|<<||Selected anniversaries for October||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2017 day arrangement
October 1: National Day in China (1949); Unification Day in Cameroon (1961); Independence Day in Nigeria (1960), Palau (1994), and Tuvalu (1978); Filipino American History Month begins in the United States
- 1800 – With the signing of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France in return for the Tuscany area of Italy.
- 1891 – Stanford University (pictured), founded by railroad magnate and California Governor Leland Stanford and his wife Jane on their former farm lands in Palo Alto, California, officially opened with 559 students and free tuition.
- 1946 – Mensa, the largest and oldest high-IQ society in the world, was formed in the United Kingdom.
- 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: Yugoslav National Army forces invaded the area surrounding Dubrovnik, Croatia, beginning a seven-month siege of the city.
- 2012 – A ferry collision offshore Hong Kong killed 39 people and injured 92 others.
- 1263 – Scottish–Norwegian War: The armies of Norway and Scotland fought at the Battle of Largs, an inconclusive engagement near the present-day town of Largs in North Ayrshire.
- 1535 – French explorer Jacques Cartier (pictured) sailed along the St. Lawrence River and reached the Iroquois fortified village Hochelaga on the island now known as Montreal.
- 1941 – World War II: Nazi German forces began Operation Typhoon, an all-out offensive to begin the three-month long Battle of Moscow.
- 1996 – A maintenance worker's failure to remove tape covering the static ports of the aircraft caused Aeroperú Flight 603 to crash into the ocean near Lima, Peru, due to instrument failure.
- 2006 – A gunman killed five Amish girls before committing suicide in a one-room schoolhouse in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania, US.
- 2333 BC – According to Korean legend, Dangun, the "grandson of heaven", established Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom.
- 1918 – World War I: Following his armed forces' defeat by the Allied Powers, Bulgarian Tsar Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of his son Boris III (pictured).
- 1951 – In Major League Baseball, the New York Giants' Bobby Thomson hit the "Shot Heard 'Round the World", a game-winning home run in the bottom of the ninth inning to win the National League pennant.
- 1986 – After Soviet nuclear submarine K-219 had suffered an explosion and fire, sailor Sergei Preminin manually prevented an impending nuclear meltdown by means of a reactor SCRAM.
- 2013 – A boat carrying migrants from Libya to Italy sank off the Italian island of Lampedusa, with a second boat sinking eight days later.
- 1895 – The first US Open golf tournament was held on a nine-hole course at the Newport Country Club in Newport, Rhode Island.
- 1917 – First World War: The British devastated the German defence in the Battle of Broodseinde, which prompted a crisis among the German commanders and caused a severe loss of morale in the German Fourth Army.
- 1941 – Willie Gillis, one of Norman Rockwell's trademark characters, debuted on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post.
- 1976 – British Rail's InterCity 125 service (pictured), the world's fastest diesel-powered train, began operations on the Western Region.
- 2003 – A suicide bomber killed 21 people and injured more than 50 others inside the Maxim restaurant in Haifa, Israel.
- 610 – Heraclius was crowned Byzantine Emperor, having personally beheaded the previous emperor Phocas.
- 1789 – French Revolution: Upset about the high price and scarcity of bread, thousands of Parisian women and their various allies marched (pictured) on the royal palace at Versailles.
- 1903 – Samuel Griffith became the first Chief Justice of Australia, while Edmund Barton and Richard O'Connor became the first Puisne Justices of the High Court of Australia.
- 1948 – The International Union for Conservation of Nature was founded at a congress sponsored by UNESCO director Julian Huxley in Fontainebleau, France.
- 1999 – Two trains collided head-on at Ladbroke Grove, London, killing 31 passengers and severely damaging public confidence in the management and regulation of safety of Britain's privatised railway system.
Denis Diderot (b. 1713) ·
- 618 – Wang Shichong's army defeated that of Li Mi, allowing Wang to consolidate his power and soon depose China's Sui dynasty.
- 1762 – Seven Years' War: The Battle of Manila concluded with a British victory over Spain, leading to a short British occupation of Manila.
- 1910 – Eleftherios Venizelos (pictured) was elected Prime Minister of Greece for the first of his seven non-consecutive terms.
