Wikipedia:WikiProject Missing encyclopedic articles/DNB Epitome 02

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This listing page belongs to Wikipedia:WikiProject Dictionary of National Biography, spun out of the “missing article” project, and is concerned with checking whether Wikipedia has articles for all those listed in the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), a 63-volume British biographical dictionary published 1885-1900 and now in the public domain. This page relates to volume 2 running from name Annesley to name Baird.

Scope of the subproject

It is envisaged that the following work will be done:

  • Checks made that links on this page point to a wikipedia article about the same person;
  • Addition of new articles for all red-links based on DNB text;
  • Checking whether blue-linked articles would benefit from additional text from DNB.

Listings are posted as bulleted lists, with footnotes taken from the DNB summaries published in 1904. The listings and notes are taken from scanned text that is often corrupt and in need of correction. Not all the entries on the list correspond to actual DNB articles; some are “redirects” and there are a few articles devoted to families rather than individuals.

If you are engaged in this work you will probably find quite a number of unreferenced articles among the blue links. You are also encouraged to mention the DNB as a reference on such articles whenever they correspond to the summary, as part of the broader campaign for good sourcing. A suggested template is {{DNB}}.

Locating the full text

DNB text is now available on Wikisource for all first edition articles, on the page s:Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Vol 2 Annesley - Baird. Names here are not inverted, as they are in the original: Joe Bloggs would be found at Wikisource s:Bloggs, Joe (DNB00). The text for the first supplement is available too: NB that this Epitome listing includes those supplement articles also.

List maintenance and protocols

List maintenance tasks are to check and manipulate links in the list with piping or descriptive parenthetical disambiguators, and to mark list entries with templates to denote their status; whilst as far as possible retaining the original DNB names:

  • piping: [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot, 1st Baron Colchester|Charles Abbot]]
  • descriptive parenthetical disambiguators [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)]]
  • both combined [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)|Charles Abbot]]

The work involves:

  • Checking that bluelinks link to the correct person; if so, {{tick}} them. If not, try to find the correct article and pipe or disambiguate the link.
  • Check whether redlinks can be linked to an article by piping or disambiguation.
  • Create articles based on the DNB text for redlinks for which no wikipedia article can be found
  • Check whether existing blue-linked articles could benefit from an input of DNB text (e.g. the article is a stub), and if so, update the article from DNB

A number of templates are provided to mark-up entries:

  • {{mnl}} the link runs to a wrong person; - produces the text: [link currently leads to a wrong person]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{dn}} the link runs to a dab page - produces the text [disambiguation needed]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{tick}} the link has been checked and runs to the correct person - YesY
  • {{tick}} {{tick}} the text of the linked article has been checked against DNB text and would not benefit from additional DNB text - YesY YesY
  • {{tick}} {{cross}} the text of the linked article looks short enough to suggest it would benefit from additional DNB text - YesY N

Note that before creating new articles based on DNB text you should undertake searches to check that the article's subject does not already have an article. It is easily possible that the disambiguation used in this page is not the disambiguation used in an existing wikipedia article. Equally, feel free to improve upon the disambiguation used in redlinks on this page by amending them.

Supplement articles

Because of the provenance of the listing, a number of the original articles will not in fact be in the announced volume, but in one of the three supplement volumes published in 1901. Since the DNB did not include articles about living people, this will be the case whenever the date of death is after the publication date of the attributed volume. In due course there will be a separate listing.

General thoughts

This project is intended as a new generation in “merging encyclopedias”, as well as being one of the most ambitious attempted. For general ideas of where we are, and some justification of the approach being taken, see the essay Wikipedia:Merging encyclopedias.




  • Elizabeth Anspach[16] Elizabeth Craven on WP. Elizabeth [née Lady Elizabeth Berkeley], margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Bayreuth [other married name Elizabeth Craven, Lady Craven] on ODNB! YesY N





  • John Archdale[58] YesY Note:details do not match, but it's the same person. Some digging needed.






















































