Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple Pterygium (conjunctiva)

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Pterygium (conjunctiva)
Synonyms surfer's eye[1]
Pterygium (from Michigan Uni site, CC-BY).jpg
Pterygium growing onto the cornea
Symptoms Pinkish, triangular tissue growth on the cornea[2]
Complications Vision loss[2]
Usual onset Gradual[2]
Causes Unknown[2]
Risk factors UV light, dust, genetics[2][3][4]
Differential diagnosis Pinguecula, tumor, Terrien's marginal degeneration[5]
Prevention Sunglasses, hat[2]
Treatment None, eye lubricant, surgery[2]
Prognosis Benign[6]
Frequency 1% to 33%[7]

A pterygium is a pinkish, triangular tissue growth on the cornea of the eye.[2] It typically starts on the cornea near the nose.[3] It may slowly grow but rarely grows so large that the pupil is covered.[2] Often both eyes are involved.[5]

The cause is unclear.[2] It appears to be partly related to long term exposure to UV light and dust.[2][3] Genetic factors also appear to be involved.[4] It is a benign growth.[6] Other conditions that can look similar include a pinguecula, tumor, or Terrien's marginal corneal degeneration.[5]

Prevention may include wearing sunglasses and a hat if in an area with strong sunlight. Among those with the condition, an eye lubricant can help with symptoms. Surgical removal is typically only recommended if the ability to see is affected.[2] Following surgery a pterygium may recur in around half of cases.[2][6]

The frequency of the condition varies from 1% to 33% in various regions of the world. It occurs more commonly among males than females and in people who live closer to the equator. The condition becomes more common with age.[7] The condition has been described since at least 1000 BC.[8]


  1. ^ Tollefsbol, Trygve (2016). Medical Epigenetics. Academic Press. p. 395. ISBN 9780128032404. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Facts About the Cornea and Corneal Disease | National Eye Institute". The National Eye Institute (NEI). May 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c Yanoff, Myron; Duker, Jay S. (2009). Ophthalmology. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 364. ISBN 0323043321. 
  4. ^ a b Anguria, P; Kitinya, J; Ntuli, S; Carmichael, T (2014). "The role of heredity in pterygium development". International journal of ophthalmology. 7 (3): 563–73. PMID 24967209. 
  5. ^ a b c Smolin, Gilbert; Foster, Charles Stephen; Azar, Dimitri T.; Dohlman, Claes H. (2005). Smolin and Thoft's The Cornea: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1003, 1005. ISBN 9780781742061. 
  6. ^ a b c Halperin, Edward C.; Perez, Carlos A.; Brady, Luther W. (2008). Perez and Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 778. ISBN 9780781763691. 
  7. ^ a b Droutsas, K; Sekundo, W (June 2010). "[Epidemiology of pterygium. A review]". Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft (in German). 107 (6): 511–2, 514–6. PMID 20393731. 
  8. ^ Saw, SM; Tan, D (September 1999). "Pterygium: prevalence, demography and risk factors". Ophthalmic epidemiology. 6 (3): 219–28. PMID 10487976.