- 1976 – Two bombs placed by CIA-linked anti-Castro Cuban exiles exploded aboard Cubana Flight 455, killing all 73 aboard.
- 2002 – Al Qaeda bombed the oil tanker Limburg, causing 90,000 barrels (14,000 m3) of oil to leak into the Gulf of Aden.
- 1800 – The French privateer Robert Surcouf led a 150-man crew to capture the 40-gun, 437-man East Indiaman Kent.
- 1916 – Georgia Tech defeated Cumberland University 222–0 in the most lopsided college football game in American history.
- 1976 – Hua Guofeng succeeded Mao Zedong as Chairman of the Communist Party of China.
- 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: The Yugoslav People's Army conducted an air strike on Banski dvori, the official residence of the Government of Croatia in Zagreb.
- 2006 – Russian journalist and human rights activist Anna Politkovskaya (pictured) was assassinated in the elevator of her apartment block in central Moscow.
- 451 – The Council of Chalcedon, a Christian ecumenical council, opened, and went on to repudiate the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism and set forth the Chalcedonian Creed.
- 1076 – Demetrius Zvonimir, the last native king who exerted any real power over the entire Croatian state, was crowned.
- 1897 – Composer Gustav Mahler was appointed the director of the Vienna Court Opera.
- 1952 – Three trains collided (wreckage pictured) at Harrow & Wealdstone station in London killing 112 people and injuring 340.
- 2001 – In response to the September 11 attacks, U.S. President George W. Bush announced the creation of the Office of Homeland Security, with former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge as its director.
Ellen Wilkinson (b. 1891) ·
- 1446 – Scholars in the court of Sejong the Great promulgated the new Korean alphabet, now known as Hangul (sample pictured).
- 1831 – Ioannis Kapodistrias, the Greek head of state and the founder of Greek independence, was assassinated in Nafplion.
- 1913 – The ocean liner SS Volturno caught fire in the middle of a gale in the North Atlantic, burned, and sank, resulting in about 130 deaths.
- 1986 – The Phantom of the Opera, a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber currently the longest-running Broadway show in history, opened in London's West End.
- 2006 – North Korea conducted a nuclear test, reportedly near Kilchu, with an explosive force of less than one kiloton, that was condemned and denounced by many countries and the United Nations Security Council.
October 10: Day of Tasu'a (Islam, 2016); Thanksgiving in Canada (2016); National Day in Fiji (1970) and Taiwan (1911); Health and Sports Day in Japan (2016); Columbus Day and Indigenous Peoples' Day in the United States (2016)
- 680 – Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad, was killed in the Battle of Karbala by the forces of Yazid I, whom Husayn had refused to recognise as caliph.
- 1780 – One of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes on record struck the Caribbean Sea, killing at least 22,000 people over the next several days.
- 1846 – English astronomer William Lassell discovered Triton (pictured), the largest moon of the planet Neptune.
- 1943 – World War II: The Kempeitai, the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army, arrested and tortured more than 50 civilians and civilian internees on suspicion of their involvement in a raid on Singapore Harbour during Operation Jaywick.
- 1998 – General Augusto Pinochet was indicted for human rights violations committed in his native Chile and arrested in London six days later.
- 1311 – The peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England imposed the Ordinances of 1311 to restrict King Edward II's powers.
- 1614 – A group of merchants led by Adriaen Block presented a petition to the States General of the Netherlands to receive exclusive trading privileges for the New Netherland colony.
- 1797 – French Revolutionary Wars: The Royal Navy captured eleven Dutch Navy ships without any losses in the Battle of Camperdown.
- 1941 – Armed insurgents from the People's Liberation Army of Macedonia attacked Axis-occupied zones in the city of Prilep, beginning the National Liberation War of Macedonia.
- 1968 – Apollo 7 (lift-off pictured), the first manned mission of NASA's Apollo program, and the first three-man American space mission, launched from Complex 34 in Cape Canaveral, Florida.
María Teresa Ferrari (b. 1887) ·
- 1847 – Werner von Siemens (pictured), a German inventor, founded Siemens & Halske, which later became Siemens, the largest engineering company in Europe.