  1. ^ Alexander Annesley (d. 1813), London solicitor and member of Middle Temple; wrote legal and political works.
  2. ^ Arthur Annesley , first Earl of Anglesey (1614-1686), son of Sir Francis Annesley; graduated at Magdalen College, Oxford, 1634; entered Lincoln's Inn; made the grand tour; sent to Ireland by parliament to defeat Ormond's negotiations with the Scots in Ulster, 1645 and 1647; member for Dublin in Richard Cromwell's parliament, 1658; commissioned by Charles II to treat with parliament; made Earl of Anglesey 1661; president of council of state, February 1660; M.P. for Carmarthen in Convention parliament, and after the Restoration, privy councillor; vice-treasurer and receiver, general for Ireland, 1660-7; treasurer of navy, Iti07: lord privy seal, 1672; dismissed for adverse criticism of the king's government, 1682; wrote historical and other works.
  3. ^ Sir Francis Annesley, bart., Baron Mountnorris and first Viscount Valentia(1585–1660); held several, small offices of state in Dublin, 1606; took leading part in colonisation of Ulster, 1608; member for county Armagh in Irish parliament, 1613; knighted, 1616; principal secretary of state for Ireland, 1618; baronet, 1620; vice-treasurer and receiver-general of Ireland, 1625; raised to Irish peerage, 1628; treasurer-at-war in addition to other offices, 1632; quarrelled with Sir Thomas Wentworth, afterwards Earl of Strafford, who became lorddeputy, 1633; charged (1634 and 1635) with malversion and other offences, and sentenced to death; deprived of offices and imprisoned; his sentence declared unjust by the commons, 1641; became Viscount Valentia by reversion, 1642; clerk of signet in Ireland, 1648; secretary of state at Dublin under Henry Cromwell.
  4. ^ James Annesley (1715–1760), claimant ; son of Lord Altham, by his wife, or by a woman called Juggy Landy; lived with his father as legitimate sou for some years, but afterwards shifted for himself. On death of { Lord Altham (1727) his brother, afterwards Earl of Anglesey, succeeded to title, and contrived to get his nephew sent to America as a slave. Anuesley entered navy (1740), returned to England, and taking legal action against his uncle (1743) was declared legitimate, i but being without funds died before the case could be prosecuted further.
  5. ^ Richard Annesley , sixth EARL of ANGLESEY (1694-1761), succeeded his brother as fifth Baron Altham, 1727, and his cousin as sixth Earl of Anglesey, seventh Viscount Valeutia, seventh Baron Mountnorris, and Baron Newport-Pagnell, 1737; married (1715) Anne Prest or Prust, who died without issue, 1741; lived with Ann Simpson (1737-40), and c. 1741, till death, with Juliana Donnovau (whom he married, 1752); both wives on his death (1761) claimed the titles of Valentia and Mountnorris for their children. The Countess Juliana won her case, and her son Arthur succeeded, but was unable to substantiate his claim to the titles of Anglesey and Newport-Pagnell. James Annesley unsuccessfully laid claim to title of Altham in 1743.
  6. ^ Samuel Annesley (1620?–1696), puritan nonconformist; graduated B.A. and M.A. Queen's College, Oxford; ordained; chaplain in Globe man-of-war to Earl of Warwick's fleet, 1644; obtained living of Cliffe; preached before the House of Commons, 1648; LLJ). Oxford; lecturer of St. Paul's, 1657; vicar of St. Gites, Cripplegate, 1658; ejected, 1662; preached semi-privately, and kept a meeting-house in Little St. Helen's.
  7. ^ Peter Annet (1693–1769), deistical writer; schoolmaster; lost his employment through bitter attacks on the apologetic writings of Bishop Sherlock and others, c. 1744; perhaps author of History of the Man after God's own Heart 1761; attacked Old Testament in Free Enquirer 1761; tried for blasphemous libel, ami was condemned to imprisonment, pillory, and hard labour, 1763; his writings form a link between the deism of the early eighteenth century and that of the revolutionary period.
  8. ^ Mary Anning (1799–1847), discoverer of the ichthyosaurus; daughter of a carpenter and vendor of natural curiosities; discovered, 1811, skeleton of ichthyosaurus in cliff near Lyme, and subsequently the first specimens of plesiosaurus and pterodactylus.
  9. '^ Richard Ansdell (1815-1885), animal painter; exhibited at Royal Academy from 1840; R.A., 1870; he three times grained the Heywood medal at Manchester exhibitions.
  10. ^ Charles Ansell (1794–1881), actuary; employed in Atlas Assurance Company, 1808-64; consulting actuary to several companies; gave expert evidence before select parliamentary committees, 1841-63; published a work dealing with friendly societies from a scientific standpoint.
  11. ^ George Frederick Ansell (1826–1880), inventor; studied medicine and chemistry, and became aitant to Dr. Hofmann at School of Mines; held post in mint, 1856-66; experimented, with valuable results, on dangers of fire-damp in mines.
  12. ^ Saint Anselm (1033–1109), archbishop of Canterbury; born at Aosta; educated in Abbey of St. Leger, near Aosta; travelled in Burgundy, France, and Normandy, and resided at Avranches, c. 1059; entered monastic order at Bee, 1060; prior, successor to Lanfranc, 1063-78; abbot, 1078-93; visited England soon after 1063, and was admitted by monks of Christ Church a member of their house, where he became acquainted with Eadmer, his biographer; called to deathbed of William the Conqueror at Rouen, but fell ill and did not recover before the king's death; reluctantly accepted the archbishopric of Canterbury from William II, who was lying ill at Gloucester; enthroned at Canterbury, 1093; consecrated, assisted by seven bishops, the church of the abbey erected by William I on field on which he had defeated Harold, 1094; applied for permission to go to Rome and receive his pallium from the pope, 1095; there being two rivals for the papacy, Urban and Clement, neither of whom William II had recognised, had, as abbot of Bee, recognised Urban and refused to withdraw his allegiance; a council, at which no definite decision was reached, held at Rockingham to decide between the claims of the king and the pope on his obedience; his deposition aimed at in the king's subsequent (unsuccessful) acknowledgment of Urban as pope: a form of reconciliation made by William with him, on which he received the pallium from the papal legate; obtained leave, with difficulty, to go to Rome in order to interest the pope in the condition of England,. 1097; his estates seized by the king; received by the pope with honour, and promised assistance in his episcopal work, but not materially assisted, since delegates from William succeeded in influencing Urban; returned to England on death of William, 1100; obeying a papal decree, refused to consecrate prelates invested by Henry I; revisited Rome; thence went to Lyons, and remained there till the point in dispute with the king should be decided. The matter was finally settled, 1107, when the king ceded the right of investiture and Anselm promised that elected prelates should not be debarred from consecration on account of having done homage to the king. Anselm wrote many theological and philosophical works, including the famous Monologion Proslogion and Cur Dens Homo
  13. ^ Brian Anslay (fl. 1521), yeoman of wine-cellar to Henry VIII: published Boke of the Oyte of Ladies 1521.
  14. ^ George Anson, Baron Anson (1697–1762), admiral; volunteer under Captain Chamberlen, 1712; midshipman and lieutenant under Sir John Norris in Baltic, 1716; second lieutenant under Sir George Byng, 1718-19; commanded sloop against Dutch smugglers, 1722; captain of frigate protecting commerce on Carolina coast, 1724; commander 1731; on Carolina coast, 1732-5; protected trade on west African coast and West Indies against French, 1737-9; commanded squadron in Pacific, 1740, and in spite of damage from storms inflicted considerable injuries on Spaniards; returned with rich prizes, having sailed round the world, 1744; went on half-pay as captain; rear-admiral, 1745; vice-admiral of Channel fleet, 1746; defeated French last served at sea in blockade of Brest, 1758; admiral of fleet, 1761; died without issue.
  15. ^ George Anson (1797–1857), general; served with 3rd guards at Waterloo; M.P., 1818; successively principal storekeeper and clerk of ordnance; held military command in India, where he was commander-in-chief, 1856; died of cholera.
  16. ^ Elizabeth Anspach, margravine of Anspach (1750–1828), dramatist; married William, afterwards sixth Earl of Craven, 1767; separated from him, 1783; travelled on continent, and subsequently lived with the margrave of Anspach, whom she married on the death of her husband, 1791; settled in England, 1792; died at Naples; wrote several plays produced at Drury Lane, Covent Garden, and elsewhere.
  17. ^ David Thomas Ansted (1814-1880), geologist: fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge; professor of geology at King's College, London; assistant secretary to Geological Society, 1844-7; wrote works on geology and travel.
  18. ^ John Anster (1793–1867), regius professor of civil law, Dublin; scholar of Trinity College, Dublin, 1814; published poems with translations from German, 1819; called to Irish bar, 1824; LL.D., 1825: published translation of first part of Goethe's Faust 1835; registrar to court of admiralty, Ireland, 1837; regius professor of civil law, Dublin, 1850; published second part of 4 Faust 1864.
  19. ^ Christopher Anstey (1724–1805), poet : educated at Eton; scholar and fellow of King's College, Oambridge,where he distinguished himself by his verses; in conjunction with Dr. Roberts, translated Gray's Elegy into Latin, 1762; published New Bath Guide 1766; resided at Bath, 1770-1805; published occasional verses,
  20. ^ John Anstey (rf. 1819), poet : second son of Christopher Anstey: barrister of Lincoln's Inn; published humorous poem entitled "The Pleader's Guide," 1796.
  21. ^ Thomas Chisholm Anstey (1816–1873), lawyer; educated at Wellington and University College, London; called to bar, 1839; became interested in the Oxford movement, and was converted to Roman Catholicism; professor of law at Roman catholic college, Prior Park, Bath; took to politics as supporter of extreme section of O'Connell's followers; M.P. for Youghal, 1847-52; attorney-general of Hong Kong, 1854; his radical policy led to his suspension and recall, 1859; practised, except from 1866-8, at Bombay bar, till death: published many legal and political tracts.
  22. ^ Joseph Anstice (1808–1836), classical scholar; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; professor of classical literature, King's College, London. off Finisterre, 1 747; raised to peerage; married Lady Elizabeth Yorke, daughter of lord chancellor, 1748; occupied with reforms connected with naval administration and dockyard?; first lord of admiralty, 1761-6, and 1767-62;
  23. ^ Francis Edmund Anstie (1833–1874), physician; educated at King's College, London; M.R.C.S. and L.S.A., 1856; M.B. London, 1857; M.D., 1859; F.C P, 1865; assistant-physician, Westminster Hospital, 1860, and full physician, 1873; first dean of Medical School for Women, 1874; for some years on editorial staff of Lancet; influential in bringing about reforms in poor laws; contributed largely to medical journals and published several scientific works.
  24. ^ , the elder (1669-1744), Garter king of arms; educated at Exeter College, Oxford; entered Inner Temple, 1688; M.P. for St. Germans, 1702; deputy general to auditors of imprest and commissioner of prizes, 1703; M.P. for St. Maw's, 1711-13, and for Launceston or Dunheved. 1714; received reversionary patent for office of Garter, 1714; imprisoned for supposed intrigue with Pretender, 1715, and during his confinement the office of Garter, having become vacant, was given to Sir John Vanbrugh; cleared himself of charge of treason, and with great difficulty obtained post of Garter, 1718; publiahed ieveral heraldic works, and left large collections of manuscripts relating chiefly to heraldry.
  25. ^ John Anstis , the younger (1708–1754), joint Garter king of anna son of John Anstis; gentleman commoner, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1725; joined bis father in office of Garter, 1727; F.S.A., 1736; LL.D., 1749.
  26. ^ Sir Alexander Anstruther (1769–1819), Anglo-Indian judge; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn; advocate-general, Madras, 1803; recorder of Bombay, aud kuighted, 1812; published reports of exchequer cases.
  27. ^ Sir John Anstruther (1753–1811), politician, and Anglo-Indian judge; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1779; M.P. for Cockermoutn, 1790-6; took part in impeachment of Warren Hastings; chief-justice of Bengal, and baronet, 1797; returned to England, 1806: privy councillor; M.P. for Kilkenny.
  28. ^ Robert Anstruther (1768–1809), general; educated at Westminster; ensign, 1788, lieutenant aud captain, 1792, in Scots guards; served in Flanders, 1793-4; major and lieutenant-colonel in 68th regiment in West Indies, 1797; served as captain and lieutenant-colonel in guards in Helder expedition, 1799; quartermaster-general to Sir Ralph Abercromby in Mediterranean, 1800; colonel aud deputy quartermaster-general in England; adjutantgeneral, Ireland; brigadier-general in Portugal, 1807; fought at Vimeiro aud in the retreat from Toro, and died day before battle of Corunna.
  29. ^ Sir William Anstruther (d. 1711), judge; M.P. for Fifeshire, 1681 and 1689-1707; sided with Prince of Orange; lord of session and privy councillor; baronet of Nova Scotia, 1694; lord of justiciary, 1704; published a volume of essays.
  30. ^ Francis Anthony (1550–1623), empiric and chemical physician; M.A. Cambridge, 1574; perhaps M.D.; after 1600 was repeatedly fined and imprisoned for practising in London without license from College of Physicians, but finally succeeded in defying the college with the aid of friends at court; the efficacy of his chief remedy, aurum potabile, he defended in several; pamphlets.
  31. ^ John Anthony (1585–1655), physician; son of Francis Anthony; M.D., 1619, Pembroke College, Cambridge; L.C.P., 1625; succeeded to his father's practice; wrote Comfort of the Soul published 1654.
  32. ^ Robert Anton (fl. 1616), poetical writer; B.A. Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1610; published Philosophers Satyrs in verse, 1616.
  33. ^ Peter Aplin (1753–1817), admiral; served in American war under Hyde Parker and Cornwallis; admiral.
  34. ^ Charles James Apperley (1779–1843), sporting writer, known as Nimrod; entered Rugby, 1790; cornet in sir Watkiu Wyun's ancient light British dragoons, 1798; having lost money in farming experiments, he became contributor to the Sporting Magazine 1822; member of staff ofSporting Review; published a series of sporting memoirs and reminiscences.
  35. ^ Charles Edward Cutts Birch Appleton (1841-1879), man of letters; educated at Reading and St. John's College, Oxford; B.A., 1863; D.C.L., 1871; studied in Germany; founded The Academy 1869, and edited it till his death; visited America, 1875, and took up the question of international copyright; travelled for his health to Egypt, where he died.
  36. ^ Henry Appleton (ft. 1650–1654), captain in navy, and commodore; served in Mediterranean, in Dutch war (1662), in conjunction with Badiley; caused Badiley's defeat off Elba by neglecting to send reinforcements; defeated and captured by Dutch off Leghorn, 1653; ransomed, and deprived of his command.
  37. ^ Sir Mathew Appleyard (1606–1669), royalist military commander; knighted after taking of Leicester; M.P. for Headon.
  38. ^ John George Appold (1800–1865), mechanician; in business at Finsbury as fur-skin dyer; brought out many scientific aud mechanical inventions.
  39. ^ Apsley, first Baron (1714-1794). See Henry Bathurst.
  40. ^ Sir Allen Apsley (1569?–1630), lieutenant of the Tower; having been ruined at court by gambling, sailed with Essex to Cadiz, 1696; went to Ireland; became victualler of Munster, 1605, and to navy, 1610; lieutenant of Tower, 1617.
  41. ^ Sir Allen Apsley (1616–1683), royalist leader; son of Sir Allen Apsley; educated at Merchant Taylors and Trinity College, Oxford; M.A., 1663; commanded company of horse, 1642; royalist governor of Exeter and later of Barnstaple, which he surreuflered to the parliamentarians, 1646; engaged with Sir John Berkeley in negotiations between king and army, 1647; appointed to various offices in royal household after 1660; colonel in Duke of York's army, 1667; M.P. for Thetford, 1661-1678; buried in Westminster Abbey; published a long poem, Order and Disorder 1679.
  42. ^ Aquepontanus (1532?–1596?). See John Bridgewater.
  43. ^ Arabella Stuart (1575–1615), daughter of Charles Stuart, earl of Lennox, younger brother of Lord Darnley; next heir to English throne after James I; became engaged to William Seymour, who was also of royal descent; and the marriage was celebrated secretly, 1610; died in Tower.
  44. ^ Eugene Aram (1704–1759), criminal ; with slight assistance educated himself till able to open a small school at Ramsgill, where he married; being suspected of complicity in a fraud practised by one Daniel Clark, he disappeared for some years, during which he continually prosecuted his studies; while school usher at Lyme Regis, 1758, was arrested on information of Houseman, an accomplice, on a charge of murdering Clark; condemned and executed, Houseman being sole witness; left philological writings of considerable value.
  45. ^ Madame Frances Arblay (Burney) (1752-1840), novelist, daughter of Dr. Burney; self-educated; published her first novel, Evelina anonymously (though her father soon divulged the secret), 1778; brought by its success to the notice of most of the literary personages of the day; published Cecilia with similar success, 1782; made the acquaintance of Mrs. Delauey, who procured her the appointment of second keeper of the queen's robes, 1786; being broken in health, obtained with difficulty permission to retire, 1790; married General d'Arblay, a French refugee in England, 1793; published Camilla 1796; joined her husband, who had endeavoured to obtain employment in Paris, 1802; returned to England, 1812; published her last novel, The Wanderer 1814; rejoined her husband in Paris, and retired to Belgium; passed the rest of her life in England, after the Waterloo campaign; edited her father's Memoirs 1832; published Diary and Letters 1842-6.
  46. ^ James Arbuckle (1700–1734?), poet and essayist; published between 1719 and 1727 verses, letters, and essays, many of which had appeared in periodicals.
  47. ^ Alexander Arbuthnot (1538–1583), Scottish divine and poet; educated at St. Andrews; studied civil law at Bourges; licensed minister, aud appointed to living at Logie Buchan, 1568; principal of King's College, Aberdeen, 1569; received living of Arbuthnot, Kincardineshire; incurred King James VI's displeasure; being a zealous presbyterian, and having been appointed minister of St. Andrews, in 1583, was ordered to return to King's College, where he died, and was buried; published and left in manuscript, verse aud prose works.
  48. ^ Alexander Arbuthnot or Arbuthnet (d. 1585), printer, of Edinburgh; with Thomas Bassandyne obtained permission to print first bible issued in Scotland, 1575, and in 1576 was, with his associate, granted exclusive rights of printing and selling for ten years; brought out the work (a reprint of the Genevan version of 1561) 1579; made king's printer, 1579, when he was licensed to print, sell, and import psalm-books, prayers, and catechisms for seven years.
  49. ^ Charles Arbuthnot (1767–1850), diplomatist; precis writer in foreign office, 1793; M.P. for East Looe, 1795; under foreign secretary; ambassador extraordinary, Constantinople, 1804; privy councillor; held various government offices, and from 1809 was M.P. successively for Eye and Orford (Suffolk) and St. Germans and St. Ives (Cornwall).
  50. ^ Charles George Arbuthnot (1824–1899), general; educated at Rugby and Royal Military Academy; lieutenant, royal artillery, lt45; captain, 1855; in Crimea; lieutenant-colonel, 1864; in India, 1868-80, was deputy adjutant-general, 1873-7, and inspector-general of artillery, 1877-80, except while serving in Afghan campaigns; colonel, 1874: inspector-general of artillery in England, 1883; president ordnance committee, 1885; succeeded Lord Roberts chief of army in Burma, 1887; general, 1890; G.C.B., 1894.
  51. ^ George Arbuthnot (1802–1865), civilian ; appointed junior clerk in treasury, 1820; served in that department till death, when he was auditor of civil list and secretary to ecclesiastical commissioners; acted as private secretary to Sir Charles Wood, chancellor of exchequer. Sir Robert Peel, and to six successive secretaries and two assistant secretaries of the treasury; regarded as an authority on currency questions.
  52. ^ John Arbuthnot (1667–1735), physician and wit : M.D. St. Andrews, 1696; settled in London and taught mathematics; F.R.S., 1704; attended Prince George of Denmark for a sudden illness at Epsom; physician in ordinary to Oueen Anne, 1709; F.R.C.P., 1710, censor, 1723, Harveian orator, 1727; formed close friendship with Swift, and was acquainted with Pope and most literary men of the day; published History of John Bull(1712); and several witty political pamphlets; contributed largely i to Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus published with I Pope's Works 1741; attended Anne in her last illness; suffered much in health during his later years; died at Hampstead; published, besides his poetical writings, I medical and scientific works.
  53. ^ Marriot Arbuthnot (1711?-1794), admiral; j lieutenant, 1739; commander, 1746; captain, 1747; commanded the Portland at Quiberon Bay, 1759; commanded guardship, Portsmouth, 1771-3; commissioner of navy, Halifax, 1775-8; admiral, 1778; commander of North American station, 1779-81 (with the exception of a short, period, when Sir George Rodney took the command), and took part in the action off mouth of Chesapeake and Cape Henry; admiral of the blue, 1793.
  54. ^ Sir Robert Arbuthnot (1773–1853), soldier ; cornet 23rd light dragoons, 1797; served in Irish rebellion, 1798, and at capture of Cape of Good Hope, 1806: aide-de-camp to Beresford in South America, and, as captain in 20th light dragoons, aide-de-camp and afterwards military secretary to that general throughout greater partof peninsular campaign; K.T.S.; K.O.B., 1815; major-general, 1830; commanded in Ceylon and Bengal, 1838-41; lieutenant-general, 1841; colonel, 76th foot, 1843.
  55. ^ Sir Thomas Arbuthnot (1776–1849), lieutenant-general; brother of Sir Robert Arbuthnot; ensign, 29th foot, 1794; joined staff corps under Moore, 1803; quartermaster-general, Cape of Good Hope; served in Peninsula and West Indies; K.C.B., 1815; lieutenantgeneral, 1838.
  56. ^ Father Archangel (1571–1606).
  57. ^ John Frederick Archbold (1785–1870), legal writer; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1809: barrister, 1814. He published a number of legal treatises, which include:: 1 Summary of Law relative to Pleading and Evidence in Criminal Cases 1824; Practice of Court of Common Pleas 182'J; and several works on parish laws.
  58. ^ John Archdale (fl. 1664–1707), governor of North Carolina; accompanied to New England his brother-in-law, Ferdiuando Gorges, who became governor of Maine, 1664; returned to England, 1674; joined quakers; visited North Carolina, 1686, and subsequently became one of the proprietors of the colony; commissioner for Gorges in government of Maine, 1687-88; governor of North Carolina, 1695-7; M.P. for Chipping Wyoombe, Buckinghamshire, 1698; refused oath and was deprived of seat, 1699; published 4 Description of Carolina 1707.
  59. ^ Mervyn Archdall (1723–1791), antiquary ; educated at Dublin University; domestic chaplain to Pocock, bishop of Ossory, who presented him to living of Attanagh aud prebend of Cloneamery, 1762; prebendary of M 1764; member of Royal Irish Academy; published historical and topographical works.
  60. ^ Richard Archdekin or Arsdekin (1618-1693), Irish Jesuit; studied classics, philosophy, and (at Louvain) theology; entered Society of Jesus at Mechlin, 1642; taught humanities, 1650, and later studied at Antwerp and Lille; professor of philosophy and theology at Lonvain and Antwerp, where he died; published theological works in English, Irish, and Latin,
  61. ^ Edward Archer (1718–1789), physician ; studied medicine at Edinburgh and Leyden, where he graduated M.D. 1746; physician to the newly founded smallpox hospital, 1747, to which institution he devoted most of his energies.
  62. ^ Frederick Archer (1857–1886), jockey; apprenticed to Matthew Dawsou, the trainer at Newmarket, 1867; won Two Thousand Guineas upon Lord Falmotith's Atlantic, 1874; won the Two Thousand Guineas, Oaks, Derby, St. Leger, and Grand Prix, 1885. He died by his own hand when ill.
