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Marie Antoinette, Queen of France
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456 – Magister militum defeated Emperor Ricimer Avitus at Piacenza and became master of the Western Roman Empire.
1590 – Italian composer caught his wife having an Carlo Gesualdo extramarital affair with Duke Fabrizio Carafa of Andria and killed them both on the spot.
1813 – The Sixth Coalition attacked Napoleon and the First French Empire in the , the largest conflict in the Battle of Leipzig Napoleonic Wars with over 500,000 troops involved.
1843 – William Rowan Hamilton first wrote down the fundamental formula for , carving the equation into the side of quaternions Broom Bridge in Cabra, Dublin, Ireland.
1846 – American dentist made a widely publicized demonstration of William T. G. Morton ether as a general anaesthetic.
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1859 – Hoping to start an armed slave revolt, American abolitionist John Brown on the led a raid Harpers Ferry Armory in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
1869 – Workers in Cardiff, New York, uncovered a 10 ft (3.0 m) tall , which was later revealed to be a hoax.
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1934 – Surrounded by Kuomintang troops, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, and Otto Braun led 130,000 Red Army soldiers and civilians on a " " from Long March Jiangxi.
1945 – The was founded in Food and Agriculture Organization Quebec City, Canada, to lead international efforts to defeat hunger.
1951 – The first Prime Minister of Pakistan, , was assassinated in Liaquat Ali Khan Rawalpindi.
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1968 – To protest racism in the United States, African American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos during a medal ceremony at the performed the Black Power salute Mexico City Summer Olympics.
1972 – , the United Kingdom's second-oldest Emmerdale Farm soap opera, was first broadcast in the daytime on ITV.
1975 – for Australian television networks based in the town of Five journalists Balibo were killed by Indonesian special force soldiers prior to their invasion of East Timor.
1986 – Italian mountaineer made his ascent of Reinhold Messner Lhotse, making him the first person to climb all fourteen " eight-thousanders".
1995 – Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam convened the in Million Man March Washington, D.C., in an effort to unite in self-help and self-defense against economic and social ills plaguing the African American community.
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2002 – in Bibliotheca Alexandrina Alexandria, Egypt, a commemoration of the Library of Alexandria that was lost in antiquity, was officially inaugurated.
955 – The forces of Otto the Great defeated the Obotrite federation in the , marking the high point of Otto's reign. Battle on the Raxa
1793 – War of the First Coalition: Despite leading French forces to victory in the , Battle of Wattignies Jean-Baptiste Jourdan was later forcibly discharged from the army due to interference from Lazare Carnot.
1834 – Most of the Palace of Westminster in London was . destroyed in a fire
1841 – The Church of Scotland established in Queen's College Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
1869 – , one of the Girton College 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge and England's first residential college for women, was founded.
1916 – established the United States' first Margaret Sanger family planning clinic in Brooklyn, New York.
1940 – World War II: Nazi Governor-General Hans Frank established the , the largest Warsaw Ghetto Jewish ghetto in occupied Poland.
1943 – The Holocaust: The Gestapo on the conducted a raid Ghetto of Rome, capturing 1,259 members of the Jewish community, most of whom were sent to Auschwitz.
1964 – With the success of the , China became the world's fifth nuclear power. nuclear weapons test named "596"
1984 – debuted on The Bill ITV, eventually becoming the longest-running police procedural in British television history.
1991 – A man drove his vehicle through the window of a Luby's restaurant in Killeen, Texas, U.S., and , killing 23 people before he committed suicide. opened fire
1996 – At least 83 people were killed and more than 140 injured in a stampede at Guatemala City's during a Estadio Mateo Flores 1998 FIFA World Cup qualification match between Guatemala and Costa Rica.
2013 – In Laos's deadliest air accident, crashed into the Lao Airlines Flight 301 Mekong River, resulting in the deaths of all 49 people aboard.
2017 – The Maltese journalist and anti-corruption activist was killed in a Daphne Caruana Galizia car bomb attack in Bidnija. Born/died this day: (d. 1130) Pedro González de Lara · (b. 1959) Pamela C. Rasmussen · (b. 1944) Linda November
(d. 1130) Pedro González de Lara · (b. 1831) Lucy Stanton · (b. 1925)