- 1871 – The Criminal Tribes Act entered into force in British India, giving law enforcement sweeping powers to arrest, control, and monitor the movements of the members of 160 specific ethnic or social communities that were defined as "habitually criminal".
- 1917 – First World War: New Zealand troops suffered 2,735 casualties, including 845 deaths, in the First Battle of Passchendaele, making it the nation's largest loss of life in one day.
- 1992 – A 5.8 MB earthquake struck south of Cairo, Egypt, killing 545 people.
- 1710 – Queen Anne's War: The French surrender ending the Siege of Port Royal gave the British permanent possession of Nova Scotia.
- 1812 – War of 1812: British troops and Mohawk warriors repelled an American invasion from across the Niagara River at the Battle of Queenston Heights near Queenston, Ontario.
- 1911 – Prince Arthur, a son of Queen Victoria, became the first Governor General of Canada of royal descent, as well as the first Prince of Great Britain and Ireland to hold that position.
- 1921 – The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia signed the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey to establish the contemporary borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states.
- 1958 – The first book featuring the English children's literature character Paddington Bear (statue pictured), created by Michael Bond and primarily illustrated by Peggy Fortnum, was published.
Lillie Langtry (b. 1853) ·
- 1863 – American Civil War: In the Battle of Bristoe Station, the Union II Corps was able to surprise and repel the Confederate attack on the Union rear guard, resulting in a Union victory.
- 1888 – French inventor Louis Le Prince filmed Roundhay Garden Scene, the earliest surviving motion picture, in Roundhay, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
- 1913 – The worst mining accident in the United Kingdom's history took place when an explosion took the lives of 439 people at the Universal Colliery in Senghenydd, Wales.
- 1956 – B. R. Ambedkar (pictured), a leader of India's "Untouchable" caste, publicly converted to Buddhism, becoming the leader of the Dalit Buddhist movement.
- 1973 – After student protests against the Thai military government turned to violence, King Bhumibol Adulyadej announced that Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn had resigned.
Éamon de Valera (b. 1882) ·
- 1529 – The Siege of Vienna ended as the Austrians repelled the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire.
- 1894 – Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery officer in the French military, was wrongly arrested for treason.
- 1932 – Air India (aircraft pictured), the flag carrier airline of India, began operations under the name Tata Airlines.
- 1951 – Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes completed the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first two oral contraceptives.
- 2006 – An offshore earthquake measuring 6.7 Mw occurred 10 km (6 miles) southwest of the Island of Hawaii.
- 1793 – Marie Antoinette, queen consort of Louis XVI, was guillotined at the Place de la Révolution in Paris at the height of the French Revolution.
- 1841 – The Church of Scotland established Queen's College in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
- 1916 – Margaret Sanger (pictured) established the United States' first family planning clinic in Brooklyn, New York.
- 1986 – Italian mountaineer Reinhold Messner made his ascent of Lhotse, making him the first person to climb all fourteen "eight-thousanders".
- 1996 – At least 83 people were killed and more than 140 injured in a stampede at Guatemala City's Estadio Mateo Flores during a 1998 FIFA World Cup qualification match between Guatemala and Costa Rica.
Oscar Wilde (b. 1854) ·
- 1558 – Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, was founded by order of King Sigismund II Augustus.
- 1604 – German astronomer Johannes Kepler observed an exceptionally bright star, now known as Kepler's Supernova (remnant nebula pictured), which had suddenly appeared in the constellation Ophiuchus.
- 1943 – The Empire of Japan completed the Burma Railway to support its forces in the Burma Campaign of World War II at the cost of approximately 100,000 lives of forced labourers.
- 1989 – The 6.9 Mw Loma Prieta earthquake struck California's San Francisco Bay Area, killing 63 people, injuring 3,757, and leaving at least 8,000 homeless.
- 1009 – Under orders from Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem, was destroyed.
- 1356 – The most significant earthquake to have occurred in Central Europe in recorded history destroyed Basel, Switzerland, and caused much destruction in a vast region extending into France and Germany.
- 1775 – American Revolutionary War: In an act of retaliation against ports that supported Patriot activities in the early stages of the war, the Royal Navy destroyed what is now Portland, Maine.
- 2007 – A suicide attack on a motorcade carrying former Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto in Karachi caused at least 130 deaths and 450 injuries.
