The following is an archived page of a wikiproject that is no longer operating. Please do not modify it. Comments and discussions should be made on the appropriate page (such as Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Martial Arts). No further edits should be made to this page.
P0M's original proposal to establish this project:
There is a huge problem with the articles on Chinese martial arts. There are several articles that it would be nice to be able to merge. Unfortunately things have grown up willy-nilly and a logjam has developed. Before anyone could remove even two logs and send them down the river, someone else would jam them back in, metaphorically speaking of course.
The main problem is that there is an umbrella concept, or maybe I should say a tent concept, wu3 shu4, which means "martial arts." It's been around a long time as a term under which to subsume weapons systems, non-weapons systems, etc., etc. Unfortunately, in mainland China somebody decided to call a fancified version derived from Chinese opera presentations "wu shu." So there is a development of very little importance to actual self defense getting confused with the whole class of martial arts.
It will take quite a lot of work and cooperation to outline the components in this rather large field, so I would like to start a project on "Wǔ Yì" (the "senior" dictionary synonym for wu shu), take my book in Chinese on the whole field as a model and an authority, and start straightening things out.
A project to organize the whole set of articles, or, actually, a set of articles as they should be instead of just the way they've grown up. It probably would make sense to refer to Japanese and Korean arts too. This article, like the Race article, wouldy have short sections on everything but refer readers to more comprehensive articles if they exist.
7. Joint locks and take-downs (qin na, hapkido, and aikido)
8. Grappling and hitting techniques (shuai jiao, jujutsu, judo)
9. Mixed techniques
B. Ordinary Weapons
C. Concealed Weapons
III. Tempering Body and Mind (gōngfu) 工夫 (note 2)
A. Qi gong (lifebreath exercise)
B. Interior exercises
C. Momentum Exchanges with the Ground (lightness exercises)
D. Development of "knacks"
E. Insidious developments
IV. Pharmacological techniques (yào gōng) 樂工
B. Treatment of injuries and infections
C. As used in pursuit of the Dao
D. Assassinations, etc.
V. Incantations (fú gōng or zhòu gōng) 符工／咒 工
A. As applied to striking techniques
B. As applied to tempering body and mind
C. As aids to tempering body and mind
D. Therapeutic uses
E. In struggles between religious groups
VI. The Daoist and Zen Ways (Dào gōng or Ch án gōng 道工／禪工
A. Daoist Work
1. Meditation techniques
2. Breathing exercises
3. Stretching exercises
4. Fencing exercises
B. Zen Work
1. Theory of the Mind
2. Observing one's own mind
3. Perceiving one's breathing
4. Buddhist qi exercises
Chart taken from 中國武術學概要，雷嘯天 著 Notes: 1 武術and武藝 are synonyms. The Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Chinese Language uses wǔ yì as the main entry, and wǔ shù is a secondary entry. Common usage favors the term wǔ shù, but it has been taken over by theatrical martial arts, so the term wǔ yì is not only preferable from a historical standpoint but also from the standpoint of avoiding present-day use of the other term. 2 The book mentioned above, by Lei Xiao-tian, uses the term gōngfu 工夫. Others use the term gōngfu 功夫．Liang Shi-qiu's New Practical Chinese-EnglishDictionary defines the first term as:
(1)time; leisure (2) efforts put into a piece of work; labor (3) skill
Note that "time" means "time to do something," as in "I don't have time for that today."
It defines the second term as:
(1) time (to do something) (2) effort (devoted to a task) (3) accomplishment
It defines gúo shù 國術 as:
N.B. To the lexicographers, these terms seem to merit very little attention. The Practical Chinese-English Dictionary does, however, give some basic information on schools such as Shào-lí n qúan 少林拳:
name of a school of boxing started during the Tang Dynasty.
Stolen from the Chinese article for translation and incorporation
Definition: 武术是以踢打摔拿作为技击手段,指用身体的多个部位进行锻炼、击打以提升发挥人体运动潜能及使用传统兵器的技术。 Wu shu is the art that uses kicking, hitting, throwing, and grappling for attack methods and specifies using all parts of the body in training and fighting for the sake of (1) raising the level of and fully mobilizing the latent potentials of the human body (2) using traditional weapons.
“武术”这词语，在历史上的第一个记载是负面的。南朝宋的太子舍人，颜延之（384～456）做了首四言诗《皇太子释奠会作》：“偃闭武术，阐扬文令。庶士倾风，万流仰镜。” 意思是“废止武术，促进文学。使百姓佩服，大家仰慕好榜样。”但是此句中的“武术”应该是指“军事”。此词后来还有在明朝用。李渔的《闲情偶寄·种植部》：“自幼好武术。”也称功夫。 History: The earliest use of the term "wu shu" occurred during the Epoch of Division Between North and South, the (Liu-) Song dynasty in a poem by Yan Ting-zhi (384-456) that says: "Cast aside martial arts, give preference to literature, let the ordinary people feel deep respect, and let everyone venerate a good role model." But the term 'wu shu' used in this poem must refer to 'military matters.' This term reappeared during the Ming Dynasty. The "Random gleanings of idle-time emotions, section on gardening" by Li Yu (1610—1680) includes the line, "From youth I loved the martial arts."
[The martial arts] have also been called "gongfu."
Began in the early years of the Ming dynasty, attributed to Zhang San-feng. It applies elements of the qi-gong exercises of Religious Daoism to martial arts and stresses using soft techniques and exercising one's control of intention. The mind and one's breathing should be harmonized, and motions should become harmonious so that when one's attention is directed to some point one's qi follows it in an appropriate way, and alternations of motions and stillness are under one's control. Soft techniques are used to overcome impetuous attacking force (hard techniques), motions are fluid, and no inkling is ever to be given one's opponent of any intended action. Prominent subdivisions of this category include the Eight Trigrams palm, Taiji quan, Xing-yi quan, and Da-cheng quan, which have all come out of the original Internal Practice.
The above page is preserved as an archive. Please do not modify it. Comments and discussions should be made on the appropriate page (such as Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Martial Arts). No further edits should be made to this page.