  63. ^ Frederick Scott Archer (1813–1857), inventor of collodion process; son of a butcher; started business as sculptor; first successfully used collodion process in photography, 1850; practised as photographer in Bloomsbury,
  64. ^ James Archer (1551?–1624?), Irish Jesuit; first rector of Irish College, Salamanca.
  65. ^ James Archer (jr. 1822), catholic preacher ; began preaching at a public-house in Lincoln's Inn Fields; chaplain to the Bavarian minister in London, 1791; created D.D. by Pope Pius VII, 1821; published sermons,
  66. ^ John Archer (1598–1682), judge; B.A. Queens' College, Cambridge, 1619; M.A., 1622; called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1620; M.P., 1656; serjeant, 1658; justice of common bench and knighted, 1663. The King, Charles II, attempted to remove him from office (1672), but he refused to surrender the patent without due legal procedure, and though relieved by royal prohibition irom his duties, he continued to receive his salary till death.
  67. ^ John Archer (fl. 1660–1684), physician; practised in Dublin, 1660; court physician to Charles II, 1671; published a self-advertising work called Every Man his own Doctor 1671.
  68. ^ John Wykeham Archer (1808–1864), artist and antiquary; apprenticed to an animal engraver in Clerkenwell; returned to London, 1831, after publishing several engravings in his native town, and was employed by various publishers in steel and wood engraving and watercolour painting. His works include a series of drawings of old London.
  69. ^ Sir Symon Archer (1581–1662), antiquary; knighted, 1624; sheriff of Warwickshire, 1628; M.P., 1640; amassed much of the material used in Dugdale's History of Warwickshire and other valuable antiquarian information.
  70. ^ Thomas Archer (1554–1630?), divine; M.A. (1582) and fellow Trinity College, Cambridge; held livings in Bedfordshire; chaplain to Whitgift, 1599, and to the king, 1605; left manuscript obituaries of eminent contemporaries,
  71. ^ Thomas Archer (d. 1743), architect; pupil of Sir John Vanbrugh; groom porter to Anne, George I, and George II; built Cliffden House and St. John's Church, Westminster (1728).
  72. ^ Thomas Archer (d. 1848), actor and dramatist: took Shakespearean roles at Drury Lane, 1823; visited United States and Paris, aud led a Shakespearean company in Belgium and Germany; wrote many successful dramas.
  73. ^ William Archer (1830–1897), naturalist and librarian; secretary of Dublin Microscopical Club; contributed to Proceedings of Royal Society, and other learned bodies; F.R.S., 1876; secretary for foreign correspondence to the Royal Irish Academy, 1876-80; librarian (1876) to Royal Dublin Society, and (1877-95) to National Library of Ireland, of which he compiled a catalogue.
  74. ^ Sir Adams George Archibald (1814–1892), Ciiiia.liiiii statesman; boni at Truro, Nova Scotia; I educated at Picton College; attorney of Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, 1838; called to bar of Nova Scotia, 1839; member for Colchester in Nova Scotia House of Assembly, 1861; Q.C., 1855; attorney-general, 1860; advocate-general in vice-admiralty court at Halifax, 1862-3; took part in consultations in London which led to Canadian federation, 1866; secretary of state under new dominion government, 1867-8; member for Colclu-tcr in dominion parliament, 1869-70; first lieutenant-, governor of Manitoba, 1870-2; judge in equity in Nova Scotia, 1873, and lieutenant-governor, 1873-83; M.P. for I Colchester in Canadian House of Commons, 1888-91; K.C.M.G., 1886.
  75. ^ Sir Thomas Dickson Archibald (1817–1876), judge; born at Truro, Nova Scotia; educated at Picton College; qualified as attorney and barrister-at-law in Nova Scotia, 1837; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1852; junior counsel to treasury, 1868; appointed justice of queen's bench and invested with coif, 1872; knighted, 1873; transferred to common pleas, 1875.
  76. ^ Ardbrecain (. 656). See Ultan.
  77. ^ Edward Arden (1542?–1583), high sheriff of Warwickshire, 1575; accused of complicity, though probably innocent, in an attempt by his son-in-law to assassinate the queen, and hanged at Tyburn, 1583. Has been erroneously connected with Mary Arden, Shakespeare's mother.
  78. ^ Richard Pepper Arden, Baron Alvanley (1745-1804), judge; educated at Manchester grammar school and Trinity College, Cambridge; distinguished in classics; twelfth wrangler; M.A., fellow, and called to bar, 1769: judge on South Wales circuit, 1776; took silk, 1780; M.P. for Newton, and solicitor-general, 1782-3; I attorney-general and chief-justice of Chester, 1784; master of rolls, 1788; sat successively for Aldborough, Hastings, and Bath; lord chief-justice of common pleas, 1801.
  79. ^ James Arderne (1636–1691), dean of Chester; graduated B.A., 1666, and M.A. Christ's College, Cambridge; M.A. Oxford, 1658; curate of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, 1666-82; fellow commoner of Brasenose; D.D., 1673; chaplain to Charles II; rector of Davenham, 1681; dean of Chester, 1682; published religious works. nhd
  80. ^ John Arderne (d. 1370), first great English surgeon; lived at Newark, 1349-70; practised surgery in London after 1370; cured many distinguished persons, and probably enjoyed patronage of Black Prince. Left manuscripts which show, for the period, a remarkable knowledge of surgery.
  81. ^ William Arderon (1703–1767), naturalist; officer of excise and, later, managing clerk at the New Mills, Norwich; P.R.S., 1745; wrote largely on jiatural history and microscopical science.
  82. ^ Lord Ardmillan (1805–1876). See James Craufurd.
  83. ^ John Argall (fl. 1604), divine; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1565; held living of Halesworth, Suffolk,
  84. ^ Richard Argall (fl. 1621), poet; educated at Oxford; perhaps author of a volume of religious poems (1621) containing The Bride's Ornament republished in 1654 in name of Richard Aylett.
  85. ^ Sir Samuel Argall (d. 1626), adventurer; went as trader in 1609 to Virginia, whither he subsequently made frequent voyages; visited the Potomac and Chesapeake Bay, 1612-13; reduced French settlements in Maine, St. Croix, and Nova Scotia, 1613; deputy-governor of Virginia and admiral of the adjacent seas, 1617; served in expedition against Algiers, under Sir R. Mansell, 1620; knighted, 1622; admiral of squadron of English and Dutch ships operating on French and Spanish coasts, 1625-6; died at sea.
  86. ^ Giles de Argentine (d. 1284), justiciar in Normandy, 1247; itinerant justice, 1253; constable of Windsor, 1263; on council of nine after battle of Lewes.
  87. ^ John Argentine (d. 1508), provost of King's, Cambridge; M.D. King's College, Cambridge; provost, 1501; D.D., 1504; physician and dean of chapel to Prince of Wales; master of hospital of St. John Baptist, Dorchester, 1499.
  88. ^ Richard Argentine alias Sexten (d. 1568), physician and divine; M.D. Cambridge, 1541; physician, schoolmaster, and lecturer in divinity at Ipswich; held livings successively at Ipswich and Exeter, repeatedly changing his religious views in accordance with prevailing opinions.
  89. ^ Thomas Arkisden (fl. 1633), stenographer; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1633; invented a shorthand alphabet.
  90. ^ Sir Richard Arkwright (1732–1792), engineer; apprenticed to a barber; established himself at Bolton, before 1755, as a barber, and gradually formed a large business; gave up business at Bolton and turned his attention to mechanical inventions, c. 1767; invented and erected near Hockley a spinning-mill, 1769; went into partnership with two manufacturers of ribbed stockings and erected machinery at Cromford, Derbyshire, 1771; applied the mill to manufacture of calicoes, 1773; patented a series of adaptations and inventions for performing in one machine the whole process of yarn manufacture, 1775; one of his mills (at Chorley) sacked by rioters, 1779; his repeated complaints against infringements of his patent during the following years were met by a combination of manufacturers, who obtained a verdict against Arkwright on the questions: (1) Is the invention new ? (2) Is it invented by the defendant ? (3) Was it sufficiently described iu the specification? His letters patent cancelled, 1785; visited Scotland and assisted in erection of New Lanark mills, c. 1784; bu f lt several mills in Derbyshire and Lancashire; introduced Boulton & Watt's steam-engine into his mill at Nottingham, 1790; knighted, 1786; high sheriff of Derbyshire, 1787.
  91. ^ Richard Arkwright (1755–1843), mill-owner, son of Sir Richard Arkwright; inherited his father's business and amassed a large fortune.
  92. ^ Robert Armin (fl. 1610), actor and dramatist; apprenticed to a goldsmith in Lombard Street; perhaps one of the lord chamberlain's players, 1598; seems to have succeeded Kemp in the role of Dogberry; in company of actors licensed by James I, 1603; probably member of Lord Chandos's company.
  93. ^ Lady Mary Armine or Armyne (d. 1676), philanthropist, nee Talbot; second wife of Sir William Armine; took practical interest in missionaries among North American Indians; founded three hospitals in England.
  94. ^ Richard de Armine (d. 1340?). See Richard de Ayreminne.
  95. ^ William de Armine (d. 1336). See William de Ayreminne.
  96. ^ Sir William Armine or Armyne (1693–1661), parliamentarian; baronet, 1619; M.P. for Boston, 1621 and 1624, for Grantham, 1626, and for Lincolnshire, 1626, 1628, and 1641; assistant to managers of Buckingham impeachment, lt26; imprisoned for refusing to collect arbitrary loan in Lincolnshire, 1627-8; sheriff of Lincolnshire, 1630, of Huntingdonshire, 1639; accompanied Charles to Scotland, 1641; discussed terms, with king at Oxford in behalf of parliament, 1643; member of council of state, 1649, 1660, aud 1651.
  97. ^ Edward Armitage (1817–1896), historical painter; studied under Paul Delaroche in Paris; gained premiums in cartoon competitions for decoration of new houses of parliament, 1843, 1846, and 1847; commissioned to execute two frescoes for House of Lords; exhibited at Royal Academy from 1848, generally biblical subjects; R.A., 1872; member of committee of artiste employed in decoration of Westminster Hall who made report on fresco-painting, 1871; professor and lecturer on painting to Royal Academy, 1875; published lectures, 1883.
  98. ^ Timothy Armitage (d. 1666), pastor of first nonconformist church In Norwich, 1647; superintendent of numerous congregations of Norfolk and Suffolk.
  99. ^ Alexander Armstrong (1818–1899), naval medical officer; studied medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, and at Edinburgh; graduated, 1841; assistantsurgeon In navy, 1842; In medical charge of party for exploration of Xanthus, 1843; appointed to royal yacht, 1846; surgeon, 1849; surgeon and naturalist In Arctic expedition under (Sir) Robert John Le Mesurier Maclnre , 1849-64; medical superintendent of Malta hospital, 1869-64; director-general of medical department of navy, 1869-71; K.C.B., 1871; F.H.S., 1873.
  100. ^ Archibald Armstrong (rf. 1672), known as 'Archie jester to James I and Charles I; gained wide reputation as sheep-stealer at Eskdale; was attached to household of James VI of Scotland, and accompanied him to England, where he gained great social distinction, and amassed a large fortune; accompanied Charles and Buckingham to Spain, 1623; expelled from court for Insulting Archbishop Laud, 1637; remained in London and spent his time In distraining mercilessly on his debtors; retired to Arthuret, Cumberland; credited with the authorship of A Banquet of Jests 1630.
  101. ^ Cosmo Armstrong (. 1800–1836), governor of Society of Engravers; exhibited with Associated Engravers, 1821; pupil of Thomas Milton; engraved plates for Cooke's British Poets and other works.
  102. ^ Edmund John Armstrong (1841–1866), poet; entered Trinity College, Dublin, 1869; suffered seriously from over-work, 1860, and subsequently spent much time in Jersey and Brittany; president of Undergraduate PI uosophlcal Society, Trinity College, 1864; published joems, 1866, aud prose works, 1877.
  103. ^ George Armstrong (fl. 1767), physician ; brother of John Armstrong (1709-1779); established dispensary In London for relief of poor children, 1769; published a work on diseases of children.
  104. ^ James Armstrong (1780–1839), Irish Unitarian minister; trained at Rademon academy; classical assistant in Belfast academy; graduated at Trinity College, Dublin; ordained minister of Strand Street chapel, Dublin, 1806; one of founders of Irish Unitarian Society, 1830; D.D. Geneva, 1834.
  105. ^ John Armstrong or JOHNIE (d. 1628), border freebooter; lived near Langholm, whence he made excursions at bead of twenty-four horsemen; hanged with his followers at Carlanrigg Chapel.
  106. ^ John Armstrong (1673–1742), major-general and quartermaster-general in Ireland: surveyor-general of ordnance and chief engineer; F.R.S., 1723.
  107. ^ John Armstrong (1709–1779), poet, physician, and essayist; M.D. Edinburgh, 1782; physician to hospital for wounded soldiers, London, 1746; physician to the army in Germany, 1760, and on return of troops received half-pay for remainder of his life: intimately acquainted for many years with Wilkes, with whom he quarrelled over the publication of some verses. His works include essays on various subjects, ami a didactic poem called The Art of Preserving Health 1744.
  108. ^ John Armstrong (1771–1797), journalist; M.A. Edinburgh; private tutor; wrote for London press, 1790; published poetical and prose works.
  109. ^ John Armstrong , the elder (1784–1829), physician M.D. Edinburgh, 1807; physician to Sunderlaud Infirmary; removed to London, 1818; physician to London Fever Institution, 1819-24; L.C.P., 1820; lectured on anatomy and medicine; published medical works. Lii- 97
  110. ^ John Armstrong , the younger ( 1813–1866), bishop of Grahamstown; sou of John Armstrong (1784-1829) ; educated at Charterhouse; scholar of Lincoln College, Oxford; B.A., 1836; ordained, 1837; after holding three curacies, became priest-vicar of Exeter Cathedral, 1841; rector of St. Paul's, Exeter, 1843; vicar of Tidenham, Gloucestershire, 1846; strongly advocated in magazine articles a scheme of female penitentiaries which ultimately took definite shape; accepted new bishopric of Grahamstown, Cape of Good Hope, 1863; published many sermons and tracte.
  111. ^ Robert Archibald Armstrong (1788–1867), Gaelic lexicographer; educated at Edinburgh and St. Andrews University; kept successively several schools in London; published a Gaelic dictionary, 1826; established and kept a grammar school at South Lambeth; received civil list pension of 60Z., 1862.
  112. ^ Sie Thomas Armstrong 1624?–1684), royalist ; born at Nimeguen; served under Charles I, and during the Commonwealth was three times Imprisoned for fidelity to the royal cause; knighted, 1660; lielitenant of first troop of guards, and subsequently captain of the horse; fell into disfavour at court and joined English regiment in Flanders, 1679; implicated in Rye House plot, 1682; escaped to Leyden, but was arrested and executed in London, Judge Jeffreys giving him unfair trial,
  113. ^ William Armstrong (fl. 1596), border mosstrooper, known as Kinmont Willie, from his castle of Morton Tower or Kinmont in Canonbie, Dumfriesshire; captured, but escaped, 1587; imprisoned at Carlisle, 1596, where the Scotch warden demanded his release, and on being refused succeeded in carrying him off. His fate is unknown.
  114. ^ William Armstrong (1602?–1668?), known as Christie's Will, border freebooter; imprisoned in Jedburgh tolbooth, and released through interposition of Earl of Traquair, whose devoted servant he afterwards became.
  115. ^ William Armstrong (1778–1857), mayor of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1860; corn-merchant; prominent in municipal affairs; much interested in mathematics; active j member of local literary societies.
  116. ^ Sir William George Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Cragside (1810-1900), inventor; son of William Armstrong (1778-1867),of Newcastle-ouTyue; educated at grammar school, Bishop Auckland; subsequently studied law in London; partner in legal firm of Donkin, Stable & Armstrong, Newcastle, 1833; constructedwater-pressure wheel 1839, and hydroelectric machine, c. 1844; secretary, 1846, and chairman, 1866-67, to Whittle Dean (afterwards Newcastle and Gateshead) Water Company; patented hydraulic crane, 1846; F.R.S., 1846; first manager of Elswick-on-Tyne engineering works, 1847; invented hydraulic pressure accumulator, 1860; designed submarine mines for use in Crimean war, 1864; invented rifled-bore breechloadiug gun, with cylinder constructed on scientific principles, which was favourably reported upon by General Peel's committee on rifled cannon, 1868; patented inventions and presented patente to nation; Elswlck Ordnance Company , established for purpose of making Armstrong guns for j British government, under his supervision, 1869; apI pointed engineer of rifled ordnance at Woolwich, and knighted and made C.B., 1859; resigned appointment at Woolwich, 1863, when government returned largely to muzzle-loaders; finished a 6-inch breechloading gun with wire-wound cylinder, 1880, government once more j adopting breechloading guns; established, In conjunction with firm of Messrs. Mitchell & Swan, new shipyard at Elswick for construction of warships-, 1882; incorporated with his own business the works of Sir Joseph Whit worth at Openshaw, near Manchester, for manufacture of Whitworth guns, 1897; conducted important electrical experiments at Ins residence at Cragside, near Rothbury; Telfonl medallist of the Institution of Civil Engineers; honorary LL.D. Cambridge, 1862; D.C.L. Oxford, 1870; received Albert medal from Society of Arts, 1878; D.C.L. Durham, 1882; president of Institute of Civil Engineers, 1882; raised to peerage, 1887; master of engineering, Dublin, 1892; Bessemer medallist, 1891. He was a liberal benefactor of Newcastle. Published writings on engineering subjects, as well as Electric Movement in Air and Water 1897-99.
  117. ^ Richard Arnald (1700–1756), divine; B.A. Corpus Christi College; fellow and M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge; presented to living of Thurcaston, Leicestershire, 1733; prebendary of Lincoln; published sermons and commentary on Apocrypha.
  118. ^ William Arnall (1715?-1741?), political writer ; in pay of Walpole; wroteFree Britonand succeeded Coucanen In the British Journal
  119. ^ Cecilia Arne (1711–1789), singer; pupil of Gemiuiaui; first appeared at Drury Lane, 1730; married Thomas Augustine Arne, 1736; in Dublin, 1742; engaged at Vauxball Gardens, 1745.
  120. ^ Michael Arne (1741?–1786), musician ; son of Dr. Thomas Augustine Arne; appeared in Otway's Orphan when very young; took to the harpsichord; member of Madrigal Society; died in great destitution; produced many songs and musical scores.
  121. ^ Thomas Augustine Arne (1710–1778), musical composer; educated at Eton; privately studied music; gave up his legal studies and wrote music for AiMi-son'sRosamond 1733, Fielding'sTom Thumb altered into The Opera of Operas 1733, Milton's Oomiis 1738, Oougreve's Judgment of Paris," and Thomson and Mallet'sAlfred (which included Rule Britannia 1740), 'As you like itandTwelfth Night appointed composer to Drury Lane Theatre, 1744, and later, leader of the baud; wrote songs for The Tempest 1746; produced two oratorios:Abel 1755, andJudith 1764; Mus. Doc. Oxford, 1759; transferred his services to Covent Garden, 1760; set to music the ode by Garrick performed at the Shakespeare jubilee at Stratford-on-Avou, 1769; produced numerous light operas and incidental music.
  122. ^ Benedict Arnold (1741–1801), general ; born at Norwich, Connecticut; bookseller and druggist; took American side in war between England and the American colonies; after battle of Lexington served as volunteer, obtained a command and was severely wounded at Quebec, 1775; subsequently commanded at Montreal and was conspicuous at Saratoga, 1777; governor of Philadelphia: accused of peculation: partially acquitted and reprimanded by Washington, 1780; obtained command of West Point, which he arranged to surrender to British commander Clinton; joined British and was made brigadier-general; came to England, 1782; afterwards distinguished himself at Guadaloupe.
  123. ^ Cornelius Arnold (1711–1757?), poetical writer; educated at Merchant TaylorsSchool; published poetical works, 1767.
  124. ^ John Arnold (1736?-1799), mechanician ; apprenticed to watchmaking trade in Bodmin; went to Holland, and subsequently set up in business in London; introduced at court; made several improvements in the manufacture of chronometers.
  125. ^ Joseph Arnold (1782–1818), naturalist; M.D. Edinburgh, 1807; surgeon in navy, 1808; made several voyages, and collected scientific specimens; died at Padang, Sumatra; F.L.S., 1815.
  126. ^ Matthew Arnold (1822–1888), poet and critic ; son of Dr. Thomas Arnold; educated at Rugby, Winchester, and Balliol College, Oxford; Newdigate prizeman, 1843; graduated, 1844; fellow of Oriel College, 1845: master at Rugby; private secretary to Marquis of Lausidowue, 1847; inspector of schools, 1851: published The Strayed Reveller and other Poems 1849, Empedocles on Etna 1852,Poems(containingSohrab and RustumScholar-Gi and Requiescat, 1853, and Poems, second series 1855; professor of poetry at Oxford, 1857-67; publishedOn Translating Homer 1861 (second volume, 1862),On Study of Celtic Literature 1867, Essays in Criticism 1865 (second series, 1888), Culture and Anarchy 1869, Friendship's Garland 1871, Literature and Dogma 1873; lectured in America, 1883-4 and 1886, and issued Discourses in America 1885; published also works on educational subjects. He adopted from Swift the phrase sweetness and light to explain his literary and social creed. His most permanent work is in his poetry (3 vols. 1885). His letters appeared in 1895. His portrait by Mr. G. F. Watte, R.A., itf in the National Portrait Gallery.
  127. ^ Sir Nicholas Arnold (1507?-1580), gentleman pensioner of Henry VIII in 1526; employed by Cromwell in connection with dissolution of monasteries; knight of shire for Gloucester, 1545; commander of garrison, Queenborough, 1545, Boulogneberg, 1546-9; knighted by Edward VI; imprisoned in Tower on suspicion of complicity in Wyatt's rebellion, 1554-5, and for his connection with Sir Henry Dudley and Richard Uvedale in plot to drive Spaniards from England, 1556; sheriff of Gloucestershire, 1559; sent to Ireland to inquire into complaints against Sussex's administration, 1562; lord justice in Ireland, 1564-5; M.P. for Gloucester, 1563, and for Gloucestershire, 1572. He did much to improve the breed of English horses.
  128. ^ Richard Arnold (d. 1521?), antiquary ; haberdasher in London, 1473; arrested as spy while on business visit to Flanders, 1488, and imprisoned at Sluys. Published a work on the customs of London (1502).
  129. ^ Samuel Arnold (1740–1802), musical composer; educated in Chapel Royal; composer to Covent Garden, before 1763; brought out his first opera, Maid of the Mill 1765; member Royal Society of Musicians, 1764; set Browne's ode, theCure of Saul as an oratorio, 1767; leased Marylebone Gardens, 1769, where he produced many operas and burlettas; Mus. Doc. Oxford, 1773; organist to Chapels Royal, 1783, and of Westminster Abbey, 1793. Published collection of cathedral music, 1790.
  130. ^ Samuel James Arnold (1774–1852), dramatist ; son of Samuel Arnold (1740-1802); produced at the Haymarket, Drury Lane, the English Opera, and the Lyceum many original musical plays (includingThe Prior Claim written in conjunction with Pye, the poet laureate, whose daughter he married) and several notable foreign operas; F.R.S.
  131. ^ Thomas Arnold (1679–1737), sailor ; made commander for bravery in battle off Cape Passaro; captain, 1727; served on Carolina coast.
  132. ^ Thomas Arnold (1742–1816), physician; M.D. and F.R.C.P. Edinburgh, where he owned and conducted a lunatic asylum; published works on insanity,
  133. ^ Thomas Arnold (1795–1842), headmaster of Rugby; educated at Winchester and Corpus Christi College, Oxford; first class classics, 1814; fellow of Oriel, 1815; won chancellor's Latin and English essay prizes, 1815 and 1817; ordained, 1818; headmaster of Rugby, 1828-42; B.D. and D.D., 1828; added mathematics, modern history, and modern languages to the ordinary school course; published, 1829, a pamphlet on the Christian Duty of Conceding the Roman Catholic Claims; published Principles of Church Reform 1833; regius professor of history at Oxford, 1841; published sermons, an edition of Thucydides, and works on Roman and modern history.