- 202 BC – Publius Cornelius Scipio, a consul of the Roman Republic, decisively defeated Hannibal and the Carthaginians at Zama, ending the Second Punic War.
- 1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon married Isabella I of Castile (both pictured), a marriage that paved the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.
- 1900 – German physicist Max Planck proposed his law of black body emission, a pioneer result of modern physics and quantum theory.
- 1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, was first isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
- 1986 – President of Mozambique Samora Machel and 43 others were killed when his presidential aircraft crashed in the Lebombo Mountains just inside the border of South Africa.
- 1989 – The Troubles: The Guildford Four had their convictions quashed after serving 15 years for their alleged involvement in the Guildford pub bombings.
- 1572 – Eighty Years' War: Soldiers of the Spanish Tercios waded across the river Scheldt at its mouth, walking overnight in water to chest height, to relieve the siege of Goes in the Spanish Netherlands.
- 1818 – The United Kingdom and the United States signed the Treaty of 1818, which settled the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel between the Rocky Mountains and Lake of the Woods.
- 1941 – World War II: German soldiers began a massacre of thousands of civilians in Kragujevac in Nazi-occupied Serbia.
- 1986 – Aeroflot Flight 6502 crashed on approach to Kurumoch Airport in Samara (then Kuibyshev in the Soviet Union), killing 70 people on board.
- 2011 – Libyan Civil War: Muammar Gaddafi (pictured), the deposed leader of Libya, was captured during the Battle of Sirte and killed less than an hour later.
- 1096 – The Seljuk forces of Kilij Arslan destroyed the army of the People's Crusade as it marched toward Nicaea.
- 1858 – French composer Jacques Offenbach's operetta Orpheus in the Underworld, featuring music most associated with the can-can (audio featured) was first performed at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- 1910 – HMS Niobe arrived in Halifax Harbour to become the first large ship of the Royal Canadian Navy.
- 1966 – A coal tip fell on the village of Aberfan, Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.
- 1983 – At the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures, the length of a metre was redefined as the distance light travels in vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
- 1633 – Ming Chinese naval forces defeated a Dutch East India Company fleet in the Taiwan Strait, the largest naval encounter between Chinese and European forces before the First Opium War two hundred years later.
- 1727 – George II and Caroline of Ansbach were crowned King and Queen of Great Britain.
- 1844 – Millerites, including future members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, were greatly disappointed that Jesus did not return as predicted by American preacher William Miller.
- 1940 - After evading French and Spanish authorities, Belgian Prime Minister Hubert Pierlot (pictured) arrived in England, marking the beginning of the Belgian government in exile in London
- 2008 – India launched Chandrayaan-1, the country's first unmanned lunar mission.
- 1641 – Irish Catholic gentry in Ulster tried to seize control of Dublin Castle, the seat of English rule in Ireland, to force concessions to Catholics.
- 1812 – General Claude François de Malet (pictured) began a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he was now the commandant of Paris.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces began their ill-fated attempt to recapture Henderson Field from the Americans.
- 1956 – The Hungarian Revolution began as a peaceful student demonstration which attracted thousands as it marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building.
- 1983 – Lebanese Civil War: Suicide bombers destroyed two barracks in Beirut, killing 241 US servicemen and 58 French paratroopers of the international peacekeeping force.
- 1260 – Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt, was assassinated by a fellow Mamluk leader, Baibars, who then seized power for himself.
- 1795 – As a result of the Third Partition of Poland, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth ceased to exist as an independent state as its territory was divided between Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
- 1912 – First Balkan War: Serbian forces defeated the Ottoman army at the Battle of Kumanovo in Vardar Macedonia.
- 1949 – The cornerstone of the United Nations Headquarters building (pictured) in New York City was laid.
- 2007 – Chang'e 1, the first satellite in the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, was launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center.
- 1616 – The Dutch sailing ship Eendracht reached Shark Bay on the western coastline of Australia, as documented on the Hartog Plate (replica pictured) etched by explorer Dirk Hartog.
- 1812 – War of 1812: USS United States captured HMS Macedonian, which later became the first British warship to be brought into an American harbor.
- 1861 – The Toronto Stock Exchange, the stock exchange with the most mining and petrochemical companies listed in the world, was established.
