Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Tables

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This page discusses when and how tables should be used on Wikipedia. For specific considerations of table style and accessibility, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Accessibility/Data tables tutorial. For technical guidance on how to create and edit tables, see Help:Table.

Tables are a way of presenting information in rows and columns. They can be useful for a variety of content presentations on Wikipedia, but should be used only when appropriate; sometimes the information in a table may be better presented as prose paragraphs or as an embedded list.

Avoid referring to tables as being located on the left or right of a display page. Placement is different for viewers of the mobile versions of Wikipedia, and is meaningless to people having pages read to them by assistive software. Instead, use captions to identify tables.


Main page: Help:Table

It is recommended that wikitables be used in place of HTML tables, as they are easier to customize and maintain. A standard "wikitable style" is available, by adding class="wikitable" to the top row of the table. The powerful and useful sorting feature can be enabled by adding class="sortable" to the top row. Extreme caution should be applied if rowspan or colspan is used. It is also possible to combine classes, as in class="wikitable sortable".

Captions and headers[edit]

Table captions and column and row headers should be succinct and self explanatory. In most cases, individual words or sentence fragments should be used, and thus articles (a, an, the) and sentence-ending punctuation are unnecessary. Only the first word in the caption or header should be capitalized (except for proper nouns), in keeping with Wikipedia's conventions for capital letters. In some rare cases, judicious use of soft hyphens may be helpful; see MOS:HYPHEN for details.

Much of WP:Manual of Style § Article titles, headings, and sections also pertains to table headers: Use sentence case; avoid redundantly including the subject's name in a header; do not put images in the header (including flag icons), unless this is the best way to present tabular information in a particular case; and do not use questions as headers. Title headers are often suitable places for reference citations (e.g., to source a specific row or column of data). Unlike section headings, they often begin with or consist entirely of numbers (such as model numbers, dates, version numbers, etc.). Table headers do not automatically generate link anchors the way section headings do; use the {{Vanchor}} template to turn a header's text (or part of it) into an anchor.


In general, styles for tables and other block-level elements should be set using CSS classes, not with inline style attributes. This is because the site-wide CSS is more carefully tested to ensure compatibility with a wide range of browsers; it also creates a greater degree of professionalism by ensuring a consistent appearance between articles. Deviations from standard conventions are acceptable where they create a semantic distinction (for instance, the infoboxes and navigational templates relating to The Simpsons use a yellow color-scheme instead of the customary mauve, to tie in with the dominant color in the series) but should not be used gratuitously.

See WP:Deviations and Wikipedia talk:Consensus/RfC for guidance on use of coloring or non-standard formatting, and for when MoS and WikiProjects guidance is at variance.

Consideration may be given to collapsing tables which consolidate information covered in the prose.


Screen readers and other web browsing tools make use of specific table tags to help users navigate the data contained within tables. Use the correct wikitable pipe syntax to take advantage of all the features available.

See MOS:COLOR for information about restrained use of color in tables, to avoid creating accessibility problems for visually-impaired as well as normal vision readers.

Do not separate items by leaving blank lines between them, even when using unordered or definition lists. The Wikipedia list templates explicitly identify lists for readers, rather than relying on visual formatting to indirectly imply the presence of a list.


Splitting lists and tables per summary style is advised against. Among other problems, arbitrarily splitting a wikitable effectively disables the powerful and useful sorting feature from working across the entire table.

On the other hand, overloading tables with too much detailed statistical data is against policy. Careful thought should be given to how a reader would use a table, and what level of detail is appropriate.


Appropriate use[edit]

Tables are a way of presenting links, data, or information in rows and columns. They are a complex form of list, formatted into a systematic grid pattern. Tables might be useful for presenting mathematical data such as multiplication tables, comparative figures, or sporting results. They may also be useful for presenting equivalent words in two or more languages; for awards by type and year; complex discographies; etc.

The sortability of multiple columns in a table is a powerful tool that helps the reader to understand relationships and find patterns in large lists. The sortability of tables makes them very useful for "List of..." articles in Wikipedia, which are intended to give an overview of the subject area, and to allow easy comparisons among many similar items. Avoid cramming too much detailed information into individual table entries; if appropriate, the reader should be able to click a Wikilink to read a full, detailed article corresponding to a concise table entry.

Often a list is best left as a list. Before reformatting a list into table form, consider whether the information will be more clearly conveyed by virtue of having rows and columns. If so, then a table is probably a good choice. If there is no obvious benefit to having rows and columns, then a table is probably not the best choice.

Tables should not be misused to resolve visual layout problems. If the information you are editing is not tabular in nature, it probably does not belong in a table: Do not misuse tables for putting a caption under a photograph, arranging a group of links, or other strictly visual features. These practices make the article harder for other Wikipedians to edit, and will likely cause problems when viewed on different display sizes and aspect ratios. Also, when compared with tables, wikimarkup is more flexible, easier to use, and less arcane when used correctly for desktop publishing layout, page elements, and page orientation and positioning.