  134. ^ Thomas Arnold (1823–1900), professor of English literature, younger sou of Dr. Thomas Arnold; B.A. University College, Oxford, 1845; M.A., 1865; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1846: clerk in colonial office, 1847; went to New Zealand, 1847; started school at Fort Hill, near Nelson, 1849; inspector of schools in Tasmania, 1850-6: entered Roman catholic church, 1866; professor of Enclish literature at catholic university, Dublin, 1856-62; left church of Rome, 1865, but rejoined it, 1876; fellow of Royal University of Ireland, and professor of English language and literature, University College, St. Stephen's Green, 1882-1900; published a Manual of English Literature 1862, and other works.
  135. ^ Thomas James Arnold (1804?-1877), barrister ; called, 1829; police magistrate, 1847-77; published legal manuals and translations of Goethe'sReineke Fuchs (1860), of Faust(1877), and of Anacreon (1869).
  136. ^ Thomas Kerchever Arnold (1800–1853), educationalist: B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1821; fellow; M.A., 1824; rector of Lyudon, Rutland, 1830-53; published many classical works, educational adaptations from American and German authors, sermons and other theological writings.
  137. ^ William Delafield Arnold (1828–1859), Anglo-Indian official and novelist; younger son of Dr. Thomas Arnold; educated at Christ Church, Oxford: went to India as ensign in 58th native infantry; assistant-commissioner of Punjab; director of public instruction, 1856: invalided home and died at Gibraltar; published Oakfield a novel, 1853.
  138. ^ Hugo Arnot (1749–1786), historical writer ; advocate, 1772; published History of Edinburgh 1779, and Criminal Trials in Scotland 1785.
  139. ^ William Arnot (1808–1875), preacher; apprenticed as gardener: studied for ministry at Glasgow; minister of St. Peter's Church, Glasgow, 1838, and of one of the leading free church congregations in Edinburgh, 1863-75; thrice visited America on ministerial work; published religious and biographical works.
  140. ^ George Arnott Walker Arnott (1799–1868), botanist; M.A. Edinburgh, 1818; studied law, but abandoned the profession for botany; travelled on continent; botanical lecturer, 1839, and professor, 1845, Glasgow; associated with Sir William Hooker in botanical publications,
  141. ^ Neil Arnott (1788–1874), physician and natural philosopher; M.A. Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1805; went to London and became a student at St. George's Hospital, 1806; visited China as surgeon in East India Company's service, 1807 and 1809; practised in London, 18111855; lectured on natural science at Philomathic Institution; M.D. Aberdeen, 1814; physician successively to French (1816) and Spanish embassies; a founder and original member of senate of university of London, 1836; physician extraordinary to Queen Victoria, 1837; F.R.S., 1838; member of Medical Council, 1854; published Elements of Physics 1827-9.
  142. ^ Arnoul or ARNULF (1040–1124).
  143. ^ Sir Joseph Arnould (1814–1886), Indian judge and author; educated at Charterhouse and Wadham College, Oxford: Newdigate prizeman, 1834; B.A., 1836; probationer fellow, 1838-41; moderator of philosophy, 1840; called to the bar at the Middle Temple, 1841; contributed to Douglas Jerrold's Weekly Newspaper and wrote leaders for Daily News; knighted and appointed to seat on lench of supreme court (afterwards high court of judicature) of Bombay, 1859; published legal and other writings.
  144. ^ Earl Arnulf of Pembroke(fl.–1090-1110), fifth son of Roger de Montgomery see BoCHOt IK MoHTOOXnuB, Earl of Shrewsbury, d. 1093; built Pembroke Castle about 1090; rebelled against Henry I, and marrying, after much negotiation, the daughter of Murchadh, king of Leinster, died next day.
  145. ^ John Arnway (1601–1653), royalist divine; rector of Hodnet and Ightfleld, 1635; archdeacon of Lichfield and Coventry and prebendary of Woolvey; exiled during protectorate; died in Virginia.
  146. ^ Aaron Arrowsmith (1750–1823), geographer ; left practically destitute in early life; found employment with a map-maker in London, 1770; published several maps, including a chart of the world (Mercator's projection), now rare, 1790, Map of Scotland 1807, and Atlas of Southern India 1822.
  147. ^ Edmund Arrowsmith (1585–1828), Jesuit; known sometimes as Bradshaw and RKJHY; educated at Douay; ordained, 1612; returned to fefbad on English mission, 1613; entered Society of Jesus, 1624; executed for taking order of priesthood beyond the seas. His hand is preserved as a relic at Ashton, Newton-le-Willows.
  148. ^ John Arrowsmith (1602–1659), puritan divine: graduated at Cambridge, 1623; incumbent of St. Nicholas Chapel, King's Lynn, 1631; D.D. and regius professor of divinity, 1644; rector of St. Martin's, Ironmonger Lane, 1646; vice-chancellor of Cambridge, 1647; master of Trinity, 1649; published sermons.
  149. ^ John Arrowsmith (1790–1873), map-maker; nephew of Aaron Arrowsmith, whom he assisted, 1810-23; began business alone, 1823, and ultimately became head of his uncle's house; an original fellow of Royal Geographical Society, 1830; published many maps and charts.
  150. ^ Richard Arsdekin (1618–1693). See Richard Archdekin.
  151. ^ William Artaud (fl. 1776–1822), portrait painter; exhibited in the Royal Academy between 1784 and 1822.
  152. ^ Arthur real or fabulous King of Britain ; born probably towards end of the 5th century; perhaps son of Uther Pendragon, brother of Ambrosius Aureltaniw , and leader of the Roman party in Britain; obtained command of British army, c. 516, and is credited by Nennius with twelve victories over the invading Saxons, of which probably only that at Badou Hill (c. 520) is historical; said to have died at battle of Camlan.
  153. ^ Duke Arthur or COUNT of BRITTANY (1187–1203), posthumous son of Geoffrey, third son of King Henry II and Constance, daughter and heiress of Conan le Petit, count of Brittany; declared his heir by his uncle, Richard I, 1190; supported by Philip of France on the accession of his next uncle John; captured by King John at Mirabel, 1202; murdered at Rouen, probably by John's orders,
  154. ^ Arthur (1486–1502), eldest son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV; K.B., 1489; married Katharine of Arragou, 1501.
  155. ^ Archibald Arthur (1744–1797), professor of moral philosophy, Glasgow; M.A. Glasgow; received preacher's licence, 1767; chaplain and librarian, Glasgow University; professor of moral philosophy, 1796; compiled catalogue of Glasgow University Library, published 1791; published theological and literary discourses, 1803.
  156. ^ Arthur Sir GEORGE (1784–1854), lieutenant-general; joined 91st Argyllshire Highlanders, 1804; lieutenant in Italy, 1806, and in Egypt, 1807; captain in Sicily, 1808, and in Walcheren, 1809; deputy assistant adjutant-general; military secretary to Sir George Don, governor of Jersey; major 7th West India regiment, and assistant quartermaster-general, Jamaica, 1812; lieutenant-governor, British Honduras, 1814-22, Van Diemen's Land, 1823-37, and Upper Canada, 1837-41; baronet, 1841; governor of Bombay, 1842; elected provisional governor-general, but compelled by ill-health to return home, 1846; privy councillor and hon. D.O.L. Oxford; colonel 50th Queen's Own regiment, 1853.
  157. ^ James Arthur (d. 1670?), divine ; professor of divinity, Salamanca University; subsequently retired to convent of St. Dominic, Lisbon: published and left in manuscript commentaries on Aquinas's Summa i; fellow, St.
  158. ^ Thomas Arthur (d. 1532), divine; John's College, Cambridge, and principal, St. Mary's Hostel, 1518; charged with heresy, 1526 and 1627, and recanted to Romanism; wrote tragedies.
  159. ^ Thomas Arthur (1593–1666?), Irish catholic physician; educated at Bordeaux; studied medicine at Paris; practised in Limerick, 1619, and in Dublin, 1624; wrote Latin elegiacs.
  160. ^ Richard Austin Artlett (1807–1873), engraver; pupil of Robert Cooper and James Thomson; produced several portraits; remembered chiefly for engravings of sculpture.
  161. ^ Francis Arundale (1807–1853), architect; pupil of Augustus Pugin; travelled on the continent and in Egypt ami Puli-stim-: published several illustrated works on architectural subjects.
  162. ^ Thomas Arundel (1353–1414), archbishop of nuiteriniry: bishop of Ely, 1374; chancellor, 1386-9; archbishop of York, 1388; again chancellor, 1391-6; archbishop of Canterbury, 1396; was perhaps implicated in a con ..; li'is brother, Karl of Arundel, the Duke of , and Earl of Warwick against King Richard II; 1 by House of Commons and banished, 1397, ting the commission of regency eleven years before, in derogation of the king's authority; went to Koine and sought intercession of Boniface IX, who at Richard II's request translated him to St. Andrews, a see which acknowledged the rival pope; returned to England with Henry IV, whom he crowned, 1399; again chancellor, 1399, 1407, and 1412; strenuously resisted lollardy.
  163. ^ Arundell of Cornwall The three principal branches of the Cornish family of Arundell were the Arundells of Lanherne, Trerice, and Tolverne. The ARUNDELLS of LANHERNE settled at Lanherne about the middle of the thirteenth century. The more important members of this branch not noticed elsewhere are Roger, marshal of England; William de Arundell, canon of Exeter Cathedral (d. 1246); Sir Ralph Arundell, .f Cornwall, 1260; Sir John Arundell, K.B., the Magnificent M.P. and sheriff of Cornwall, died c. 1433; John Arundell, sheriff and admiral of Cornwall, attainted, 1483; and Sir John Arundell, who was made knight banneret at Therouenne, and died in 1545. The ARUNDELLS of TRERICE include Sir John Arundell, vice-admiral of Cornwall early in fifteenth century (d. 1471), and the Hon. Richard Arundell, M.P. (d. 1759). The ARUNDELLS OF TOLVERNE include Sir Thomas Arundell (d. 1443), Sir Thomas Arundell (d. 1652), knighted by James I, and his son, John Arundell, colonel , -for Charles II (rf. 1671). The ARUNDELLS OP MEXADARVA appear to have been founded by one Robert Arundell, a natural son of Sir John Arundell of Trerice
  164. ^ Lady Blanche Arundell (1583–1649), defender of Wardour Castle; daughter of Edward, earl of Worcester; married Thomas Arundell of Wardour, Wiltshire; defended Wardour Castle for nine days against parliamentarians, 1643.
  165. ^ Francis Vyvyan Jago Arundell (1780–1846), antiquary; M.A. Exeter College, Oxford, 1809; rector of Landulph, 1805; chaplain to British factory, Smyrna, 1822-36; journeyed in Asia Minor, 1826-35, and inibii-hed descriptions of his travels and discoveries, 1834; made large collections of antiquities, coins, and manuscripts.
  166. ^ Henry Arundell, third Baron Arundell of Wardour (1606?–1694), fought for Charles I in civil wars; dislodged parliamentarians, 1644, from Wardour Castle, which had been taken from his mother, Lady Blanche Arundell; master of horse to Henrietta Maria, 1663; one of the ambassadors sent by Charles IT to Louis XIV to arrange secret treaty of Dover, 1669; iy Titus Gates of complicity in a popish plot harles,and arrested, 1678; imprisoned in Tower, but not tried; released 1684; privy councillor, 1686; keeper of privy seal, 1687; published religious and courtly poems.
  167. ^ Humphry Arundell, of Lanherne (1513), rebel; leader of an insurrection due to enclosure of common lands, 1549; unsuccessfully besieged Exeter; ultimately captured and executed at Tyburn,
  168. ^ Sir John Arundell , of Lanherne (d. 1379), naval commander; repulsed French off Cornwall, 1379, but was caught in storm and drowned.
  169. ^ John Arundell (d. 1477), bishop of Chichestcr ; fellow, Exeter College, Oxford, 1421-30; chaplain to Henry VI; bishop of Chichester, 1458.
  170. ^ John Arundell , of Lanherne (d. 1504), divine; M.A. Exeter College, Oxford; dean of Exeter, 1483-96; bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 1496, and Exeter, 1502.
  171. ^ Sir John Arundell, of Trerice (1495–1561), vice-admiral of the west, calledJack of Tilbury knighted at battle of Spurs, 1613; twice sheriff of Cornwall; esquire of the body to Henry VIIL
  172. ^ Sir John Arundell , of Trerice (1576–1666?), royalist, nicknamed Jack for the King; grandson of Sir John Arundell (1496-1661); at various times M.P. for Cornwall, Bodmin, Tregony, and Michell; governor, 1643, of Pendennis Castle, which he was compelled to surrender to Fairfax, 1646.
  173. ^ Mary Arundell, of Lanherne (d. 1691), translator; left manuscript translations from Latin.
  174. ^ Richard Arundell, first Baron Arundell of Trerice (d. 1687), M.P. for Lostwithiel ; colonel in king's army; governor, Pendennis Castle, 1662.
  175. ^ Sir Thomas Arundell, of Lanherne (d. 1552), alleged conspirator; sheriff of Dorset, 1531-2; gentleman of privy chamber to Wolsey; knighted, 1633; a commissioner for suppression of religious houses, 1535; imprisoned in Tower for alleged implication in Cornish rising, 1550-1; executed for share in Somerset's conspiracy,
  176. ^ Thomas Arundell, first Baron Arundell of Wardour (1560–1639), soldier of fortune; made count of Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Rudolph II for services against the Turks, 1595.
  177. ^ Thomas Arundell, second Baron Arundell of Wardour (1584-1643), fought for royalists in civil war.
  178. ^ Asaph (d. c. 596), Welsh saint; known also as Asaaf, Assa or Asa; grandson of Pabo; succeeded St. Kentigern, c. 570, in the monastery at confluence of rivers Clwyd and Elwy; the monastery, perhaps in Asaph's time, elevated into a cathedral foundation; possibly first bishop of the see of Llanelwy (known since c. 1100 as St. Asaph); his anniversary formerly celebrated at St. Asaph on 1 May.
  179. ^ Francis Asbury (1745-1816), Wesleyan bishop; went as preacher to America, 1771; made joint superintendent, and, later, bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, United States of America, 1784.
  180. ^ Anthony Ascham (Jl. 1553), astrologer; M.B. Cambridge, 1640; vicar of Bumeston, Yorkshire, 1653; published astronomical and astrological works,
  181. ^ Antony Ascham (d. 1650), parliamentarian ambassador; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge; tutor to James, duke of York; Hamburg agent of the republic, 1649; ambassador to Madrid, 1650, where he was murdered on his arrival.
  182. ^ Roger Ascham (1515–1568), author ; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he distinguished himself in classics; B.A. and fellow, 1534; M.A., 1537; Greek reader at St. John's, 1538; visited Yorkshire; returned to Cambridge, 1542; published Toxophilus a treatise on archery, in which accomplishment he had considerable skill, 1545; public orator, Cambridge University, 1546; succeeded Grindal as tutor to Princess Elizabeth, 1548; resigned this post and returned to his duties at Cambridge, 1550; secretary to Sir Richard Morysin, English ambassador to Charles V, 1550-3, during which period he travelled largely on the continent; Latin secretary to Queen Mary, 1553; was specially permitted to continue in his profession of protestantism; married and resigned his offices at Cambridge, 1554; private tutor to Queen Elizabeth, 1568; prebendary of York, 1559; troubled with ill-health during latter years of his life. His Scho'emaster a treatise on practical education, which he left unfinished, was published in 1570. Lii. 160
  183. ^ Sir Charles Asgill (1763?–1823), general; ensign 1st foot guards, 1778; lieutenant with captain's rank, 1781; captured at the capitulation of York Town; 1781; chosen to suffer death in retaliation for the execution of:in American prisoner, but released: lientcnantoolonel in guards 17n:.-crviil 111 Flaiuli r-: colon, !, 1795:.-tatY-liriL'a'licr in Ireland, 17'J7;, 1798: colonel l:ih foot, an.l commander of Dublin, 1800; . 1814.
  184. ^ John Asgill (1659–1738), eccentric writer; student of Middle Temple, 1686; called to the bar, 1692; published a pamphlet to prove that death was not obligatory upon Christians, 1699: went to Ireland; member for Enniscorthy in Irish House of Commons 17u3; expelled ami lii's pamphlet ordered to be burned; returned to England: M.P. for Bramber in parliament of 1705-7; expelled after his book had again leen ordered to be burned; became involved in financial difficulties, and passed the rest of his life in Fleet or within rules of King's Bench: published several pamphlet.
  185. ^ John Ash (1724?–1779), baptist pastor at Loughwood, Dorset, and later at Pershore, Worcestershire; published an English dictionary, 1776.
  186. ^ John Ash (1723–1798), physician; M.D. Trinity College, Oxford, 1754: first physician of General Hospital, Birmingham, at which town he practised; F.C.P., 1787; practised in London after 1787, and held various posts in the College of Physicians
  187. ^ Simon of Ash (fl. 1200).
  188. ^ Henry Spencer Ashbee (1834–1900), bibliographer; founder and senior partner of London mercantile firm of Charles Lavy & Co., whose parent house was in Hamburg; organised branch at Paris, 1868; subsequently devoted his leisure to travel and book-collecting; formed the finest Oervantic library out of Spain; published Notes on Curious and Uncommon Books (private!} 7, 1877-85) and other bibliographical writings; he bequeathed many valuable books to the British Museum.
  189. ^ Thomas fp Ashborne (fl. 1382).
  190. ^ John Ashburnham (1603–1671), royalist; protege of Duke of Buckingham; groom of bedchamber, 1628; M.P. for Hastings, 1640:discharged and disabled by the commons for contempt, being prevented by his attendance on the king from attending in the house, 1643; treasurer and paymaster of royalist army; attended king at Hampton Court, 1647; lost the confidence of the royalists owing to his connection with an unsuccessful attempt to effect Charles's escape, 1647; suffered many hardships, but, at the Restoration, again became groom of the bedchamber.
  191. ^ William Ashburnham (d. 1679), royalist; brother of John Asburnham; M.P. for Ludgershall, 1640; governor of Weymouth, 1644; cofferer of the household after the Restoration.
  192. ^ Joseph Ashbury (1638–1720), actor; served in the army in Ireland; lieutenant of foot, Dublin, after the Restoration; master of revels and patentee to the Duke of Ormonde, lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1682; gained reputation for the Irish stage and for himself as actor and manager.
  193. ^ George Ashby (d. 1475), poetical writer; clerk of signet to Henry VI, and afterwards to Margaret of Anjou; perhaps confined in the Fleet, c. 1461; tutor to Henry VI's son Edward; left verses in manuscript.
  194. ^ George Ashby (1724–1808), antiquary; educated at Westminster, Eton, and St. John's College, Cambridge; M.A., 1748; fellow and B.D., 1756; rector of Hungerton, 1754-67, and of Twyford, Leicestershire, 1759-69; president, St. John's College, 1769-76; F.S.A., 1775; accepted living of Barrow, Suffolk, and also in 1780 that of Stansfield; wrote largely on antiquarian subjects.
  195. ^ Harry Ashby (1744–1818), writing engraver; apprenticed at Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, to a clockmaker; employed later in London as writing engraver; executed plates for several works on penmanship.
  196. ^ Sir John Ashby (d. 1693), admiral; lieutenant, 1665; captain, 1668; fought at Bantry Bay; knighted; made second rear-admiral of the blue, 1689; admiral of blue at Barfleur, 1692.
  197. ^ Richard Ashby (1614–1680), Jesuit, whose name was Thimelby; entered Society of Jesus, 1632; professor at Liege; joined English mission, c. 1648; rector St. Omer's College; wrote theological works.
  198. ^ William Ashdowne (1723–1810), unitarian preacher; preacher at general baptist church, Dover, from 1769 to 1781, when he was elected pastor; published religious works.
  199. ^ John Ashe (1671–1735), religious writer; dissenting minister at Ashford.
  200. ^ Jonathan Ashe (fl. 1813), masonic writer; D.D., Trinity College, Dublin, 1808; published a work on freemasonry, 1813
  201. ^ Robert Hoadley Ashe (1761–1826), divine; D.D., Pembroke College, Oxford, 1794; held living of Crewkerne, Somerset, 1775-1826.
  202. ^ St George Ashe (1658?–1718), Irish bishop; fellow, Trinity College, Dublin, 1679; provost, 1692; bishop of Cloyne, 1695, of Clogher, 1697, and of Derry, 1717: known chiefly for his intimacy with Dean Swift, who was his pupil at Trinity College.
  203. ^ Simeon Ashe (d. 1662), nonconformist divine; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge; ejected for nonconformity from a living which he held in Staffordshire; chaplain to Earl of Manchester; after civil war received living of St. Austin; wrote several pamphlets and sermons.
  204. ^ Thomas Ashe or Ash (fl. 1600–1618), legal writer; called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1574; pensioner, 1597; published legal works.
  205. ^ Thomas Ashe (1770–1836), novelist; held commission in 83rd foot regiment; entered a counting-house at Bordeaux; did secretarial work in Dublin and subsequently spent some years in foreign travel; wrote novels and miscellaneous works.
  206. ^ Thomas Ashe (1836–1889), poet; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1859; curate of Silverstone, Northamptonshire, 1860; mathematical and modern form master at Leamington college, 1866, and subsequently at Queen Elizabeth's school, Ipswich; wrote several volumes of poetry (collected, 1885).
  207. ^ Edmund Ashfield (fl. 1680–1700), artist; pupil of John Michael Wright; executed crayon and oil portraits.
  208. ^ William Ashford (1746?–1824), landscape painter; settled in Dublin, 1764; abandoned a situation in Dublin ordnance department in the interests of art; first president, Royal Hibernian Academy, 1823.
  209. ^ Sir Anthony Ashley (1551–1627), clerk of the privy council; probably educated at Oxford; clerk of the council before 1588; journeyed with Norris and Drake to Spain, 1589; M.A. Oxford, 1592; secretary for war in the honourable voyage unto Cadiz and knighted, 1596; made baronet, 1622; author of The Mariners Mirrour of Navigation 1588.
  210. ^ Charles Jane Ashley (1773–1843), performer on violoncello; son of John Ashley (1734?-1805); secretary of Royal Society of Musicians, 1811.
  211. ^ General Charles Ashley (1770?–1818), violinist; son of John Ashley (1734?-18()5); pupil of aiardini and Barthelemou: took part in Handel commemoration, 1784; member Royal Society of Musicians, 1791.
  212. ^ John Ashley (1734?-1805), musician ; member of Royal Society of Musicians, 1766; assistant conductor at Handel commemoration, 1784; manager of oratorio concerts, Coveut Garden, 1795..
  213. ^ John James Ashley (1772–1815), singing master ; aon of John Ashley (17347-1805); pupil of Schroeter; member of Royal Society of Musicians, 1792.
  214. ^ Richard Ashley (1775–1836), violinist; son of John Ashley (17347-1806); member of Royal Society of Musicians, 17UC..
  215. ^ Robert Ashley (1565–1641), miscellaneous writer ; educated at Oxford; fellow commoner, Hart Hall, 1580; called to bar at Middle Temple; proficient linguist in European tongues and author of miscellaneous works.
  216. ^ Elias Ashmole (1617–1692), antiquary and astrologer; educated at Lichfield; solicitor, 1638; joined royalist?, and in 1644 was appointed commissioner of ; Lichfield; studied physics and mathematics at Brast-i lose College, Oxford; commissioner of excise, captain of horse and comptroller of ordnance, Worcester; Windsor Herald, 1660; held successively several government appointments; presented, 1677, his collection of; curiosities to Oxford University, to which he subsequently fceqneathed his library; M.D. Oxford, 1690; wrote or edited antiquarian and Rosicruciau works.
  217. ^ John Ashmore (ft. 1621), translator ; published the first translation into English of selected Odes of Horace.
  218. ^ Arthur Ashpitel (1807–1869), architect; practised 1842-54; spent some time in Rome, of which city he bequeathed two drawings to the nation; published verse and political pamphlets.
  219. ^ William Hurst Ashpitel (1776–1862), architect; concerned as assistant in building of London docks and Kennet and Avon canal.
  220. ^ Charles Ashton (1666–1752), divine ; B.A. j QueensCollege, Cambridge; fellow, 1687; chaplain to Bishop Patrick; held living of Rattenden, Essex, 1699; chaplain to Chelsea hospital; prebendary of Ely, master of Jesus College, Cambridge, and D.D., 1701; vicechancellor, Cambridge, 1702; published works on classical subjects and made textual emendations.
  221. ^ Edward Ashton (d. 1658), colonel in army; executed for complicity in Ormonde's plot against lord protector, 1658.
  222. ^ Henry Ashton (1801–1872), architect ; pupil of Sir Robert Smirke; executed designs for many London street improvements, notably Victoria Street,
