Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple Gonorrhea

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WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple Gonorrhea
Other namesgonococcal infection, gonococcal urethritis, gonorrhoea, the clap

Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.[1] Many people have no symptoms. Men may have burning with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain. Women may have burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain. Complications in women include pelvic inflammatory disease and in men include inflammation of the epididymis.[1] If untreated gonorrhea can occasionally spread to affect joints or heart valves.[1][2]

Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact with an infected person. This includes oral, anal, and vaginal sex. It can also spread from a mother to a child during birth. Diagnosis is by testing the urine, urethra in males, or cervix in females.[1] Testing all women who are sexually active and less than 25 years of age each year as well as those with new sexual partners is recommended. This same recommendation applies in men who have sex with men.[3]

Gonorrhea can be prevented with the use of condoms, having sex with only one person who is uninfected, and by not having sex.[3][1] Treatment is usually with ceftriaxone by injection and azithromycin] by mouth. Resistance has developed to many previously used antibiotics and higher doses of ceftriaxone are occasionally required.[4][5] Retesting is recommended three months after treatment.[3] Sexual partners from the last 2 months should also be treated.[1]

Gonorrhea affects about 0.8% of women and 0.6% of men.[6] An estimated 33 to 106 million new cases occur each year, out of the 498 million new cases of curable STI – which also includes syphilis, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis.[7][8] Infections in women most commonly occur when they are young adults.[3] In 2013, it caused about 3,200 deaths, up from 2,300 in 1990.[9] Descriptions of the disease data as far back as the Old Testament.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Gonorrhea - CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed Version)". CDC. November 17, 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
  2. ^ a b Morgan, MK; Decker, CF (August 2016). "Gonorrhea". Disease-a-month : DM. 62 (8): 260–8. PMID 27107780.
  3. ^ a b c d Workowski, KA; Bolan, GA (5 June 2015). "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015". MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 64 (RR-03): 1–137. PMID 26042815.
  4. ^ "Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Basic Information". CDC. June 13, 2016. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
  5. ^ Unemo, M (21 August 2015). "Current and future antimicrobial treatment of gonorrhoea - the rapidly evolving Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to challenge". BMC Infectious Diseases. 15: 364. PMID 26293005.
  6. ^ Newman, Lori; Rowley, Jane; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Wijesooriya, Nalinka Saman; Unemo, Magnus; Low, Nicola; Stevens, Gretchen; Gottlieb, Sami; Kiarie, James; Temmerman, Marleen; Meng, Zhefeng (8 December 2015). "Global Estimates of the Prevalence and Incidence of Four Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections in 2012 Based on Systematic Review and Global Reporting". PLOS ONE. 10 (12): e0143304. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143304. PMID 26646541.
  7. ^ Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, Collaborators (22 August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMID 26063472.
  8. ^ Emergence of multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Report). World Health Organisation. 2012. p. 2. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2014-09-12.
  9. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (10 January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. PMID 25530442.