Multi-column sortable standard[edit]

Sporting results
Outcome No. Year Championship Opponent in the final Score Reference
Winner 1. 1981 World Championship Wales Doug Mountjoy 18–12 [1]
Winner 2. 1983 World Championship (2) Canada Cliff Thorburn 18–6 [1]
Winner 3 1983 International Open Canada Cliff Thorburn 9–3 [2]
Winner 4. 1984 Classic England Tony Meo 9–8 [3]
Winner 5. 1984 World Championship (3) England Jimmy White 18–16 [1]
Winner 6. 1984 International Open (2) England Tony Knowles 9–2 [2]
Winner 7. 1984 UK Championship Northern Ireland Alex Higgins 16–8 [4]
Runner-up 1. 1985 World Championship Northern Ireland Dennis Taylor 17–18 [1]
Winner 8. 1985 Grand Prix Northern Ireland Dennis Taylor 10–9 [1]
Winner 9. 1985 UK Championship (2) England Willie Thorne 16–14 [4]

Multi-column standard with subcolumns[edit]

Year Title Peak chart positions Certifications
North America
1993 So Far So Good
  • Released: November 2, 1993
  • Label: A&M
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 CA: 6× Platinum
US: 5× Platinum
SW: 4× Platinum
UK: 3× Platinum
1999 The Best of Me
  • Released: November 15, 1999
  • Label: A&M
14 18 4 7 13 2 20 3 12 CA: 3× Platinum EU: 2× Platinum[6]
SW: Platinum
UK: Platinum
2005 Anthology
  • Released: October 18, 2005
  • Label: A&M
4 28 30 39 29 65 CA: 2× Platinum UK: Gold
2010 Icon
"—" denotes releases that did not chart.

Multi-column mixed sortable unsortable[edit]

List of acting performances in film and television
Year Title Role Notes
1961 Barabbas Patrician in Arena uncredited
1962 Hemingway's Adventures of a Young Man undetermined role uncredited
1963 Beverly Hillbillies, TheThe Beverly Hillbillies Janet Trego TV series, 15 episodes
1963 Mister Ed
  • Telephone Operator
  • Sailor's Girl
  • TV series, episodes:
  • "Love Thy New Neighbor"
  • "Ed Discovers America"
1964 Americanization of Emily, TheThe Americanization of Emily Beautiful Girl uncredited
1965 Man from U.N.C.L.E., TheThe Man from U.N.C.L.E. Therapist TV series, episode: "The Girls of Nazarone Affair"
1966 Eye of the Devil Odile de Caray
1967 Fearless Vampire Killers, TheThe Fearless Vampire Killers Sarah Shagal
1967 Don't Make Waves Malibu
1967 Valley of the Dolls Jennifer North
1968 Rosemary's Baby Girl at Party uncredited
1968 Wrecking Crew, TheThe Wrecking Crew Freya Carlson
1969 Thirteen Chairs, TheThe Thirteen Chairs
(also known as 12+1)
Pat released posthumously

Multi-column unsortable[edit]

Academy Awards
Year Award Title Result
1932 Outstanding Production Arrowsmith Nominated
1935 Outstanding Production The Informer Nominated
1935 Best Director The Informer Won
1939 Best Director Stagecoach Nominated
1940 Outstanding Production The Long Voyage Home Nominated
1940 Best Director The Grapes of Wrath Won
1941 Best Motion Picture How Green Was My Valley Won
1941 Best Director How Green Was My Valley Won
1942 Best Documentary The Battle of Midway Won
1943 Best Documentary, Short Subjects December 7th Won
1952 Best Motion Picture The Quiet Man Nominated
1952 Best Director The Quiet Man Won

Multi-column unsortable all numeric right justified[edit]

Mathematical tables
Multiplication table
× 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30
4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70
8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90
10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Tree (cladogram) left rooted[edit]


"Crocodylus" megarhinus







"Crocodylus" pigotti



Osteolaemus osborni

O. tetraspis


Crocodylus anthropophagus

C. palaeindicus

C. palustris

C. siamensis

C. johnsoni

C. novaeguineae

C. mindorensis

C. niloticus

C. acutus

C. intermedius

C. rhombifer

C. moreletii

Gant (bar graph linear horizontal) with color[edit]

Flow data

Inappropriate use[edit]

Simple lists[edit]

If a list is simple, it is generally better to use one of the standard Wikipedia list formats instead of a table. Lists are easier to maintain than tables, and are often easier to read.

Here is an example of a simple list using list formatting:

* 1980: Ultra Wave
* 1988: What's Bootsy Doin'?
* 1994: Blasters of the Universe
* 1994: Fresh Outta 'P' Uni

Which produces:

  • 1980: Ultra Wave
  • 1988: What's Bootsy Doin'?
  • 1994: Blasters of the Universe
  • 1994: Fresh Outta 'P' Uni

versus table formatting:

|Ultra Wave
|What's Bootsy Doin'?
|Blasters of the Universe
|Fresh Outta 'P' Uni

Which produces:

1980 Ultra Wave
1988 What's Bootsy Doin'?
1994 Blasters of the Universe
1994 Fresh Outta 'P' Uni


Prose is preferred in articles as prose allows the presentation of detail and clarification of context, in a way that a table may not. Prose flows, like one person speaking to another, and is best suited to articles, because their purpose is to explain. Tables which are mainly links, which are most useful for browsing subject areas, should usually have their own entries: see Wikipedia:Stand-alone lists for detail. In an article, significant items should normally be mentioned naturally within the text rather than merely tabulated.

Page layout[edit]

Page layouts (using multiple columns, positioning elements, adding borders, etc.) should be done via CSS, not tables, whenever possible.

  • Images and other embedded media should be positioned using standard image syntax.
  • There are several templates available that will create preformatted multi-column layouts: see Help:Columns.
  • Other elements can be positioned or given special formatting through the use of the HTML <div> element and CSS styling.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Turner, Chris. "World Professional Championship". Chris Turner's Snooker Archive. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Turner, Chris. "International Open Goya, Matchroom Trophy". Chris Turner's Snooker Archive. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  3. ^ Turner, Chris. "Classic". Chris Turner's Snooker Archive. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Turner, Chris. "UK Championship". Chris Turner's Snooker Archive. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  5. ^ "Top Albums/CDs – Volume 58, No. 25". RPM (Library and Archives Canada). January 10, 1994. Retrieved August 15, 2010. 
  6. ^ "IFPI Platinum Europe Awards: 2002 Awards". International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) – Europe. Retrieved August 15, 2010.