  223. ^ Hugh Ashton (d. 1522), archdeacon of York; M.A. Oxford, 1507; canon and prebendary in St. Stephen's, Westminster, 1509; prebendary of Strensall, York, 1515; archdeacon of Winchester, 1511-19, of Cornwall, 1515, and of West Riding, York, 1516; rector of Grasmere, Ambleside (before 1511), of Barnake, Lichfield, and (1522) of Burton Latimer, Northamptonshire.
  224. ^ Sir John de Ashton (. 1370), military commander; distinguished himself at siege of Noyon by English, 1370; knight of shire, 1389.
  225. ^ Sir John De Ashton (d. 1428), son of Sir John de Ashton (. 1370) q. v.; knight of shire for Lancashire, 1413; seneschal of Bayeux, 1416.
  226. ^ John Ashton (d. 1691), Jacobite conspirator; clerk of closet to Mary of Modena, wife of James II; probably held commission in army; arrested in 1690 for conspiring to restore James II; hanged at Tyburn,
  227. ^ Peter Ashton (. 1546), English translator of Paulus Jovius's Turcicarum rerum Commentarius 1546.
  228. ^ Ralph de Ashton (fl. 1460–1483), officer of state; in his seventeenth year page of honour to Henry VI; held various offices under Edward IV; vice-constable of England and lieutenant of the Tower, 1483; perhaps murdered at Ashton-under-Lyne.
  229. ^ Sir Robert de Ashton (d. 1385), officer ; M.P., 1324; lord treasurer (1362 and 1373); admiral of the Narrow Seas, 1369; king's chamberlain, 1373; constable of Dover and warden of Cinque ports, 1380.
  230. ^ Thomas de Ashton (fl. 1346), warrior; fought with great valour under Neville at Neville's Cross, 1346; accompanied John of Gaunt to Spain, 1385.
  231. ^ Sir Thomas de Ashton or Assheton (d. 1446), alchemist; specially licensed by Henry VI to pursue his experiments, 1446.
  232. ^ Thomas Ashton (d. 1678), schoolmaster; M.A. Cambridge, 1563; and fellow, Trinity College; entered orders; first headmaster of Shrewsbury school from 1562 to c. 1568; subsequently employed by Earl of Essex in communications between Elizabeth and privy council.
  233. ^ Thomas Ashton (1716–1775), divine; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, where he made the acquaintance of Horace Walpole; rector of Sturminster Marshall, Dorsetshire, 1749, and of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, 1752; D.D., 1759; preacher at Lincoln's Inn, 1762-4.
  234. ^ Henry Ashurst (1614?–1680), merchant; apprenticed to draper in London; entered common council, and subsequently became an alderman; treasurer to Society for the Propagation of the Gospel; gave large sums in charity, particularly in Lancashire.
  235. ^ James Ashurst (d. 1679), divine; vicar of Arlesey, c. 1631; left the living under Act of Uniformity, but continued to conduct services there as nonconformist.
  236. ^ William Henry Ashurst (1725-1807), judge; educated at Charterhouse; entered Inner Temple, 1750; practised as special pleader; called to the bar, 1754; serjeant, 1770; judge of king's bench, 1770-99; one of the commissioners entrusted with great seal, 1783 and 1792-3.
  237. ^ William Henry Ashurst (1792–1855), solicitor; an enthusiastic radical, refusing to pay taxes till the Reform Bill should be passed, 1832; member of common council of London; under-sheriff of London; supplied funds and procured evidence to support Rowland Hill's postal scheme; a founder of the Society of Friends of Italy and of the People's International League, 1851 and 1852.
  238. ^ John Ashwardby (fl. 1392), follower of Wycliffe; fellow of Oriel College, Oxford; vicar of St. Mary's; vicechancellor of the university, 1392.
  239. ^ Arthur Rawson Ashwell (1824–1879), principal of Chichester Theological College; entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 1843; foundation scholar, Caius College, 1846; fifteenth wrangler, 1847; took orders; curate of Speldhurst, 1848, and of St. Mary-the-Less, Cambridge, 1849; vice-principal, St. Mark's College, Chelsea, 1851-3; principal, Oxford Diocesan Training College, Culham, 1853; minister, Holy Trinity Church, Conduit Street, London, 1862; principal, Training College, Durham, 1865; canon-residentiary and principal Theological College, Chichester, 1870; wrote extensively for literary magazines.
  240. ^ George Ashwell (1612–1695), controversialist; scholar, Wadham College, Oxford, 1627; M.A. and fellow, 1635; B.D., 1646; chaplain to Sir Anthony Cope of Hanwell, Oxfordshire; rector of Hanwell, 1658, published Anglo-catholic controversial works.
  241. ^ John Ashwell (d. 1541?), prior of Newnham ; B.D. Cambridge I held benefices of Mistley, Littlebury, and Halstead; chaplain to Lord Abergavenny's troops in France, 1515; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1521; prior, Newnham Abbey, c. 1527; opposed principles of Reformation, but took oath of supremacy to Henry VHI, 1534.
  242. ^ Bartholomew Ashwood (1622–1680), puritan divine; graduated at Oxford; held benefice of Biokleigh, Devonshire, and later that of Axmiuster, whence he was ejected, 1662; published religious works.
  243. ^ John Ashwood (1657–1706), nonconformist minister; tutor at Axminster and later at Chard; minister at Exeter; lecturer at Spitalfields; minister at Peckham. irisLife by Thomas Reynolds, was published 1707.
  244. ^ Caleb Ashworth (1722–1775), dissenting tutor; originally carpenter; studied for the independent ministry under Doddridge, 1739, and became head of Doddridge's academy, which he removed to Daventry, 1752: D.D. Scotland, 1759; published educational and religious works. J2
  245. ^ Ashworth Sm CHARLES (d. 1832), major-general; ensign 68th foot, 1798; after successive promotions stTVf.1 in lYninsulii as brigadier-generalmajorgeneral, 1825; K.O.H., 1831.
  246. ^ Henry Ashworth (1785–1811), navy lieutenant : prisoner, 1804; escaped, 1808; died of wounds received at Tarragona.
  247. ^ Henry Ashworth (1794–1880), opponent of corn-laws; of quaker parentage; educated at Ackworth; a founder of Anti-Corn Law League; friend and strenuous supporter of Cobden from 1837; published Recollections of Richard Cobden 1876, and other works.
  248. ^ John Ashworth (1813–1875), preacher, manufacturer, and author; his parents poor woollen weavers; educated at Sunday school; founded a chapel for the destitute of Rochdale, and became its minister, 1858; visited United States and Palestine; published tracts, which achieved vast popularity.
  249. ^ Robert Aske (d. 1537), leader of the ' Pilgrimage of Grace; attorney and fellow of Gray's Inn; led Yorkshire insurrection calledPilgrimage of Grace which was a protest against the suppression of the smaller monasteries, and other oppressive legislative measures, 1536; came to London at request of Henry VIII to declare causes of complaint, and although apparently pardoned, was ultimately executed at York.
  250. ^ Anne Askew (1521–1546), protestant martyr; married Thomas Kyme, on death of her sister, who was to have married him; turned out of doors by her husband; came to London: underwent examinations for heresy, 1545, but was befriended by Bishop Bonner; set at liberty, but again arraigned for heresy; refused to recant, and was burned at Smithfleld.
  251. ^ Anthony Askew (1722–1774), classical scholar ; M.B. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1745; studied at Leyden and travelled abroad; M.D., 1750; physician to St. Bartholomew's and Christ's hospitals; registrar of College of Physicians; left extensive library of books and manuscripts, chiefly classical; author of a manuscript volume of Greek inscriptions.
  252. ^ Egeon Askew (b. 1576), divine; B.A. Oxford, 1597; chaplain, Queen's College, 1598; M.A., 1600; minister of Greenwich, Kent, c. 1603; published a volume of sermons.
  253. ^ John Arkham (1825-1894), poet; shoemaker at Wellingborough; librarian of literary institute, Wellingborough; member of first school board there, 1871; school attendance officer and sanitary inspector, 1874; published five volumes of poems (1863-93).
  254. ^ James Aspinall (d. 1861), divine ; successively curate of Rochdale, incumbent of St. Luke's, Liverpool (1831), and rector of Athorpe, 1844-61; published sermons and miscellaneous writings.
  255. ^ Edward Aspinwall (d. 1732), divine ; educated at Cambridge; chaplain to Earl of Radnor; sub-dean of Ohapel Royal; prebendary of Westminster, 1729; published theological works.
  256. ^ William Aspinwall (fi. 1648–1662), nonconformist minister; B.A. Magdalene College, Cambridge; held livings of Maghull. Lancashire, and Mattersey, Nottinghamshire, whence he was rejected under Act of Uniformity, 1662; formed meeting-housa at Thurnsco, Yorkshire, and, later, was perhaps congregational minister at Cockermouth; published religious works.
  257. ^ Robert Aspland (1782–1845), Unitarian minister : Ward scholar at Bristol academy, where he studied for baptist ministry; proceeded to Marischal College, Aberdeen, but left, 1800, his views being considered unsound; secretary, South Unitarian Society, 1803; minister, Gravel Pit chapel, Hackney, 1805-45; established several Unitarian periodicals, including the Monthly Repository which he edited 1806-26; formed Christian Tract Society, 1809; set up Hackney academy for training Unitarian ministers, 1813; helped to found and was secretary to Unitarian fund, 1806-18; secretary to British and Foreign Unitarian Association, 1835-41; published many religious works.
  258. ^ Robert Brook Aspland (1805–1869), Unitarian divine, sou of Robert Aspland; Jt.A. Glasgow, 1822; Unitarian minister successively at Chester, Bristol, inikinfield, and Huckney; secretory of Manchester College, York, 1846-67, and of British and Foreign Unitarian ition, 1859.
  259. ^ William Aspley (fl. 1588–1637), stationer and printer; freeman of Stationers Company, 1597; warden, 1637; with Andrew Wise obtained license for publishing Much Ado about Nothing and 2 Henry IV 1600.
  260. ^ William Asplin (1687–1758), theologian ; B.A. Trinity College, Oxford, 1707; vice-principal, St. Albaus Hall; military chaplain; successively vicar of Banbury, Horley, and Burthorpe, Gloucestershire; published theological writings.
  261. ^ George Aspull (1813–1832), musician; displayed extraordinary musical genius at very early age; played piano before George IV, 1824; having performed in Paris, undertook concert tours in Great Britain and Ireland; wrote songs and pianoforte music. (d. 909 ?), bishop of Sherborne, c. 900; monk of St. David's, perhaps bishop of St. David's; entered houseI hold of King vElfred, with whom he studied six months each year, c. 885; received monasteries of Amesbury and Banwell, and, Liter, Exeter and its district; wrote life of Alfred, and a chronicle of English history between 849 and 887.
  262. ^ Nicholas Assheton (1590–1625), diarist ; wrote a journal extending from May 1617 to March 1619.
  263. ^ William Assheton (1641–1711), divine; B.A. I and fellow, Brasenose College, Oxford, 1663; M.A., and took holy orders; chaplain to Dnke of Ormonde, chancellor of the university; D.D.: prebendary of York, 1673; obtained livings of St. Antholin's, London, and Beckenham, Kent; j originated a scheme for providing pensions to widows of I clergy and others, which was adopted unsuccessfully by the MercersCompany; published theological works, ineludingThe Possibility of Apparitions(1706), occasioned by Defoe's fabricated story of the appearance of the ghost of Mrs. Veal.
  264. ^ Assigny, see Marius D'Assigny.
  265. ^ John Astbttry (1688?–1743), potter at Shelton, Staffordshire; introduced use of Bideford pipeclay, and was first to use calcined flint in the pottery manufacture (1720).
  266. ^ Mary Astell (1668–1731), authoress; settled in London, c. 1688, and afterwards at Chelsea; published anonymously in 1694 Serious Proposal to Ladies in which she advocated a scheme of religious retirement for women in an establishmentrather academic than monastic which should be conducted on Church of England principles. The project elicited much comment, favourable and unfavourable, but ultimately fell to the ground. Published other works of a religious and controversial nature.
  267. ^ William Astell (1774–1847), director of East India Company, 1800-47; several times chairman and deputy-chairman; M.P. for Bridgewater, 1800, and, later, for Bedfordshire, of which county he was deputv-lieutenant.
  268. ^ Thomas Astle (1735-1803), antiquary and palaeographer; articled as attorney, but abandoned the profession for antiquarian work and came to London; F.S.A., 1763; gained notice of Hon. George Grenville, who obtained him post of commissioner for regulating public records at Westminster; royal commissioner for methodising state papers at Whitehall, 1704; F.R.S., 1766; chief clerk of record office in the Tower, 1775, and keeper of the records, 1783; publishedOrigin and Progress of Writing (1784), and other archaeological works; conducted The Antiquarian Repository and contributed largely to 'Archeologia'. His collection of manuscripts (the Stowe) is now in the British Museum.
  269. ^ Sir Jacob Astley, Baron Astley (1579–1652), royalist; served in the Netherlands; governor of Plymouth and isle of St. Nicholas, 1638; sent as sergeantmajor to Newcastle to provide against expected Scottish invasion, 1639; on council of war, 1640; joined king at Nottingham as major-general, 1042, and served with distinction during the civil war: made baron, 1644: his force routed, 14G, and himself imprisoned at Varwick; released on surrender of Oxford.
  270. ^ John Astley (d. 1595), master of the jewel house; held a confidential position in household of Princess Elizabeth; in Frankfort during Mary's reign; master of jewel house on Elizabeth's accession, 1568; M.P. for roue, 1586 and 1589; published Art of Riding.
  271. ^ John Astley (1730?–1787), portrait painter; pupil of Hudson; visited Rome, where he was a companion of (r).1 or- 1 ma Reynolds; on his return obtained patronage of Horace Walpole; acquired great wealth by his art and by judicious marriages.
  272. ^ Sir John Dugdale Astley (1828–1894), the sporting baronet: educated at Winchester, Eton, and t'lirist Church, Oxford; served in Crimea, 1854-5; brevet. 1855: promoted sport throughout armies at Balaclava; retired as lieutenant-colonel, 1859; raced under name of Mr. S. Thellussou, 1869; succeeded to baronetcy, 1873; conservative M.P. for North Lincolnshire, 1874-80; published Fifty Years of my Life 1894.
  273. ^ Philip Astley (1742–1814), equestrian performer ; trained as cabinet maker; joined General Elliott's light horse, 1759; became breaker-in, and rose to rank of sergeant-major; opened an exhibition of horsemanship at Lambeth, and in 1770 a wooden circus at Westminster; nbsequently, with partial success, established in all nineteen equestrian theatres, including buildings at Paris and Dublin; opened Astley's Royal Amphitheatre, London, 1798 (destroyed by fire, 1803, and rebuilt, 1804); died in Paris.
  274. ^ Anthony Aston (. 1712–1731), dramatist and actor; educated as attorney; said to have played in London theatres, but principally toured in England and Ireland; delivered a ludicrous speech to House of Commons against restriction of number of theatres, 1735.
  275. ^ Sir Arthur Aston (d. 1649), royalist general ; in Russia with letters of recommendation from James L, e. 1613-18, and in camp of king of Poland during his war against Turks, 1618-31; attended Gustavus Adolphns in the Liitzen campaign; sergeant-major-general at beginning of Scottish rebellion, 1640; knighted, 1641; colonelgeneral of royalist dragoons on outbreak of civil war, 1642; governor of Reading, during the siege of which town he was wounded; governor of Oxford, 1643, and having met with an accident, 1644, was pensioned; in Ireland, 1646; killed at capture of Drogheda by Cromwell.
  276. ^ John Aston or Ashton (fl. 1382), follower of Wycliffe; M.A. Merton College, Oxford; one of the Oxford Wycliffites prosecuted by Archbishop Courtney, 1382; expelled from the university, recanted and was readmitted, 1382; prohibited from preaching, 1387.
  277. ^ Joseph Aston (1762–1844), miscellaneous writer; stationer, 1803, in Manchester: where, and later at Rochdale, he published and edited newspapers; pu verses, plays, and other works.
  278. ^ Sir Richard Aston (d. 1778), judge; practised as barrister; king's counsel, 1759: lord chief-justice of common pleas, Ireland, 1761; knighted and transferred to king's bench. England, 1765; member of the court which declared faulty the writ of outlawry against Wilkes, 1768; one of the commissioners entrusted with the great seal, 1770-1.
  279. ^ Sir Thomas Aston (1600–1645), royalist; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford; made baronet, 1628; high sheriff of Cheshire, 1635; commanded royalist forces at Middlewich, 1643, when he was defeated and captured, but rejoined king's army: was afterwards captured in a skirmish in Staffordshire, and died of wounds while attempting to escape from prison at Stafford; published 'Remonstrance airainst Presbytery 1641.
  280. ^ Walter Aston, Baron Aston of Forfar (1584-1639), ambassador: K.U., 1603; ambassador to Spain, 1620-5 and 1635-8; raised to Scottish peerage, 1627. Patron of the poet Drayton.
  281. ^ William Aston (1735–1800), Jesuit; educated at St. Omer; joined Society of Jesus at Watten, 1761; professor of poetry, St. Omer, 1761; president, Little College, Bruges; canon, St. John's church, Liege.
  282. ^ Richard Astry (1632?-1714), antiquary; B.A. Queens' College, Cambridge, 1651; M.A., 1654; left in manuscript historical collections relating to Huntingdonshire (Lansd. MS. 921).
  283. ^ John Asty (1672?-1730), dissenting clergyman; minister in family of the Fleetwoods, Stoke Newington; pastor to congregation at Moorflelds, 1713-30.
  284. ^ Athelard of Bath (12th century). See Adelard.
  285. ^ Athelm (i. 923), probably monk of Glastonbury ; first bishop of Wells, 909; archbishop of Canterbury, 914.
  286. ^ Athelstan or Aethelstan (895–940), king of West-Saxons and Mercians, and afterwards of all the English; son of Eadward the Elder, probably by a mistress of noble birth; crowned at Kingston, Surrey, 925; crushed a coalition of minor kings formed to resist his imperial policy, and was acknowledged as overlord at Emmet, 926; obtained homage of Welsh princes; conquered Western Devonshire, and conciliated Welsh in Wessex; invaded Scotland, 933 or 934; at the battle of Brunanburh practically established unity of England by routing subject princes and Danish pirate kings, who had ! united to overthrow the West-Saxon supremacy, 937; buried at Malmesbury Abbey.
  287. ^ Edwin Atherstone (1788–1872), writer in verse and prose; published The Fall of Nineveh in instalments, 1828, 1847, and 1868; wrote historical romances.
  288. ^ John Atherton (1598–1640), Irish bishop; educated at Gloucester Hall (Worcester College) and Lincoln College, Oxford; rector of Huish Comb Flower, Somerset; prebendary of St. John's, Dublin, 1630; chancellor of Killaloe, 1634: chancellor of Christ Church and rector of Killaban and Ballintubride, 1635; bishop of Waterford and Lismore, 1636; found guilty of unnatural crime, degraded and hanged at Dublin, 1640.
  289. ^ William Atherton (1775–1850), Wesleyan minister; president of Wesleyan conference, 1846; superintendent of Wakefield district, and chairman of Leeds district, 1849.
  290. ^ Sir William Atherton (1806–1864), lawyer : special pleader, 1832-9; called to bar, 1839; advanced liberal M.P., Durham, 1852, 1857, and 1859; Q.O., 1862; standing counsel to admiralty, 1865-9; solicitor-general and knighted, 1859; attorney-general, 1861.
  291. ^ John Athone (d. 1350). See John Acton.
  292. ^ James Atkine , Atkins or Etkins, (1613-?1687), Scottish bishop; M.A. Edinburgh, 1636; at Oxford; beneficed successively Birsay (Orkney) and Winifrith (Dorset); bishop of Moray, 1676, of Galloway, 1680.
  293. ^ Henry Atkins , M.D. (1558–1635), physician; graduated at Oxford; M.D. Nantes; president of College of Physicians six times between 1607 and 1625; attended Henry, prince of Wales, in his last illness, 1618.
  294. ^ John Atkins (1685–1767), naval surgeon : in actions at Malaga (1703) and Viiia Bay (1710); sailed to Guinea, Brazil, ami West Indies with expedition to put down piracy, 1721-3; publishedNavy Surgeon(1732) and an account of his voyage.
  295. ^ Richard Atkins (1559?–1581), protestant martyr; a catholic till nineteen years of age; in Rome, Ifisl, whore his denunciations against the church in his torture and death at the hands of the inquisition,
  296. ^ Samfel Atkins (f. 1787–1808), marine painter; contributed to Royal Academy, 1787-96; in East Indies, 1796-1804; exhibited till 1808.
  297. ^ William Atkins (1601–1681), Jesuit; entered Society of Jesus, 1635; rector of College of St. Al 1653; died, a victim of Oates's plot, in Stafford gaol.
  298. ^ Sir Harry Atkinson (1831–1892), prime minister of New Zealand; educated at Rochester and Blackheath; emigrated to New Zealand, 1855; captain in Waitara war, 1860-4; minister of defence in cabinet of Sir Frederick Aloysius Weld, 1864-5; took prominent part in struggle between centralism and provincialism, 1874-6; prime minister of New Zealand, 1876-7, 1883-4, and 1887-91, and colonial treasurer, 1875-6, 1876-7, 1879-83, and 18871891; K.O.M.Q., 1888; speaker of legislative council, 1891.
  299. ^ Henry Atkinson (1781–1829), mathematician: assisted his father and sister in management of schools at Great Bavington (Northumberland), West Woodburn, West Belsay, Stamfordham, and Hawkwell; settled in Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1808; contributed to the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society many remarkable papers on scientific topics.
  300. ^ James Atkinson (1759–1839), surgeon, bibliographer, and portraitist; senior surgeon to York County hospital and to the York dispensary; surgeon to Duke of York; publishedMedical Bibliography 1834.
  301. ^ James Atkinson (1780–1852), Persian scholar: studied medicine in Edinburgh and London; medical officer on an East Indiaman; assistant surgeon in Bengal service, 1805; assistant assay master, Calcutta mint, 1813-28; superintendent of Government Gazette 1817, and of Press 1823; surgeon to 55th regiment native infantry, 1833; superintending surgeon to army of Indus, 1838-41; member of medical board, 1845; published translations from Persian.
  302. ^ John Augustus Atkinson (ft. 1775), painter ; taken at age of nine to St. Petersburg, where he gained patronage of Empress Catherine and Emperor Paul; returned to England, 1801; exhibited in Royal Academy between 1802 and 1829; prepared plates for several volumes published in Russia or England. Notable among his pictures areBattle of Waterloo(1819) andSeven Ages (1812).
  303. ^ John Christopher Atkinson (1814–1900), antiquary; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1838; vicar of Danny, Yorkshire, 1847-1900; honorary D.O.L. Durham, 1887; prebendary of York, 1891: published 'Forty Years in a Moorland Parish(a collection of local legends and traditions), 1891, and other antiquarian works, besides books for children.
  304. ^ Joseph Atkinson (1743–1818), dramatist: served in army; wrote and adapted several plays which were produced in Dublin, 1785-1800.
  305. ^ Miles Atkinson (1741–1811), divine; B.A. Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1783; headmaster of Drighlington school, near Leeds; minister in Leeds and neighbourhood, 1763 till death.
  306. ^ Paul Atkinson (1656–1729), Franciscan friar; definitor of English province: condemned on account of his priestly character to perpetual imprisonment in Hurst Castle, Hampshire, where he died.
  307. ^ Peter Atkinson (1725–1805), architect at York ; assistant to John Carr, to whose practice be succeeded.
  308. ^ Peter Atkinson 1776–1822) architect: son of Peter Atkinson (1725-1806); built bridge over Ouse, York, 1810.
  309. ^ Stephen Atkinson (fl. 1619), metallurgist; finer in Tower of London, 1686; silver refiner in Devonshire: obtained leave to search for gold and silver in Crawford Muir, 1616, but was unsuccessful.
  310. ^ Thomas Atkinson (1600–1639), divine; scholar, St. John's College, Oxford, 1615; B.D., 1630; senior proctor of the university; rector of Islip, 1638; wrote Latin poems and a Latin tragedy.
  311. ^ Thomas Atkinson (1801?–1833), poet and miscellaneous writer; bookseller at Glasgow.
  312. ^ Thomas Witlam Atkinson (1799–1861), architect; worked successively as bricklayer's labourer, quarry111:111, and stonemason; taught drawing at Ashton-underLyne; studied Gothic architecture, and in 1827 established himself as architect in London; built St. Luke's Church, Cheatham Hill, Manchester; abandoned architecture for art and travel, in the course of which he visited oriental Russia, 1848-63; published, 1858 and 1860, volumes containing journals and topographical drawings; F.K.ii.s., 1868; fellow of Geological Society, 1859.
  313. ^ William Atkinson (d. 1509), translator; D.D. Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1498; canon of Lincoln, 1504, and of Windsor, 1507; translated from French three books (1502) of the Imitation of Christ.