- 1971 – The UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 2758, replacing the Republic of China with the People's Republic of China as China's representative at the United Nations.
- 2001 – Windows XP, one of the most popular and widely used versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system, was released for retail sale.
- 1597 – Twelve Korean ships commanded by Admiral Yi Sun-sin defeated a large Japanese invasion fleet of at least 120 at the Battle of Myeongnyang in the Myeongnyang Strait.
- 1881 – The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, one of the most famous gunfights in the history of the American Old West, took place in Tombstone, Arizona, between Ike Clanton's gang and lawmen led by Wyatt Earp (pictured).
- 1944 – World War II: In one of the largest naval battles in modern history, Allied forces defeated the Imperial Japanese Navy at the Battle of Leyte Gulf in the seas surrounding the Philippine island of Leyte.
- 1994 – Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty settling relations between the two countries and pledging that neither would allow its territory to become a staging ground for military strikes by a third country.
- 1644 – English Civil War: the combined armies of Parliament inflicted a tactical defeat on the Royalists in the Second Battle of Newbury, but failed to gain any strategic advantage.
- 1810 – The United States annexed West Florida, the western portion of the Spanish colony of Florida.
- 1904 – The first underground segment of the New York City Subway (City Hall station pictured), today one of the most extensive public transportation systems in the world, opened, connecting New York City Hall with Harlem.
- 1944 – World War II: German forces captured Banská Bystrica, the center of anti-Nazi opposition in Slovakia, bringing the Slovak National Uprising to an end.
- 1999 – Armed men led by Nairi Hunanyan attacked the National Assembly of Armenia, killing Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan, Speaker of Parliament Karen Demirchyan, and six others.
- 1664 – The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, the forerunner to the Royal Marines, was established at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company in London.
- 1835 – Māori chiefs signed the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand and established the United Tribes of New Zealand.
- 1891 – The Nōbi earthquake, Japan's strongest known inland earthquake, struck the former provinces of Mino and Owari.
- 1919 – The US Congress passed the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, reinforcing Prohibition in the United States.
- 1971 – Prospero (pictured), the only British satellite to date launched on a British rocket, lifted off from Launch Area 5B at Woomera, South Australia.
- 1618 – English courtier and explorer Walter Raleigh was executed in London after King James I reinstated a fifteen-year-old death sentence against him.
- 1792 – Lt. William Broughton, a member of Captain George Vancouver's discovery expedition, observed a peak in what is now Oregon, US, and named it Mount Hood (pictured) after British admiral Samuel Hood.
- 1948 – Arab–Israeli War: As the Israel Defense Forces captured the Palestinian Arab village of Safsaf, they massacred at least 52 villagers.
- 1986 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher opened the last segment of the M25 motorway, one of Britain's busiest motorways.
- 1991 – Galileo became the first spacecraft to visit an asteroid when it made a flyby of 951 Gaspra.
Narcisa de Jesús (b. 1832) ·
- 1485 – Having seized the throne of England after the War of the Roses, Henry VII (pictured) was formally crowned at Westminster Abbey.
- 1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Believing they were massively outnumbered, the 5,300-man German garrison at Stettin, Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland), surrendered to a much smaller French force without a fight.
- 1905 – Russian Revolution: Tsar Nicholas II reluctantly signed the "October Manifesto", establishing the State Duma as the elected legislature in Imperial Russia.
- 1960 – Surgeon and scientist Michael Woodruff performed the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom at The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh.
- 1991 – The Madrid Conference, an attempt by the international community to start a peace process through negotiations involving Israel and the Arab countries, convened in Madrid.
Adelaide Anne Procter (b. 1825)
- 1517 – According to traditional accounts, Martin Luther first posted his Ninety-five Theses onto the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, present-day Germany, marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
- 1822 – Emperor Agustín de Iturbide of the First Mexican Empire dissolved the Mexican Congress and replaced it with a military junta answerable only to him.
- 1922 – Benito Mussolini (pictured) became Prime Minister of Italy; three years later he set up a legal dictatorship.
- 1941 – More than 101 crew members of the USS Reuben James perished when their vessel became the first United States Navy ship sunk by hostile action during World War II after it was torpedoed by the German submarine U-552.