Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple Suicide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Edouard Manet - Le Suicidé.jpg
The Suicide by Édouard Manet 1877–1881
Classification and external resources
Specialty Psychiatry
ICD-10 X60X84
ICD-9-CM E950
DiseasesDB 12641
MedlinePlus 001554
eMedicine article/288598
MeSH F01.145.126.980.875

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.[1] Risk factors include mental illness such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, alcoholism, or drug abuse.[2][3] Others are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or bullying.[4][3] Those who have previously attempted suicide are at high risk of future attempts.[3] Suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to method of suicide such as firearms and poisons, treating mental illness and drug misuse, proper media reporting of suicide, and improving economic conditions.[3] Although crisis hotlines are common, there is little evidence for their effectiveness.[5]

The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries and is partly related to the availability of effective means.[6] Common methods include: hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms.[7] Suicide resulted in 842,000 deaths in 2013 up from 712,000 deaths in 1990.[8] This makes it the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.[2][9] Rates of completed suicides are generally higher in men than in women, with males three to four times more likely to kill themselves than females.[10] There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year.[11] Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. In the Western world, attempts are more common in young people and are four times more common in females than in males.[12]

Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life.[13][14] The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide an offense towards God due to the belief in the sanctity of life.[15] During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest.[16] Sati, a practice outlawed by the British Raj, expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband's funeral fire, either willingly or under pressure from the family and society.[17] Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer in most Western countries.[18] It remains a criminal offense in many countries.[19] In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic.[20] The word is from Latin suicidium, which means "to kill oneself".[21]


  1. ^ Stedman's medical dictionary (28th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7817-3390-8. 
  2. ^ a b Hawton K, van Heeringen K (April 2009). "Suicide". Lancet. 373 (9672): 1372–81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60372-X. PMID 19376453. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Suicide Fact sheet N°398". WHO. August 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  4. ^ Bottino, SM; Bottino, CM; Regina, CG; Correia, AV; Ribeiro, WS (March 2015). "Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review". Cadernos de saude publica. 31 (3): 463–75. doi:10.1590/0102-311x00036114. PMID 25859714. 
  5. ^ Sakinofsky, I (June 2007). "The current evidence base for the clinical care of suicidal patients: strengths and weaknesses". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 52 (6 Suppl 1): 7S–20S. PMID 17824349. 
  6. ^ Yip, PS; Caine, E; Yousuf, S; Chang, SS; Wu, KC; Chen, YY (Jun 23, 2012). "Means restriction for suicide prevention". Lancet. 379 (9834): 2393–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60521-2. PMID 22726520. 
  7. ^ Ajdacic-Gross V, Weiss MG, Ring M, et al. (September 2008). "Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database". Bull. World Health Organ. 86 (9): 726–32. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.043489. PMC 2649482Freely accessible. PMID 18797649. 
  8. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385: 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604Freely accessible. PMID 25530442. 
  9. ^ Värnik, P (March 2012). "Suicide in the world". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 9 (3): 760–71. doi:10.3390/ijerph9030760. PMC 3367275Freely accessible. PMID 22690161. 
  10. ^ Meier, Marshall B. Clinard, Robert F. (2008). Sociology of deviant behavior (14th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-495-81167-1. 
  11. ^ Bertolote JM, Fleischmann A (October 2002). "Suicide and psychiatric diagnosis: a worldwide perspective". World Psychiatry. 1 (3): 181–5. PMC 1489848Freely accessible. PMID 16946849. 
  12. ^ Chang, B; Gitlin, D; Patel, R (September 2011). "The depressed patient and suicidal patient in the emergency department: evidence-based management and treatment strategies". Emergency medicine practice. 13 (9): 1–23; quiz 23–4. PMID 22164363. 
  13. ^ Tomer, Adrian (2013). Existential and Spiritual Issues in Death Attitudes. Psychology Press. p. 282. ISBN 9781136676901. 
  14. ^ Ritzer, edited by George; Stepnisky, Jeffrey (2011). The Wiley-Blackwell companion to major social theorists. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 65. ISBN 9781444396607. 
  15. ^ God, Religion, Science, Nature, Culture, and Morality. Archway Publishing. 2014. p. 254. ISBN 9781480811249. 
  16. ^ Colt, George Howe (1992). The enigma of suicide (1st Touchstone ed. ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 139. ISBN 9780671760717. 
  17. ^ "Indian woman commits sati suicide". 2002-08-07. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  18. ^ White, Tony (2010). Working with suicidal individuals : a guide to providing understanding, assessment and support. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84905-115-6. 
  19. ^ Lester, D (2006). "Suicide and islam". Archives of suicide research : official journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research. 10 (1): 77–97. doi:10.1080/13811110500318489. PMID 16287698. 
  20. ^ Aggarwal, N (2009). "Rethinking suicide bombing". Crisis. 30 (2): 94–7. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.30.2.94. PMID 19525169. 
  21. ^ Issues in Law & Medicine, Volume 3. National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent & Disabled, Incorporated, and the Horatio R. Storer Foundation, Incorporated. 1987. p. 39.