  314. ^ William Atkinson (1773?–1839), architect; began life as a carpenter; pupil of James Wyatt; academy gold medallist, 1795.
  315. ^ William Atkinson (1757–1846), poetical writer ; B.A. and fellow, Jesus College, Cambridge, 1780; M.A., 1783; rector of Warham All Saints, Norfolk; published Poetical Essays 1786.
  316. ^ Sir Edward Atkyns (1587–1669), judge; student of Lincoln's Inn, 1601; called to bar, 1614; governor of the society, 1630;autumn reader 1632; defended Prynue when charged before Star Chamber with libels appearing in Histriomastix; serjeant, 1640; created by the Commons baron of exchequer, 1645; removed by the Lords to court of common pleas, 1648; nominated one of the judges to try disturbers of peace in eastern counties, 1650; renominated judge, 1659; created anew baron of exchequer and knighted, 1660.
  317. ^ Edward Atkyns (1630–1698), judge: son of Sir Edward Atkyns (1587-1669); called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1653; autumn reader, 1675; serjeant, baron of exchequer, and knighted, 1679; lord chief baron 1686; refused allegiance to William HI and resigned, 1688.
  318. ^ John Tracy Atkyns (d. 1773), judge ; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1732; cursitor baron of exchequer, 1755; published (1765-8) notes of chancery cases, 1736-54.
  319. ^ Richard Atkyns (1615–1677), writer on typography; educated at Balliol College, Oxford; travelled abroad with Lord Arundell of Wardour's son for three years; raised, troop of horse for king, 1642; after Restoration made deputy-lieutenant for Gloucestershire; published, 1660, a broadside by which he hoped to prove that the right to printing belonged to the crown alone, and to secure for himself the office of patentee for printing law books; committed for debt, 1677, to the Marshalsea, where he died.
  320. ^ Sir Robert Atkyns (1621–1709), judge; son of Sir Edward Atkyns (1587-1669); M.A. Oxford; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1646; M.P. for Evesham, 1659; made K.B. at Charles II's coronation; M.P. for Eastlow, bencher of his inn, and recorder of Bristol, 1661; judge of court of common pleas, 1672; retired from bench, probably on account of disaffection to Charles II's government, 1679; resigned his recordership; succeeded his brother as chief baron, 1689: speaker of House of Lords (the great seal being in commission), 1689-93; retired from bench, 1694; published legal treatises.
  321. ^ Sir Robert Atkyns (1647–1711), topographer ; i, f i,, 1 51 Atkyils ( 1621-1709) q. v.; knighted, fi3; M.P. for Oirencester, 1681, and Gloucestershire, .s: published topographical work on Gloucestershire! ltls " AM 8 t 1817 - 1 ), bishop of Hereford; at Grantham and Oakham: B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1840; fellow, 1842; M.A., 1843; B.D., 185); D.D., 1859; tutor, 1846-69; vicar of Madingley, 1847-52; Whitehall preacher, 1856: select preacher at 'idire, l,sr,H and IK.V.i; vicar of Leeds, 1869-68; canon itiary at Uipon, 1861; bishop of Hereford, 1868-94.
  322. ^ Charles Atmore (1759–1826), Wesleyan minister; sent out by Wesley as itinerant evangelist, 1781; successively minister in many English towns; president, LII conference, 1811.
  323. ^ Edward Atslowe (d. 1694), physician ; fellow and M.D. New College, Oxford, 1566; P.C.P.; physician to Earl of E-sev: twice imprisoned (1579 and 1686) for supposed connection with conspiracies in behalf of Mary Queen of Scots.
  324. ^ Hugh Attawell (d. 1621).
  325. ^ Francis Atterbury (1662–1732), bishop of Rochester: sou of Lewis Atterbury (d. 1693); educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; tutor at Christ Church; took part as protestant in the controversy resulting from James IPs attempts to force his religion on the university, c. 1687; took holy orders, 1687; lecturer of St. Bride's, London, 1691; chaplain to William and Mary, and preacher at Bridewell Hospital; gained considerable repute by his opposition to Erastianism in church and state, and was appointed archdeacon of Totnes, prebendary of Exeter Cathedral, and D.D., 1701; chaplain in ordinary to Anne; dean of Carlisle, 1704; preacher at Rolls Chapel, 1709; dean of Christ Church, 1712; bishop of Rochester and dean of Westminster, 1713; took part in coronation of George I; leant towanls the Jacobite cause; held direct communications with the Jacobites, 1717; imprisoned in the Tower for alleged connection with an attempt to restore the Stuarts, 1720; deprived of his offices and banished; went to Brussels, 1723, and thence to France: entered the service of James II's son, the old Pretender; died in France; was buried privately in Westminster Abbey.
  326. ^ Lewis Atterbury the elder (d. 1693), divine ; D.D. Christ Church, Oxford, 1660; rector of Great or Broad Risingtou, Gloucestershire, 1654; received living of Middleton- Key nes, Buckinghamshire, 1657; chaplain to Duke of Gloucester, 1660.
  327. ^ Lewis Atterbury , LL.D., the younger (1656–1731), divine; son of Lewis Atterbury (d. 1693); educated at Westminster and Christ Church, OxfordB.A., 1679; M.A., 1680; chaplain to lord mayor of London, 1683; rector of Sywell, Northamptonshire, 1684; LL.D., 1687; one of six chaplains to Princess Anne of Denmark, at Whitehall; preacher at Highgate chapel, 1695; successively rector of Shepperton and Hornsey; published religious works.
  328. ^ Luffman Atterbury (d. 1796), musician; trained as carpenter and builder, but devoted hia leisure to music; musician in ordinary to George III; member of the Madrigal Society, 1766.
  329. ^ William Attersoll (d. 1640), puritan divine ; B.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1582; M.A. Peterhouse, 5; occupied living of Isfield, Sussex, 1600-40; published biblical commentaries and religious treatises.
  330. ^ William Attersoll (fl. 1662), puritan divine ; probably son of William Attereoll; ejected from living of Hoadley, Sussex, 1662.
  331. ^ Thomas Attwood (1766–1838), musician; as chorister of Chapel Royal attracted attention of prince of Wales (George IV), who sent him to study music at Naples, 1783; studied under Mozart at Vienna, 1785; music master to Duchess of York; organist of St. Paul's and composer to Chapel Royal, 1796.
  332. ^ Thomas Attwood (1783 -1856), political reformer; son of a Birmingham banker; entered his father's bank, f. 1800; captain in volunteer infantry, 1803-5; high i of Birmingham, 1811; agitated successfully for Tvpr.d of orders in council restricting British trade with continent and United States, 1812-13; opposed in several pamphlets policy of reducing paper currency when specie .-. 1816: founded, 1830, Birmingham Political Union for Protection of Public Rights which supported Earl Grey's government during passage of Reform Bill; returned to parliament as one of two members for Birmingham, 1832; supported Daniel O'Connell, in 1833; allied himself with the chartists, and presented (1839) their national petition to House of Commons.
  333. ^ William Atwater (1440–1521), bishop of Lincoln; probably fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1480; D D., 1493; vice-chancellor of the university, 1 i:i7 and 1500; temporarily chancellor, 1500; dean of Chapel Royal, 1502; canon of Windsor and registrar of order of Garter, 1504; prebendary, Salisbury Cathedral, chancellor of Lincoln, 1506-12, and prebendary, 1512; archdeacon of Lewes, 1509-12, and of Huntingdon, 1514; bishop of Lincoln, 1514.
  334. ^ Hugh Atwell, Attawel or Attewell (d. 1621), actor; played in first representation of Jonson's Epicoene 1609; member of Alleyn's company,
  335. ^ George Atwood (1746–1807), mathematician; educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; third wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, 1769; fellow and tutor; M.A., 1772; F.R.S., 1776; occupied a post in connection with the revenue after 1784; published mathematical works.
  336. ^ Peter Atwood (1643–1712), Dominican friar; several times imprisoned, and finally executed on account of his sacerdotal character.
  337. ^ Thomas Atwood (d. 1793), chief judge of Dominica, and, later, of the Bahamas; probably author of History of Dominica 1791.
  338. ^ William Atwood (d. 1706?), English barrister; chief-justice and judge of court of admiralty, New York, 1701; suspended on charges of corruption and maladministration, 1702, and returned to England; published statement of his Case (1703), and many political books and pamphlets.
  339. ^ Alexander Aubert (1730–1805), astronomer; educated for mercantile career in Geneva, Leghorn, and Genoa; director and governor, London Assurance Company, 1753; F.R.S., 1772; F.S.A., 1784; built private observatory at Loampit Hill, near Deptford, 1786, and at Islington, 1788.
  340. ^ Seigneurs of Aubigny . See STUART, SIR JOHN, first SEIGNEUR, 1365 ?-1429; STUART, BERNARD, third SEIGNEUR, 1447?-1508; STUART, ESMB, sixth SKK;NKI it, 1542?-1583; STUART, CHARLES, tenth SEIGNEUR, 16401672.
  341. ^ John Aubrey (1626–1697), antiquary; grandson of William Aubrey; educated at Trinity College, Oxford; entered Middle Temple, 1646; brought to light megalithic remains at Avebury, 1649; F.R.S., 1663; lost most of his property through litigation and extravagance, 1662-77; empowered by patent, 1671, to make antiquarian surveys under the crown; formed large topographical collections in Wiltshire and Surrey; left in manuscript much antiquarian and historical material, including Minutes of Lives which was used largely by Anthony a Wood.
  342. ^ William Aubrey (1529–1596), civilian; B.C.L. Oxford, 1549; fellow of All Souls principal, New Inn Hall, 1550; professor of civil law, 1553-9; D.C.L., 1554; advocate in court of arches; chancellor to Archbishop Whitgift; master in chancery.
  343. ^ John Aucher (1619–1700), royalist divine; educated at Cambridge; fellow of Peterhouse, but ejected for loyalty; D.D., 1660; rector of All Hallows, Lombard Street, London, 1662-86; published religious works.
  344. ^ Lord Auchinleck (1706–1782). See Alexander Boswell.
  345. ^ Lord Auchinol (1553?–1591). See Lewis Bellenden.
  346. ^ Sir Samuel Auchmuty (1756–1822), general :born in New York; volunteer with 45th regiment on outbreak of American war, 1775; ensign, 1777; lieutenant, 1778; came to England; adjutant of 52nd regiment in India, 1783; captain, 1788; brigade-major, 1790; served against Tippoo Sultan and at Seringapatam, 1790-2; deputyquartermaster-general, Calcutta, and brevet-major, 1794; brevet lieutenant-colonel, 1795; military secretary to Sir Robert Abercromby, 1795-7; returned to England, 1797; lieutenant-colonel, 10th regiment, 1800; adjutant-general to Abercromby in Egypt; K.B., 1803; commandant in Isle of Thanet, and colonel, 103rd regiment, 1806: in Buenos Ayres, 1806-8; major-general, 1808; and commander-in-chief at Madras, 1810; colonel, 78th regiment, 1811; returned to England, 1813; lieutenant-genaral; commander-in-chief in Ireland and Irish privy councillor.
  347. ^ Philip Audinet (1766–1837), line-engraver; apprenticed to John Hall; engraved portraits for Harrison's 'Biographical Magazine and other works.
  348. ^ Edmund Audley (d. 1524), bishop of Salisbury; B.A. Lincoln College, Oxford, 1463; prebendary of Hereford, 1464, of Salisbury, 1467, of Lincoln, 1472, of Wells, 1475, and of York, 1478; canon of Windsor, 1472; archdeacon of East Riding of Yorkshire, 1475, and of Essex, 1479; bishop of Rochester, 1480; translated to Hereford, 1492. and to Salisbury, 1502; chancellor of order of Garter.
  349. ^ Henry de Audley, Aldithel or Alditheley (d. 1246), royalist baron; lord-marcher and constable on Welsh borders, 1223.
  350. ^ Hugh Audley (d. 1662), moneylender; held a post in court of wards; amassed great wealth between 1605 and 1662.
  351. ^ James de Audley, Aldithel or Alditheley, knight (d. 1272), royalist baron; son of Henry Audley ; lord-marcher; defeated, along with Prince Edward, by Llewelyn and some English barons at Hereford, 1263; opposed Simon de Montfort's government, 1264; joined Gloucester in royalist cause, 1265; justiciary of Ireland, 1270.
  352. ^ James de Audley or Audeley (1316?–1386), a first founder of order of Garter, 1344; served with Black Prince in France, 1346; took part in the naval battle off Sluys, 1350; again with Black Prince in France, 1354-6; one of commanders of French expedition, 1359; governor of Aquitaine, 1362; grand seneschal of Poitou, 1369..
  353. ^ Thomas Audley, Baron Audley of Walden (1488-1544), lord chancellor; probably studied at Magdalene College, Cambridge; town clerk of Colchester, 1516; M.P., 1623; entered Middle Temple; autumn reader, 1626; member of Princess Mary's council, 1526; attorney of duchy of Lancaster; groom of the chamber, 1527; member of Wolsey's household: chancellor of duchy of Lancaster and speaker of House of Commons, 1529; serjeantat-law and king's serjeant, 1531; knight and keeper of great seal, 1532; lord chancellor, 1533; sanctioned Henry's divorce from Catherine of Arragon, 1533; presided at trials of Bishop Fisher and More, 1535; created peer, 1538; K.;., 1540; carried through parliament acts for attainder of Earl of Essex and for dissolution of Henry's marriage with Anne of Cleves, 1540; passed judgment on Catherine Howard, 1542; resigned great seal, 1544.
  354. ^ Anthony Aufrere (1756–1833), antiquary: edited the Lockhart Letters 1817. and published, among other works, translations from the German and Italian.
  355. ^ Augusta Sophia (1768–1840), princess, daughter of George III; born at Buckingham House, London; on death of her father, revived a residence at Frogmore and Clarence House, St. James's, where she died. Buried at Windsor.
  356. ^ St Augustine . (d. 604), first archbishop of Canterbury; prior of Pope Gregory I's monastery of St. Andrew, Rome; sent a miionary to England with forty monk-: received with tolerance by King Kthellx-rt. who wan afterwards converted; consecrated bishop of the English at Aries; found.-.! mona-tt-ry of Ohriitcharch. Canterbury: organised mission." into Western Kent and the Kat kingdom.
  357. ^ Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (1773–1843), sixth son of George III and Queen Charlotte; Norn at Buckingham Palace, London; educated at Giittiugen University; married, 1793, Lady Augusta Munav, subsequently created Duchess of Inverness; marriage declared void under Royal Marriage Act, 17.l; raised to peerage as Baron Arklow, Earl of Inverness, and Duke of Sussex, 1801; strongly supported pros,n political policy; grand master of -i -mi-. isil; president of Society of Arts, 1816, and of Hoal So 1830-9.
  358. ^ Lord Auldbar (d. 1608). See Sir Thomas Lyon.
  359. ^ Richard Aungervllle (1281–1345). See Richard de Bury.
  360. ^ Abraham Aurelius (1575–1632), pastor of French protestant church, London; graduated at 1. 1596; published Latin verses.
  361. ^ Sarah Aust (1744–1811), known, as authoress, by name of Hon. Mrs. Murray; published, 1799, a topographical work on Scotland and Northern England.
  362. ^ Sir Francis William Austen (1774–1865), admiral; brother of Jane Austen; served in Ka-t Indies, 1788-1800, and in North Sea and Baltic, 1811 1 1: rear-admiral, 1830; vice-admiral, 1838; admiral, 1848; admiral of the fleet, 1863.
  363. ^ Jane Austen (1775–1817), novelist ; lived successively at Steventon, near Basingstoke (where she was born), Bath, Southampton, Chawton, near Alton, and Winchester (where she died and is buried). Of her novels, 'Sense and Sensibility' appeared in 1811, Pride and Prejudice in 1813, Mansfield Park in 1814, Emma In 1816, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion posthumously in 1818.
  364. ^ Ralph Austen (d. 1676), writer on gardening ; studied at Magdalen College, Oxford; proctor, 1630; deputy-registrary to visitors, 1647, subsequently registrary; published books on gardening.
  365. ^ Charles Austin (1799–1874), lawyer ; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge; gained Hulsean prize for an essay on Christian evidences, 1822; B A., 1824 barrister, Middle Temple, 1827; joined Norfolk circuit; Q.C., 1841; abandoned practice, 1848, and lived in retirement, having achieved unprecedented success at the parliamentary bar.
  366. ^ Henry Austin (. 1613), author of a poem called The Scourge of Venus, or the Wanton Lady. With the Jlare Birth of Adonis 1613.
  367. ^ John Austin (1613–1669), catholic writer, under pseudonym, WILLIAM BIRCHLEY; pensioner, St. John's College, Cambridge; entered Lincoln's Inn, but was prevented by his religious convictions from practising as a lawyer; private tutor in Staffordshire during civil war; published religious works.
  368. ^ John Austin (1717–1784), Irish Jesuit; entered Society of Jesus in Champagne, 1735; prefect of Irish college, Poitiers; preacher in Dublin, 1750.
  369. ^ John Austin (.f. 1820), Scottish inventor; published works on systems of stenography and stenographic music, devised by himself.
  370. ^ John Austin (1790–1859), jurist; entered army and served in Sicily, but sold his commission and studied law; called to bar at Inner Temple, 1818; abandoned practice, 1825; professor of jurisprudence, London University (now University College), 1826; studied law in (Jermany, 1826-8; resigned his chair, 1832: member of criminal law commission, 1838; commissioned with Sir G. 0. Lewis to inquire into state of government of Malta, 836; lived, 1841-3, in Germany, and, 1844-8, in Paris; was made corresponding member of the French institute of moral and political sciences; published The Province of Jurisprudence determined 1832.
  371. ^ Robert Austin (fl. 1644), puritan divine; pubiHhed a tract defending parliament's action against the king, 1644;D.D.
  372. ^ Samuel Austin , the elder (fl. 1629), religious poet; M.A.Exeter College, Oxford, 1630; received benefice in Cornwall; published Austin's Urania, or the Heavenly Muse 1639.
  373. ^ Samuel Austin , the younger ( ft. 1658), poetical writer: son of Samuel Austin (.ft. 1G29); B.A., 1656, William College, Oxford, where bis self-conceit ma.le him the laughing-stock of the university wits; publishedPane?yrick on the Restoration, 1661.
  374. ^ Samuel Austin (d. 1834), painter; exhibited water-colour drawings at Society of British Artists, is-ji;. mid at Society of Painters in Water-colours, of whirh he became associate (1827).
  375. ^ Sarah Austin (1793–1867), translator ; nee Taylor; wife of John Austin (1790-1350); translull If rom German and French and edited several works, chiet1 v historical, includingGermany from 1760-1814 i ISM. Ranke's History of the Popes (1840), andHistory of Reformation in Germany (1845).
  376. ^ William Austin (1587–1634), miscellaneous writer; barrister of Lincoln's Inn; his works (prose and verse), which were all published posthumously (1636-71), show a wide knowledge of patristic literature,
  377. ^ William Austin ( ft. 1662), classical scholar ; son of William Austin (1587-1634); barrister of Gray's Inn; wrote poems to celebrate marriage of Charles II, lt;62, and a description, in verse, of the plague of London, 1666.
  378. ^ William Austin (1754–1793), physician; B.A. Wadbam College, Oxford, 1776; lectured on Arabic; studied medicine at St.Bartholomew's Hospital; M.A.,1780, and M.D., 1783; practised at Oxford; professor of chemistry and physician to Radcliffe Infirmary, 1785; physician to" St. Bartholomew's, 1786; F.C.P., 1787; delivered (1790) Gulstonian Lectures, which were published 1791.
  379. ^ William Austin (1721–1820), engraver and draughtsman; his plates, chiefly landscapes, of small merit; during latter years of life taught drawing in London and Brighton.
  380. ^ Count of Auverquerque (1641–1708). See Henry Nassau.
  381. ^ Avandale, first BARON 1488). See Andrew Stewart.
  382. ^ Thomas William Baxter Aveling (d. 1884), minister of Kingsland congregational church, 1838-84; chairman of Congregational Union, 1876.
  383. ^ Adam Averell (1754–1847), Irish primitive Wesleyan minister; educated at Trinity College, Dublin; ordained by Bishop Cope, 1777; adopted evangelical views under the influence of Wesley; curate to Dr. Ledwich at Aghaboe, 1789-91; president of primitive Wesleyan methodist conference, 1818-41.
  384. ^ Benjamin Avery (d. 1764), presbyterian minister ; abandoned ministry in consequence of SaltersHall controversy on subscription (1719), and became physician; treasurer, Guy's hospital; trustee, Dr. Williams's Library, 1728-64; LL.D.
  385. ^ John Avery? (fl. 1695), pirate; established himself at Perim and levied a toll on all ships passing through Bed Sea; disbanded his crew in West Indies, and possibly lived in hiding in England.
  386. ^ Robert of Avesbury (fl. 1350).
  387. ^ Louis Jeremiah Avershawe (1773?–1795).
  388. ^ Charles Avison (1710?–1770), musician ; studied in Italy; organist of St. Nicholas, Newcastle, 1736-70; published music and an Essay on Musical Expression 1752.
  389. ^ John Awdelay (fl. 1426), canon of monastery of Haghmon, Shropshire; wrote verses, chiefly devotional.
  390. ^ John Awdelay or Awdeley, otherwise called John Sampson or Sampson Awdelay (fl. 1559-1577), London printer and miscellaneous writer; freeman of Stationers Company, 1559; printed, 1561-77, ballads, news-sheets, and religious tracts, many, including Fraternitye of Vacabondes (1565), being of his own composition.
  391. ^ Daniel Axtel (1622–1660), parliamentarian; of good family, but a grocer's apprentice; entered parliamentary army and rose to rank of lieutenant-colonel; commanded soldiers at king's trial at Westminster; accompanied Cromwell to Ireland: returned to England before the Restoration; executed for being concerned in king's death.
  392. ^ Sir Thomas Aylesbury (1576–1657), patron of mathematical learning; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1605; secretary to the Earl of Nottingham, lord high admiral of England; baronet and master of mint, 1627; cashiered as a royalist, 1642; retired to continent, 1652.
  393. ^ Thomas Aylesbury (fl. 1622–1659), theologian; M.A. and B.D. Cambridge and Oxford; published several Calvinistic works.
  394. ^ William Aylesbury (1615–1666), translator; son of Sir Thomas Aylesbury; B.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1631; travelled in France and Italy, as tutor to Duke of Buckingham and his brother, in whose service he continued till defeat of royalists; retired to continent on fall of Charles; returned to England, 1660; secretary to governor of Jamaica, 1656; published, at Charles I's request, translation of Da Vila's History of French Civil Wars
  395. ^ Robert Aylett (1583–1655?), religious poet; LL.D. Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 1614; published religious verse, including a volume entitled Divine and Moral Speculations 1654.
  396. ^ John Ayliffe (1676–1732), jurist; educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford; M.A., 1703; LL.B. and LL.D. 1710; proctor in chancellor's court; published Ancient and Present State of University of Oxford 1714, and, in consequence of certain allegations contained in it, was expelled from the university and deprived of his privileges and degrees: published (1726 and 1732) two treatises on Canon Law and Civil Law His New Pandect of Roman Civil Lawappeared posthumously, 1734.
  397. ^ Charles Aylmer (1786–1847), Irish Jesuit; entered Society of Jesus, Stonyhurst College, Lancashire; rector, Clongowes College, Ireland, 1817; superior of Dublin Residence, 1816, 1822, and 1829; D.D.
  398. ^ John Aylmer (1521–1594), bishop of London ; B.A. Queens' College, Cambridge, 1541; chaplain to Henry Grey, marquis of Dorset; tutor to Lady Jane Grey; archdeacon of Stow, 1553; deprived of preferments for opposing in convocation doctrine of transubstantiation, and fled to continent; returned to England, 1558; archdeacon of Lincoln, 1562; D.D. Oxford, 1573; bishop of London, 1577; became very unpopular owing to his arbitrary and unconciliatory disposition; his published writings are chiefly sermons and devotional works.
  399. ^ Matthew Aylmer, Baron Aylmer (d. 1720), naval commander-in-chief; lieutenant, 1678; captain in the Mediterranean, 1679-89; commander in battle off Beachy Head, 1690; commander-in-chief at Barfleur, 1692; rear-admiral, 1693; vice-admiral, 1693, and commander-in-chief, 1698, in Mediterranean; commauder-in-chief of fleet, 1709-11 and 1714-20.
  400. ^ John Ayloffe (d. 1685), satirist; wrote Marvell's Ghost, a satire against the Stuarts; possibly executed for complicity in Rye House plot.
  401. ^ Sir Joseph Ayloffe (1709–1781), baronet ; antiquary; educated at Westminster, Lincoln's Inn, and St. John's College, Oxford; F.S.A. and F.R.S., 1732; member of Gentlemen's Society at Spalding 1739; secretary for commission superintending erection of Westminster Bridge, 1736-7; one of the three keepers of state papers, 1763; for many years vice-president of Society of Antiquaries, to whose journal, Archaeologia he contributed largely; published 'Calendars of the Ancient Charters,' 1772, and projected topographical and other works which met with little support.
