus the Great captured Babylon, incorporating the Neo-Babylonian Empire and making the Achaemenid Empire the largest in the history of the world to that time.
- 1618 – English courtier and explorer Sir Walter Raleigh was executed in London after King James I reinstated a fifteen-year-old death sentence against him.
- 1948 – Arab–Israeli War: As the Israel Defense Forces captured the Palestinian Arab village of Safsaf, they massacred at least 52 villagers.
- 1960 – A C-46 airliner carrying the Cal Poly Mustangs football team crashed during takeoff from Toledo Express Airport in Ohio, U.S., resulting in 22 deaths.
- 2013 – The first phase of the Marmaray project (train pictured) opened with an undersea rail tunnel across the Bosphorus strait.
- 1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Believing that they were outnumbered, the German garrison at Stettin surrendered (depicted) to a much smaller French force without a fight.
- 1950 – Blanca Canales led the Jayuya Uprising against the U.S.-supported Puerto Rican government.
- 1960 – Michael Woodruff performed the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh.
- 1993 – The Troubles: Three members of the Ulster Defence Association opened fire in a crowded pub during a Halloween party, killing eight people and wounding nineteen others.
- 683 – During the Siege of Mecca, the Kaaba, considered the holiest site in Islam, was severely damaged by fire.
- 1913 – Public-transportation workers in Indianapolis went on strike (pictured), shutting down mass transit in the city.
- 1973 – Three Provisional Irish Republican Army members escaped from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin aboard a hijacked helicopter that landed in the prison's exercise yard.
- 1999 – All 217 people on board EgyptAir Flight 990 perished when the aircraft suddenly crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Nantucket, Massachusetts.