Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple Brain cancer

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Brain tumor
Hirnmetastase MRT-T1 KM.jpg
Brain metastasis in the right cerebral hemisphere from lung cancer shown on magnetic resonance imaging.
Classification and external resources
ICD-9-CM 191, 225.0
MedlinePlus 007222 000768
eMedicine emerg/334
MeSH D001932

A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.[1] There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.[1] Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that started within the brain and those that spread from somewhere else known as brain metastasis tumors.[2] This article deals mainly with tumors that start within the brain. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved.[1] These may include headaches, seizures, problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes.[2] The headache is classically worst in the morning and goes away with vomiting.[1] More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking and with sensation.[2][3] As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur.[3]

The cause of most cases is unknown.[1] Risk factors that may occasionally be involved include a number of genetic syndrome such as neurofibromatosis as well as exposure to the chemical vinyl chloride, Epstein-Barr virus, and ionizing radiation.[1][2][3] While concern has been raised about mobile phone use the evidence is not clear.[3] The most common types of primary tumors in adults are: meningiomas and astrocytomas such as glioblastomas.[2] In children the most common type is medulloblastomas.[3] Diagnosis is usually by medical examination along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.[1] This is then often confirmed by biopsy.[2] Based on the finding the tumors are divided into different grades or severity.[2]

Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.[2] Anticonvulsant medication is needed in those who have a seizure.[2] Dexamethasone and furosemide may be used to decrease swelling around the tumor.[2] Some tumors grow sufficiently slowly that all that is required is keeping an eye on it.[2] Treatments that use a person's immune system are being studied.[1] Outcome varies considerably depending on the type of tumor and how far it has spread at diagnosis.[3] Glioblastomas usually have poor outcomes while meningiomas usually have good outcomes.[3] The average five year survival rate for brain cancer in the United States is 33%.[4]

Secondary or metastatic brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors,[1] with about half of metastasis coming from lung cancer.[1] Primary brain tumors occur in around 250,000 people a year globally, making up less than 2% of cancers.[3] In children less than 15, brain tumors are second only to acute lymphoblastic leukemia as a cause of cancer.[5] In Australia the average economic costs of a case of brain cancer is $1.9 million, the greatest of any type of cancer.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "General Information About Adult Brain Tumors". NCI. 2014-04-14. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Adult Brain Tumors Treatment". NCI. 2014-02-28. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 5.16. ISBN 9283204298. 
  4. ^ "SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Brain and Other Nervous System Cance". NCI. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  5. ^ World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 1.3. ISBN 9283204298. 
  6. ^ "Brain Tumour Facts 2011". Brain Tumour Alliance Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 Nov 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.