  402. ^ William Ayloffe (rf. 1585), lawyer; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1560; reader at his inn, 1671; serjeant-at-law, 1677; was judge of queen's bench in i 1579.
  403. ^ Theodore Aylward (1730–1801), musician: member Royal Society of Mu-icmns 17G3; professor of music, Gresham College, 1771; org;i: orge's Chapel, WuuL-or. L788; Mus. Doc. Oxford, 1791
  404. ^ William Aylworth (1625–1679). See Harcourt.
  405. ^ Aymer de Valence or AETHELMAER (ETHELMAR), de Valence or de Lusignan (d. 1260), bishop of Winchester; son of Isabella, wi.lo.v.t King John, by Hugh X, Count of La Marche; came to England, 1247; received several livings from Henry III; elected bishop of Winchester, 1250; election confirmed by Innocent IV, 1251; incurred Henry Ill's anger by refusing to be bound by the grant to the king of a tenth of the clergy's income for three years; made himself generally unpopular by his violent behaviour; sent on an embassy to France, 1257; nominated by Henry on committee created by parliament of Oxford for redress of grievances, 1258; his property seized on his refusing to swear to provisions there drawn up; retired to France and died in Paris.
  406. ^ Aymer de Valence, EARL OF PEMBROKE (d. 1324), nephew of Bishop Aymer (d. 1260); succeeded to earldom, 1296; served in Flanders, 1297, and in Scotland, 1298; guardian of Scotland, 1306-7; led van of Edward ITs army against Bruce, 1306; defeated Scots at Ruthven, 1306, and was defeated at London Hill, 1307; sided with Lancaster against Edward II, but went over to the court party, 1312; lieutenant of Scotland; shared in king's defeat at Bannockburn, 1314; largely responsible for formal peace between Thomas, earl of Lancaster, and Edward II, 1318; accompanied expedition to Scotland, 1323; died at Paris on embassy to Charles IV.
  407. ^ Richard de Ayreminne or Ayermin (d. 1340?), diocesan chancellor; keeper of rolls, 1324; chancellor of diocese of Norwich, 1325, and of Salisbury, 1339; clerk of privy seal, 1327.
  408. ^ William de Ayreminne or Ayermin (d. 1336), bishop of Norwich; elder brother of Richard de Ayreminne; master of rolls, 1316-24; made guardian for life of Jewish convertshouse, 1317; captured by Scottish invaders, 1319, but released a few months later; papal nominee to the bishopric of Norwich, and consecrated against King Edward IPs wish, in France, 1325; treasurer to Edward III, 1331. a.LJLWi, JOHN (.?. 1680-1700), penman: footman to William Ashurst, lord mayor of London (1693-4), who paid for his education; became teacher of writing and accounts, St. Paul's Churchyard; introduced the Italian hand into England between 1680 and 1700; he executed and published many caligraphic works, includingA Tutor to Penmanship 1698.
  409. ^ Philip Ayres (1638–1712), pamphleteer and writer; educated at Westminster and St. John's College, Oxford; private tutor in Buckinghamshire; published many translations and original works in verse and prose.
  410. ^ Acton Smee Ayrton (1816–1886), politician ; practised as solicitor at Bombay; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1853; liberal M.P. for Tower Hamlets, 1857-74; parliamentary secretary to treasury, 1868-9; privy councillor, 1869; first commissioner of works, 1869-73; judgeadvocate-general, 1873-4.
  411. ^ Edmund Ayrton (1734–1808), musician : organist of Southwell Minster, 1754; gentleman of Chapel Royal, vicar choral of St. Paul's Cathedral, and lay vicar of Westminster, 1764; member Royal Society of Musicians, 1765- master of children of Chapel Royal, 1780-1806; MusDoc.
  412. ^ Matilda Chaplin Ayrton (1846–1883), medical student; ne Chaplin;.-tndi-d at London Medical College for Women; took high honours at extramural examinations at Surgf linbnrgh, 1870 and 1871; B. es. Sc. and B. te. L. Paris, 1871; opened and lectured in a school for i i ves in Japan, 1873: M.D. Paris, 1H7'J; li.-i-ntiat.-. King and Queen's College of Physicians, Ireland: orki-l at Koyal Free Hospital, London, and at Algiers and Monti lli.-r.
  413. ^ William Ayrton (1777–1868), musical writer; F.R.S., P.S.A.; son of I director of the King's Theatre, 1817 and 1821; edited the Harmonicon 1823-33: published Musical Library 1834-6.
  414. ^ Francis Ayscough (1700–1766), divine; M.. Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1723; took orders; fellow, 1729; D.D., 1735; clerk of closet to Prince Frederick, 1740; preceptor to Prince George (George III); dean of Bristol.
  415. ^ George Edward Ayscough (d. 1779), dramatist and traveller; son of Francis Ayscough; produced version of Voltaire's Semiramis Drury Lane, 1776; published account of travels in Italy.
  416. ^ Samuel Ayscough (1745–1804), librarian and index-maker; once working miller; overseer of street paviors, 1770; bookseller's assistant and assistant in cataloguing department of British Museum; published catalogue of undescribed manuscripts in British Museum, 1782; assistant librarian, c. 1785; ordained curate of Normanton-on-Soar, Nottinghamshire; assistant curate, St. Giles's-in-the-Fields; compiled index to Monthly Review 1786 (continued, 1796); joint compiler of catalogue of books in British Museum, 1787; F.S.A., 1789; published Index to Shakespeare 1790; delivered the annual Fairfield Lectures, 1790-1804; prepared catalogues (still unpublished) of ancient rolls and charters in British Museum, 1787-92; vicar of Cudham, Kent, c. 1803.
  417. ^ William Ayscough (d. 1450), bishop of Salisbury; prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral, 1436-8; bishop of Salisbury, 1438; Henry VI's confessor; lived continually at court, and thus caused such discontent in his diocese that on visiting it he was murdered at Edington, Wiltshire, after saying mass; LL.D.
  418. ^ Edward Ayscu or Ayscough (d. 1633), historian; B.A. Christ's College, Cambridge, 1590; published, 1607, history of relations between England and Scotland from William I to the Union.
  419. ^ Sir George Ayscue (. 1646–1671), admiral: knighted by Charles I; was a captain in 1646; appointed admiral of Irish seas under parliament, 1649; actively engaged in relief of Dublin when besieged by Ormonde, 1649; assisted in reduction of Scilly, 1651; reduced Barbados and Virginian settlements, 1651-2; defeated Dutch in the Downs, and engaged them off Plymouth, the result being indecisive, 1652; superseded in his command but pensioned, 1652; commanded Swedish fleet, 1658; appointed a commissioner of the navy at Restoration; in second Dutch war (1664-6) successively rear-admiral, admiral of the blue, and admiral of the white; prisoner in , Holland, 1666-7: probably did not serve again after return to England, 1667.
  420. ^ Richard Ayton (1786–1823), miscellaneous writer; educated for bar, but did not enter the profession; wrote and adapted plays, some of which were produced with moderate success; his essays published 1825.
  421. ^ Sir Robert Ayton or Aytoun (1570–1638), poet; M.A. St. Andrews, 1588; travelled on continent; studied civil law at Paris; returned to England, 1603; gentleman of bedchamber and private secretary to the queen: knighted, 1612; ambassador to German to deliver the king's Apology; competed for provostship of Eton, which fell to Wotton, 1623; master of the royal hospital of St. Katherine, 1636; buried m Westminster Abbey; wrote poems, of no extraordinary merit, in Latin, Greek, French, and English.
  422. ^ William Edmonstoune Aytoun (1813–1865), poet; educated at Edinburgh Academy and University; s tidied German literature in Aschaffenburg: admitted writer of the signet, 1836; called to Scottish bar, 1840; i collaborated with (Sir) Theodore Mart in inBon Gaultier Ballads published 1845; joined staff of Black wood's Magazine to which he,-ontributed largely, 1844; professor of rhetoric and belles-lettres, Edinburgh, 1846; shirilT of Orkney, 1852; hon. D.C.L. Oxford, 1853; published Firtnilian a dramatic poem, 1854, hi tated coHK-tion ofBallads of Scotland 1868, and ( jointly will. (Sir) Theodore Martin Poc-ins and Ballad-.f I Goethe 1H5K.
  423. ^ John de Baalun or Balun (d. 1235), justice itinerant for Gloucestershire, 1225; accompanied John to Ireland, 1210; lost his lands for taking part in barons war.
  424. ^ Roger de Baalun or Balun (d. 1226), justice itinerant appointed by Henry III.
  425. ^ Charles Babbage (1792–1871), mathematician and M-irntific mechanician; M.A. Peterhouse, Cambridge, 117; r.K.S., 1816: took part in foundation of AstronotniiMl Su-ii'ty, 1S20; secretary till 1824, and, later, successively vicijircsidcnt, foreign secretary, and member of council; obtained government grant for making a calculating machine based onmethod of differences 1823, but the work of construction ceased, owing to disagreements with the engineer; offered the government (1834) an improved design, which was refused (1842) on grounds of expense: devoted thirty-seven years of his life and a large share of his fortune to the perfecting of this machine; Lucasian professor of mathematics, Cambridge, 1828-39, but delivered no lectures; principal founder of Statistical Society, 1834: published several scientific works, including Economy of Manufactures 1832, and Table of Logarithms 1827.
  426. ^ William Babell or Babel (1690?–1723), private musician to George I; pupil of Dr. Pepuscb; organist, All Hallows, Bread Street; arranged many popular airs for the harpsichord.
  427. ^ Edward Colborne Baber (1843–1890), Chinese scholar; educated at Christ's Hospital and Magdalene College, Cambridge; B.A., 1867; student interpreter at Peking, 1866; first-class assistant, 1872; vice-consul at Tamsuy, Formosa, 1872; Chinese secretary of legation at Peking, 1879; consul-general in Korea, 1885-6; political resident at Bham6. He made and described three journeys into the interior of China.
  428. ^ Henry Hervey Baber (1775–1869), philologist ; M.A. Oxford, 1805; keeper of printed books at British Museum, 1812-37; rector of Stretham, Cambridgeshire, 1827-69. Image at File:Henry Hervey Baber from NPG.jpg.
  429. ^ Sir John Baber (1625–1704), physician to Charles II; M.B. Christ's College, Oxford, 1646; M.D. Leyden, 1648, and Oxford, 1650; F.C.P., 1657; knight and physician to the king, 1660.
  430. ^ Anthony Babington (1561–1586), catholic conspirator; page to Mary Queen of Scots, c. 1679; came to London and made many friends of his own creed at court; assisted in forming a secret society for protection of Jesuits in England, 1580; travelled on continent, where he made acquaintance of Mary Stuart's emissaries; induced by Ballard, a catholic priest, to organise a catholic conspiracy to murder Elizabeth and release Mary, 1586; detected by Walsingham's spies, and after attempting to save himself by giving information, fled in disguise, and was finally captured and taken to theTower; executed with Ballard and other conspirators. Mary's complicity in this conspiracy brought about her own execution.
  431. ^ Benjamin Guy Babington (1794–1866), physician and linguist; midshipman, but left navy for Indian civil service; appointed to Madras presidency; returned from India owing to weak health; studied medicine at Guy's Hospital and Cambridge; M.D., 1830; F.O.P., 1831; physician at Guy's Hospital, 1840-58; F.R.S.; president Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, 1861; member of medical council of general board of health: published medical works, and works on and translations from German and oriental languages.
  432. ^ Brute Babington (d. 1610), bishop ; B.A. and fellow, Christ's College, Cambridge, 1576; incorporated at Oxford, 1578; prebendary of Lichfleld, 1592; bishop of Derry, 1610.
  433. ^ Charles Cardale Babington (1808–1896), botanist and archaeologist; educated at Charterhouse; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1830; M.A., 1833; fellow, 1882; on of the founders of Entomological Society, 1833: after many botanical excursions in British Isles he published a Manual of British Botany 1843; founder, and for fifty-five years secretary of the Ray Club; assisted in founding Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 1840; edited Annals and Magazine of Natural Historyfrom 1842; professor of botany at Cambridge, 1861; fellow of Linuean and Geological Societies; F.8.A., 1869; F.R.S., 1861; his works include Flora of Cambridgeshire 1860, and The British Rubi 1869.
  434. ^ Churchill Babington (1821–1889), archfeologist; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1843; elected fellow and ordained, 1846; M.A., 1846; B.D., 1863; D.D., 1879; honorary fellow, 1880; Disney professor of archaeology at Cambridge, 1866; rector of Cockfield, Suffolk, 1866; published works on numismatics, botany, and ornithology, and edited Orations of Hyperides 1850-3.
  435. ^ Francis Babington (d. 1569), divine; M.A. Cambridge, 1552; fellow, All Souls, Oxford, and proctor, 1557; master of Balliol, 1559; rector of Lincoln College, 1560; vice-chancellor, 1560-2; Lady Margaret reader in divinity, 1561; chaplain to Earl of Leicester; resigned rectorship of Lincoln, being suspected of clandestine Roman Catholicism, and fled the country, 1563.
  436. ^ Gervase Babington (1550?–1610), bishop; fellow, Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A. Oxford, 1678; prebendary of Hereford; treasurer of Llandaff, 1690; bishop of Llandaff, 1591, of Exeter, 1595, and of Worcester, 1597; queen's counsel for marches of Wales; summoned to Hampton Court conference, 1604; published several religious works.
  437. ^ Humfrey Babington (1616–1691), divine; D.D. (1669) and vice-master, Trinity College, Cambridge; rector of Boothby Painel, Lincolnshire.
  438. ^ John Babington (fl. 1635), author of a volume dealing with geometry and the use of fireworks for military purposes, published in 1635.
  439. ^ Sir William Babington (d. 1465), judge; king's attorney, 1414; serjeant-at-law, 1415, but neglected to appear to writ until compelled by parliamentary order, 1417; chief baron of exchequer, 1419; justice, 1420, and chief-justice, 1423, of common bench; retired, 1436.
  440. ^ William Babington (1756–1833), physician and mineralogist; apprenticed to practitioner in Londonderry, and subsequently studied at Guy's Hospital, London; assistant surgeon, Haslar Naval Hospital, 1777; apothecary, 1781, and physician, 1795-1811, to Guy's Hospital; M.D. Aberdeen, 1795; hon. M.D. Dublin, 1831; one of the founders and, in 1822, president of Geological Society; F.R.S.; published geological and chemical works,
  441. ^ Peter Babyon, Babyo, or Babion (fl.1317-1366), divine; renowned as writer of elegant verse and prose in Edward II's reign; wrote also religious works.
  442. ^ Francis Edward Bache (1833–1858), musician; son of Samuel Bache; played violin at Birmingham i festival, 1846 and 1847; organist of All Saints Church, Gordon Square, 1850; visited Leipzig, Paris, Algiers, and  ; Rome, 1853-7; composed numerous pianoforte pieces.
  443. ^ Samuel Bache (1804–1876), Unitarian minister; minister at Old Meeting, Dudley, 1829-32; joint-minister in Birmingham at New Meeting, 1832-62, and at Church of the Messiah, 1862-8; took part in establishing Hospital Sunday, 1859; published religious works.
  444. ^ Sarah Backe (1771?-1844), hymn- writer ; kept Islington school at Birmingham; author of the hymn See how he loved
  445. ^ George Henry Bachhoffner (1810–1879), one of the founders (1837) of London Polytechnic Institu; tion, where he lectured on scientific subjects,
  446. ^ Sir George Back (1796–1878), admiral and Arctic navigator; midshipman, 1808: captured by French at Deba, 1809; returned to England, 1814; served against 1 French on North American station; admiralty mate, 1817; accompanied Franklin on voyage of discovery to Spitsbergen seas, 1818, and in eoqMOlnou to Obpperminfl river, 1 Kin 22, and Mackenzie river, 1824-7; lieutenant, 1822; commander, 1827; It-d exploring expedition to Great Fish river, 1833 5; captain, and gold medallist, Geographical Society, 1836: commando I an expedition to complete coast-line between Regent's Inlet and Cape Turnagaiu, 183t; received in 1837 both medals of Geographical Society, of which he was subsequently vice-president and member of council; knighted, 1839; admiral, 1857; F.R.S.; published accounts of his voyages.
  447. ^ Edward Backhouse (1808–1879), quaker; wrote Early Church History published posthumously !
  448. ^ William Backhouse (1593–1662), Rosicrucian philosopher; educated at Christ Church, Oxford; adopted Elias Ashmole as his son; left in manuscript (Ashmol. MSS.) translations in verse and prose of French workon occult philosophy.
  449. ^ Edward Backwell (d. 1683), London goldsmith and banker at Unicorn, Lombard Street; probably chief; originator of system of banknotes; had financial dealings with Cromwell; alderman for Bishopsgate ward, 1657; sent to Paris to receive money for sale of Dunkirk to French, 1662; after treaty at Dover, 1670, was a frequent intermediary in money transactions between Charles II and Louis; sued by several creditors, a large sum being due to him from the exchequer, which Charles II had just closed, 1672; took refuge temporarily in Holland after judgment had been given against him; M.P. for Wendover, 1679 and 1680.
  450. ^ Lady Ann Bacon (1528–1610), mother of Francis Bacon; associated with her father, Sir Anthony Cooke, as governess when he was tutor to Edward VI; married Sir Nicholas Bacon c. 1557; won great repute for her learning; translated Bishop Jewel's Apologie for the Church of England 1564.
  451. ^ Anthony Bacon (1568–1601), diplomatist, elder son of Sir Nicholas and Ann Bacon; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1573-5; ancient of Gray's Inn, 1576; at Burghley's suggestion toured on continent in search of political intelligence, 1679-92; M.P. for Wallingford, 1593; entered service of Earl of Essex, 1593, and became his private under-secretary of state for foreign affairs in which capacity he was in communication with spies and ambassadors in all parts of Europe; lived with Essex at Essex House, by the Strand, 1695-1600; M.P. for Oxford, 1597; he was generous beyond his means, and frequently in embarrassed circumstances.
  452. ^ Edward Bacon (d. 1618), sheriff of Suffolk; third son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, ancient of Gray's Inn, 1576; M.P. successively for Yarmouth, Tavistock, Weymouth,and Suffolk; sheriff of Suffolk, 1601; knighted 1603.
  453. ^ Francis Bacon, first Baron Verulam and Viscount St Albans (1661–1626), lord chancellor; younger son of Sir Nicholas Bacon (1509-1579): educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1673-5; admitted to Gray's Inn, 1576; attached to embassy of Sir Amias Paulet to France, 1576-9; utter barrister, 1582; M.P., Melcombe Regis, 1584; wrote Letter of Advice to Queen Elizabeth urging strong measures against catholics, c. 1684; M.P., Taunton, and bencher of Gray's Inn, 1686; M.P., Liverpool, 1589; made acquaintance of Earl of Essex, who subsequently treated him with great generosity, c. 1591; M.P., Middlesex, 1693; queen's counsel, 1696: published Essays 1597; M.P., Southampton, 1697; appointed, among others, to investigate causes of Essex's revolt, and was largely responsible for the earl's conviction, 1601; nominated king's counsel and knighted by James I, 1603; one of the commissioners for arrangement of union with Scotland, and confirmed as king's counsel, 1604; published Advancement of Learning 1605; married Alice Barnham, 1606; solicitor-general, 1607; published De Sapientia Veterum 1609; supported James's claims in connection with the great contract by which the king was to receive a fixed income in exchange for that derived from feudal tenures and other sources, 1610; attorney-general, 1613; chief prosecutor at trial of Somerset, 1616: privy councillor, 1616; lord-keeper, 1617: wrote New Atlantis between 1614 and 1618; lord-chancellor and raided to peerage as Baron Verulam, 1618; took court side in prosecution of Raleigh (1618), of Suffolk (1610), and of Yelverton (1620); published Novum Organum 1620; made Viscount St. Albans, 1621; charged before House of Lords with bribery; confessed that he was guilty of 'corruption and neglect', deprived of great seal, fined, condemned to confinement during the king's pleasure, and disabled from sitting in parliament; remained in Tower only a few days, the fine being dbeeqaeatty Mdgned by the king to trustees for Bacon's own use; published Life of Henry VII 1622, De Augmentis Scientiarum (the Advancement of Learning completed and translated into Latin), 1623, and an enlarged edition of the Essays _._ of his death. 1625; engaged on Sylva Sylvarum at the time ith. Bacon's works may be divided into three classes, the philosophical (which form by far the greatest portion), the literary, and the professional works. The principal and best known of the philosophical works are: (1) the Advancement of Learning published in English in 1605; (2) the Novum Organum published in Latin in 1620, under the general title Francisci de Verulamio... Instauratio Magna with a second title (after the preface) 'Pars secunda operis, quae dicitur Novum Organum sive indicia vera de interpretatione natune; and (3) the De Angmentis published in Latin in 1623 with the title Opera F. Baconis de Verulamio... Tomus primus, qui i continet de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiaruin libros ix It was Bacon's ambition to create a new system of philosophy, based on a right interpretation of nature, to replace that of Aristotle; the Novum Organum describes the method by which the renovation of knowledge was to be achieved, and is thus the keystone to the whole system. The Advancement of Learning of which the 'De Augmentis' may be regarded as an enlarged edition, was included in the Great Instauration as a preliminary review of the present state of knowledge. Of Bacon's literary works, the most important are the Essays first published in 1597, and issued in final form, 1625; De Sapientia Veterum published in 1609; Apophthegms New and Old published in 1624; and the History of Henry the Seventh 1622. The largest and most important of his professional works are the treatises entitled Maxims of the Law and Reading on the Statute of Uses
  454. ^ Sir Francis Bacon (1587–1657), judge; studied at Barnard's Inn and Gray's Inn; called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1616; autumn reader, 1634; serjeant at law, 1640; knighted and appointed judge of king's bench, 1642; sole judge at trial of Lord Macguire, 1645; retired after Charles's execution.
  455. ^ Sir James Bacon (1798–1895), judge; called to the bar at Gray's Inn, 1827; member, 1833, and barrister, 1845, of Lincoln's Inn; bencher, 1846; treasurer, 1869; took silk, 1846; under-secretary and secretary of causes to master of rolls, 1859: commissioner in bankruptcy for London district, 1868; chief judge under Bankruptcy Act, 1869-83; vice-chancellor, 1870-86; knighted, 1871; privy councillor, 1886.
  456. ^ John Bacon (rf. 1321), judge ; attorney to Queen Eleanor, 1279; guardian of Ledes Castle, Kent, 1291; justice of common pleas, 1313; served on several legal commissions.
  457. ^ John Bacon (d. 1346). See Baconthorpe.
  458. ^ John Bacon , R.A. (1740–1799), sculptor: apprenticed as modeller in china factory, 1754-62; Inter in an artificial stone factory; student at Royal Academy, on its foundation, 1768, and received the first gold medal awarded for sculpture, 1769; gold medallist, Society of Arts, and A.R.A., 1770. Among his works may be mentioned the monuments to Pitt in Westminster Abbey and to Dr. : Johnson in St. Paul's Cathedral.
  459. ^ John Bacon (1738–1816), junior, and afterwards senior, clerk in first-fruits department of Queen Anne's Hotmty office; published improved edition of Ecton's icsaurus rerum ecclesiasticarum
  460. ^ John Bacon (1777–1859), sculptor; son of John Bacon, R.A.; gold medallist, Royal Academy, l? 9 l; executed monuments in Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's Cathedral.
  461. ^ Montagu Bacon (1688–1749), scholar and critic; fellow-commoner Trinity College, Cambridge, 1705; M.A. per literas regias, 1734; rector of Newbold Verdun, 1748; wrote Critical, Historical, and Explanatory Notes upon Hudibras; published 1762.
  462. ^ Nathaniel Bacon (d. 1622), sheriff of Norfolk; second son of Sir Nicholas Bacon; ancient of Gray's Inn, 1576; M.P. for Tavistock, Norfolk, and Lynn; sheriff of Norfolk, 1599; knighted, 1604.
  463. ^ Nathaniel Bacon (fl. 1640), painter; grandson of Sir Nicholas Bacon; M.A. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1628; studied painting in Italy; K.B., 1626.
  464. ^ Nathaniel Bacon (1593–1660), puritan ; half-brother of Francis Bacon and son of Sir Nicholas Bacon ; eutemi Gray's Inn, 1611; bencher; called to bar, 1617; JJ?. for Ksst-x; recorder of Ipswich, and perhaps of Bury St. (Miuiiiids; menilxjr of Suffolk committee for defence against royaliste; M.P. for Cambridge University, 1646, and for Ipswich, 1658 and 1660; master of requests during Richard Cromwell's protectorate. Published Historical Discovery of the Uniformity of the Government of England from Edward III to Elizabeth 1647 and 1651, and was possibly author of A Relation of the fearful Estato of Francis Spira 1638.
  465. ^ Nathaniel Bacon alias Southwell (1598-1676).
  466. ^ Nathaniel Bacon (1642?–1876), Virginian patriot; entered Gray's Inn, 1664; emigrated to Virginia and settled at Curies; member of governor's council; chosen general of colonist volunteers, but marched against Indians before receiving his commission and was declared rebel; arrested, but set at liberty; subsequently sat in assembly, which passed Bacon's Laws
  467. ^ Sir Nicholas Bacon (1509–1579), lord-keeper; entered Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1523; bible clerk; B.A., 1527; journeyed to Paris; called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1533; ancient 1536; bencher, 1550; treasurer, 1552; solicitor of court of augmentations, 1537; solicitor of Cambridge University; attorney of court of wards and liveries, 1546; high steward of St. Albans; lord-keeper of great seal, 1558; privy councillor and knight; received patent to exercise jurisdiction of lord chancellor; 1569; advocated stringent measures against Mary Stuart, though as president of conferences held in 1568 and 1570 to consider her relations with England and Scotland he was judicially impartial; opposed her marriage to Duke of Norfolk, 1569, and her proposed restoration, 1570; supported bill for expulsion of all French denizens from England, 1572; buried in St. Paul's Cathedral,
  468. ^ Nicholas Bacon (d. 1624), high sheriff of Suffolk ; eldest son of Sir Nicholas Bacon; ancient Gray's Inn, 1576; knighted, 1578; high sheriff of Suffolk, 1581; M.P., Suffolk, 1572-83; created premier baronet of England, 1611.
  469. ^ Phanuel Bacon (1700–1783), divine and dramaist; M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1722; B.D., 1731; D.D., 1735; vicar of Bramber, Sussex, and rector of Balden, Jrfordshire; wrote humorous verse, and five plays.
  470. ^ Philemon Bacon (d. 1666), naval captain 1 ; fought in actions with Dutch off Lowestoft and North Foreland, in the second of which he was killed.
  471. ^ Richard Mackenzie Bacon (1775–1844), musician and journalist; edited Norwich Mercury from 1816 till death; obtained with Bryan Donkin a patent for improvements in printing, 1813; proprietor and editor of 'Quarterly Musical Magazine 1818-28; published many I'ioLM-aphical, musical, and miscellaneous works,
  472. ^ Robert Bacon (d. 1248), first Dominican writer in England; brother or uncle of Roger Bacon; studied at )xton and Paris; perhaps treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral, 1233, being a member of the Dominican order and lecturer in its schools at Oxford; publicly rebuked Henry III for his fondness for foreign favourites, notably le Roches, 1233; wrote among other works a life of Edmond Rich.
  473. ^ Roger Bacon (1214?–1294), philosopher; studied at Oxford and Paris, where he probably graduated doctor; returned to England c. 1250; and probably remained at Oxford till c. 1257, when he incurred the suspicion of the Franciscan order, to which he belonged, and was sent underr superveilllance to Paris, where he remained in confinement ten years; produced at request of Pope Clement IV treatises on the sciences (grammar, logic, mathematics, physics, and modern philosophy) - Opus Majus and, perhaps, Opus Secundum and Opus Tertium; again in confinement for his heretical propositions, c. 1278-92; said to have died and to have been buried at Oxford; wrote also on chemistry and alchemy.
  474. ^ Thomas Bacon (fl. 1336), justice of common pleas; raised to king's bench, 1332.
  475. ^ Thomas Bacon alias Southwell (1592–1637), Jesuit.
  476. ^ Thomas Bacon (yf. 1796), sculptor; brother of John Bacon (1777-1859); exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1793, 1794, and 1796.
  477. ^ John Baconthorpe, Bacon, or Bacho (d. 1346), the Resolute Doctor; grandnephew of Roger Bacon; brought up at a Carmelite monastery near Walsingham; graduated at Paris; returned to Oxford, where, c. 1321, he preached the doctrine afterwards inculcated by Wycliffe, that priestly power was subordinate to the kingly; head of Carmelite order in England, 1329-33; went to Rome, 1333; returned to England, 1346; wrote commentaries on the bible, on Aristotle's works and treatises, and other subjects.
  478. ^ John Badby (d. 1410), lollard ; blacksmith or tailor in Worcestershire; condemned before Worcester diocesan court for denial of transubstautiation, and burned at Smithfield.
  479. ^ William Badby (d. 1380), Carmelite ; doctor of theology at Carmelite school, Oxford; confessor of John of Gaunt; appointed bishop of Worcester shortly before his death; wrote theological works.
  480. ^ John Badcock (fl. 1816–1830), sporting writer ; published, under pseudonyms Jon Bee and John Hindjs many works on pugilism and the turf, including a dictionary of slang; edited also Samuel Foote's works.
  481. ^ Samuel Badcock (1747–1788), theological and literary critic; trained for dissenting ministry; minister at South Molton, Devonshire, his native town, 1778-86; joined established church; curate of Broad Clyst, and ordained deacon and priest, 1787; contributed largely to literary magazines, particularly the Monthly Review
  482. ^ Robert Baddeley (1733–1794), comedian ; cook to Foote; valet to a gentleman on the grand tour; went on stage, and in 1763 joined Drury Lane company, winning reputation as exponent of foreign footmen; the original Moses in School for Scandal
  483. ^ Sophia Baddeley (1745–1786), actress and vocalist; n& Snow; wife of Robert Baddeley, who introduced her to the stage; played Ophelia at Drury Lane, 1765; a popular singer at Ranelagh and Vauxhall; played in Edinburgh, 1783-5.
  484. ^ Thomas Baddeley (fl. 1822), Roman catholic priest; author of a tract defending Roman catholic principles,
  485. ^ Edward Lowth Badeley (d. 1868), ecclesiastical lawyer; M.A. Brasenose College, Oxford, 1828; called to bar at Inner Temple, 1841; published several tracts dealing with legal proceedings in church matters,
  486. ^ Richard Badew (fl. 1320–1330), founder of. University Hail, Cambridge; chancellor of Cambridge, 1326.
  487. ^ George Percy Badger (1815–1888), Arabic scholar; printer; spent youth at Malta; travelled in Arabia; studied at Church Missionary Society's Institution, Islington; priest, 1842; sent as delegate to Eastern churches, 1842-44 and 1850; published Nestorians and their Rituals 1852; government chaplain on Bombay establishment, 1845; chief chaplain to force under Sir James Outram in Persian expedition, 1856-7; returned to England, 1861; secretary to Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere on mission to Zanzibar, 1872; created D.C.L. by archbishop of Canterbury, 1873. His works include an English-Arabic Lexicon 1881.
  488. ^ Charles Badham (1780–1845), medical and poetical vr. uluir-h, iWi'J: L.R.C.P. London. 1803: M.D., i.si7: F.:;.s..:i-ii r.l;.... 1818; censor of College of Physician-. 1821; physician to Duke of Sussex and to gom-nil dispensary; travelled exteusively in Kurope; professor of physic, Glasgow, 1827; wrote Harveian oration, delivered 1840; published medical works and a verse translation of.huvnul.
  489. ^ Charles Badham (1813–1884), classical scholar; son of Charles Badliam (1780-1846); educated at Eton and Wadham College, Oxford; M.A., 1839; studied in Germany and Italy; M.A. St. Peter's College, Cambridge; ordained priest, 1848; D.D., 1862; headmaster, Lonth grammar school, 1861, and of Edgbaston proprietary school, 1854; hon. Litt.D. Leydeu, 1860; examiner in classics, London University, 1863; professor of classics and logic, Sydney University, 1867; died at Sydney. He published editions with notes of Plato, and some plays of Euripides, also critical essays on Shakespeare,
  490. ^ Charles David Badham (1806–1867), naturalist; educated at Eton and Oxford; F.R.O.P.; successively held curacies in Norfolk and Suffolk; published works on natural history.
  491. ^ Richard Badiley (d. 1667), admiral: parliamentary captain and commander-in-chief in Downs and North Sea, 1649-61; in Mediterranean, 1662: engaged the Dutch off Elba with partial success, and again, in conjunction with Appleton, off Leghorn, with disastrous resuite; returned home, 1663, was acquitted of blame and made rear-admiral; served on the northern coast of Africa, 1664-5; vice-admiral of fleet in Downs, 1656.
  492. ^ Bjeda (673–735). See Bede.
  493. ^ William Baffin (d. 1622), navigator and discoverer; probably native of London; sailed in expedition to Greenland, 1612; entered service of Muscovy company, and was chief pilot in expeditions to protect Spitzbergen fisheries, 1613 and 1614; pilot in North- West passage expedition, 1615, and on his return gave it as his opinion that a passage existed up Davis Strait; made charts of waters north of Davis Strait on a subsequent voyage, 1616, and declared that there was no North-West passage in that direction; joined service of East India Company, 1617; master's mate in Red Sea and Persian Gulf, 16171619; master in Persian Gulf, 1620, where he was in an engagement with Dutch and Portuguese; killed at siege of Kishm in an expedition, arranged by the Persian government, to expel Portuguese from Ormuz; wrote accounts of most of his voyages.
  494. ^ Thomas Bagard or Baggard (d. 1544), civilian; canon of his college (afterwards Christ Church), Oxford, 1525; admitted to College of Advocates, London, 1528; chancellor of diocese of Worcester, 1532; canon of Worcester, 1541.
  495. ^ Robert Bage (1728–1801) novelist: educated at Derby, and attained proficiency in Latin: trained as paper-maker; founded paper manufactory at Elford, which he carried on till his death; continued his education and gained considerable knowledge of modern languages; he published six novels between 1781 and 1796, several of which were translated into German.
  496. ^ Walter Bagehot (1826–1877), economist and journalist; educated at Bristol and at University College, London, under Professors Long and De Morgan; B.A. (London) with mathematical scholarship, 1846; M.A. and gold medallist in intellectual and moral philosophy and political economy, 1848; called to the bar, 1852; spent some months in Paris; entered his father's shipowniuLr and banking business, 1862; contributed essays to Prospective Review and, after 1856, to National Review of which he was an editor; editor ofEconomist 1860, till death; publishedThe English ConstitutionPhysics and Politics and works on economical questions.
  497. ^ John Bagford (1660–1716), shoemaker in London and professional collector of book?: formal col: broadsides known as the Bagford Ballads and brought together a number of title-pages and engravings, to obtain which he mutilated many rare volumes.
  498. ^ Sir Richard Baggallay (1816-1888), judge; M.A. lionvillc and Caius College, Cambridge, 1848; Frankland fellow, 1845-7; honorary fellow, 1880: called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1843; bencher, 1861; treasurer. 1875; took silk, 1861; counsel to Cambridge University, 1869; M.P. for Hereford, 1866-8, and for Mid-Surn-V, 1870-75; solicitor-general, 1868 and 1874; knighted, 1868: attorney-general, 1874; justice (afterwards lord- justice) of appeal, and privy councillor, 1875; retired from bench, 1885.
  499. ^ Humphrey Baggerley (fl. 1654), royalist captain in service of James, seventh earl of Derby, of whose final hours he wrote a narrative.
  500. ^ Charles Michael Baggs (1806–1845), catholic bishop and antiquary; educated at Sedgeley Park, at St. Edmund's College, Hertfordshire, and at the English college, Rome; remained at Rome, 1824-44; won many academic honours; D.D. and ordained, 1830; teacher at Knlish college; rector, 1840;cameriere d'onoreand later, monsignore to Pope Gregory XVI; bishop of Pella, 1844; vicar-apostolic of western district in England, where he arrived 1844; acquired great reputation as a controversialist at Rome; published works on ecclesiastical archwology, and dissertations on points of religious controversy,
  501. ^ Sir Henry Bagnal (1556?–1598), marshal of army in Ireland, son of Sir Nicholas Bagnal; educated at Jesus College, Oxford; knighted 1578: held command under Arthur Grey, baron Grey de Wilton, 1580; member for Anglesey in English parliament, 1586; marshal of the army in Ireland, and privy councillor, 1590; chief commissioner for government of Ulster, 1591; quarrelled with Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, who had married Bagnal's sister Mabel against his wish; slain in action with Tyrone's men on Blackwater.
  502. ^ Sir Nicholas Bagnal (1510?–1590?), marshal of army in Ireland; gentleman pensioner of Henry VIII; served in Ireland, 1539-44, and hi France, 1644; marshal of army in Ireland, 1547-53; with lord-deputy, Sir Edward Bellingham, defeated Irish, 1548; knighted, 1651; M.P. for Stoke-ou-Treut, 1559; reappointed marshal, 1565, with Sir Henry Sidney, as deputy; chief commissioner for government of Ulster, 1584; member for co. Down in Irish parliament, 1585; resigned office of marshal to his sou, 1590.
  503. ^ Gibbons Bagnall (1719–1800), poetical writer, graduate of Oxford and Cambridge; vicar of Holm Lacy, Herefordshire; prebendary of Hereford, 1760; rector of Upton Bishop; vicar of Sellack, 1783; published poetical writings.
  504. ^ Sir Charles Bagot (1781–1843), governor-general of Canada; brother of William Bagot, second baron Bagot; educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1804; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1801; M.P. for Castle Riding, 1807; parliamentary undersecretary for foreign affairs, 1807; minister plenipotentiary to France, 1814, and to United States, 1815-20; privy councillor, 1820; ambassador to St. Petersburg, 1820, and to the Hague, 1824; governor-general of Canada; inaugurated representative government, for which he was censured by Lord Stanley; requested recall,  ?? 2?U? "ada 800U after arrival of his successor, Sir Theophilus (afterwards baron) Metcalfe.
  505. ^ Lewis Bagot (1740–1802), bishop; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1764; canon of Christ Church, 1771; held livings in Sussex; D.C.L. 1772; bishop of Bristol, 1782; translated to Norwich, 1783, and to St. Asaph, 1790.
  506. ^ Richard Bagot (1782–1864), bishop; educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1806; D.D., 1829 fellow of All Souls; rector of Leigh, Staffordshire, 1806, and of Bathfield, 1807; canon of Windsor, 1807, and of Worcester, 1817; dean of Canterbury, 1827-45; bishop of Oxford, 1829-45, during which period he reluctantly played part in the Oxford movement; bishop of Bath and Wells, 1846; published charges.
  507. ^ sir William Bagot (fl. 1397), minister of Richard II; one the "souuerains conseillers" left in tbe kingdom on Richard's departure for Ireland, 1399; committed to Tower after Richard's resignation.
  508. ^ William Bagot, second Baron Bagot (1773-1856), educated at Westminster and Magdalen College; D.C.L., 1834; fellow of Society of Antiquaries and of Linnaean, Horticultural, and Zoological societies.
  509. ^ Christopher Bagshaw (d. 1625?), priest; B.A. and probationer fellow, Balliol College, Oxford, M.A., 1575; principal, Gloucester Hall, 1579; went to France, 1582; converted to Romanism and made priest; D.D. Paris; came to England to make converts; imprisoned in Tower, 1587; after liberation resided abroad; published controversial works.
  510. ^ Edward Bagshaw, the elder (d. 1662), royalist; B.A. Brasenose College, Oxford, 1608; entered Middle Temple; as Lent reader, 1639, delivered lectures in favour of puritan principles; M.P., Southwark, 1640: joined the king when he retired to Oxford; imprisoned at Southwark by parliamentarians, 1644-6; published works dealing with political and religious questions.
  511. ^ Edward Bagshaw , the younger (1629–1671), divine; son of Edward Bagshaw (d. 1662); educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A. and Senior of the Act, 1661; M.A. Cambridge, 1654; appointed second master at Westminster, 1656; ordained 1659; vicar of Ambrosden, Oxford; ejected for nonconformity, 1662; chaplain to Earl of Anglesey; imprisoned for sedition, 1663-5, and again, later, for refusing to take oath of supremacy and allegiance; a prisoner on parole when he died; published controversial and other religious works.
  512. ^ Henry Bagshaw (1632–1709), divine; brother of Edward Bagshaw (1629-1671); educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1657; D.D., 1671; chaplain to Sir Richard Fanshaw, 1663, to archbishop of York, 1666, and to Lord-chancellor Danby, 1672; successively prebendary of York and Durham; published sermons.
  513. ^ William Bagshaw (1628–1702), divine; known as the Apostle of the Peak; born at Litton; educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; assistant minister and private chaplain at Sheffield; held living of Glossop: ejected for nonconformity, 1662; continued to preach and lecture, in spite of the issue of several warrants against him, till hia death; published religious works.
  514. ^ Samuel Bagster , the younger (1800–1835), printer and author; son of Samuel Bagster, the elder ; entered his father's business, 1815, and started printing business for himself, 1824; subsequently produced many learned publications, including some of the polyglot bibles issued by Bagster & Sons; wrote 'Treasury of Scripture Knowledge and a book on management of bees.
  515. ^ Samuel Bagster , the elder (1772–1851), founder of publishing firm of Bagster & Sons; bookseller in Strand, 1794-1816, and in Paternoster Row after 1816. His principal productions were polyglot editions of the bible (including the Biblia Sacra Polyglotta Bagsteriana 1817-28), an octoglot edition of the church of England liturgy, 1821, The English Hexapla giving the six most important versions in English of the New Testament, and an extensively annotated Comprehensive Bible edited by William Greenfield, 1827.
  516. ^ William Bagwell (fl. 1655), a London merchant who, owing to losses in trade, was almost constantly in prison for debt, 1634-50, during which time he wrote an elaborate astronomical treatise, published in simplified form as the Mystery of Astronomy made Plain 1655; published also two poems.
  517. ^ William Balfour Baikie (1825–1864), naturalist and philologist; M.D. Edinburgh; entered navy: assistant surgeon; served in Mediterranean and at Haslar Hospital, 1851-4; surgeon and naturalist to Niger expedition, 1854, and again in 1867, when, being left by the other explorers, he collected and governed a native :. ment at Lukoja; published works relating to natural history of Orkney and to the Hausa and Fulfulde languages.
  518. ^ James Bailey (d. 1864), classical scholar; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1823; Browne medallist for Greek ode and epigrams; members prizeman, 1816 and 1816; master of Perse grammar school, Cambridge; received pension from the queen, 1850; published classical works.
  519. ^ John Bailey or Baily (1643–1697), protestant dissenting minister; began to preach in his twenty-second year; ordained, 1670; imprisoned in Lancaster for nonconformity, and on being released went to Ireland, where he was again imprisoned; liberated on condition of leaving the country; emigrated to New England, 1683; minister in Boston, 1684, Watertown, 1686, and again in Boston, 1693.
  520. ^ John Bailey (1760–1819), agriculturist and engraver; tutor, land surveyor, and subsequently land agent to Lord Tankerville at Chillingham. Having cultivated a taste for engraving, he executed several topographical plates for Hutchinson's works on Cumberland, Durham, and Northumberland.
  521. ^ John Eglington Bailey (1840–1888), antiquary; in the firm of Ralli Brothers, Manchester, till 1886; admitted to Society of Antiquaries, 1874; honorary secretary of Chetham Society, Manchester. He contributed to the Dictionary of National Biography and published antiquarian and other writings.
  522. ^ Nathan Bailey or NATHANIEL (d. 1742), lexicographer; kept a boarding-school at Stepney; published an etymological English dictionary, 1721, and other philological works.
  523. ^ Samuel Bailey (1791–1870), philosophical writer ; entered office of his father, a master cutler of Sheffield, but gradually turned his attention to literary and political pursuits; elected a town trustee, 1828; stood unsuccessfully as candidate for Sheffield in parliamentary elections, 1832 and 1834; several times president of Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society; chairman of Sheffield Banking Company, which he helped to found, 1831; published many works on political economy and philosophy, including Letters on the Philosophy of the Human Mind 1856-63.
  524. ^ Thomas Bailey (1785–1856), miscellaneous writer; silk hosier at Nottingham; member of town council, 1836-43; proprietor and editor of Nottingham Mercury 1845-52; published works relating to topography of Nottinghamshire, besides political and poetical writings.
  525. ^ Baillie or BAILLY, CHARLES (1542–1625), member of Queen Mary's household; probably a Fleming, though by descent a Scot; arrested at Dover with letters relating to a proposed rising in Mary's behalf, 1571; imprisoned in Marshalsea and afterwards in Tower; released probably in 1573; died in Belgium.
  526. ^ Charles Baillie , Lord Jerviswoode (1804-1879), lord justiciary; admitted advocate at Scottish bar, 1830; advocate depute, 1844-6 and 1852; sheriff of Stirlingshire, 1853-8; lord-advocate for Scotland, 1868; M.P., Linlithgow, 1859; raised to rank and precedence of earl's son, 1859; judge of court of session, 1859; lord of justiciary, 1862; retired, 1874.
  527. ^ Cuthbert Baillie (d. 1514), lord high treasurer of Scotland; successively incumbent of Thankerton, commendator of Glenluce, prebendary of Cumnock and Sanquhar, aud (1512) lord high treasurer of Scotland
  528. ^ Lady Grizel Baillie (1665–1746), poetess ; distinguished herself in childhood by heroic services to her father, Sir Patrick Hume, and his friend the patriot Robert Baillie; lived with her father in retirement at Utrecht, and returned to Scotland at Restoration: left poems in manuscript.
  529. ^ Joanna Baillie (1762–1851), Scottish dramatist and poetess; educated at G'asgow; published Fugitive Verses 1790; issued first volume ofPlays on the Passions 1798, second volume, 1802, third, 1812; of these 'De Montfortwas produced by Kemble and Mrs. Siddons at Drnry Lane, 1800; the series was completed by three dramas contained in Miscellaneous Plays 1836: her most successful play, The Family Legend was produced, at Dniry Lane, 1810. In addition to her plays she published several poeme, songs, and dramatic ballads.
  530. ^ John Balllle (1741–1806), divine; united secessionist minister in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1767-83, where his irregular habits brought about a secession from his congregation; assistant schoolmaster and subsequently lecturer in Newcastle; published historical and religious works.
  531. ^ John Baillie (1772–1833), colonel ; entered service of Bast India Company, 1790; director, 1823; ensign in India, 1793: lieutenant, 1794; professor of Arabic and Persian aud of Mohammedan law, Fort William College, 1801-7; captain aud political agent during Mahratta war; resident at Lucknow, 1807-15; retired and returned to England; M.P., Hedon, 1820-30, Inverness, 1830-2; published text of The Five Books upon Arabic Grammar 1801.
  532. ^ Marianne Baillie (1795?–1830), traveller and verse-writer, nie Wather; published impressions of a continental tour made in 1818, and of a visit to Portugal, 1821-3, as well as several poetical pieces.
  533. ^ Matthew Baillie (1761–1823), morbid anatomist; brother of Marianne Baillie; entered Balliol College, Oxford, and during vacation studied medicine in London under Dr. William Hunter; M.B., 1787; physician to St. George's Hospital, 1787-99; M.D. and F.C.P., 1789; F.R.S.; published Morbid Anatomy of some of the most important Parts of the Human Body (thoracic and abdominal organs and the brain), 1795; physician extraordinary to George III. He is commemorated in Westminster Abbey by a bust and inscription.
  534. ^ Robert Baillie (1599–1662), presbyterian divine; M.A. Glasgow; received episcopal ordination; regent of philosophy, Glasgow University: presented to presbyterian parish of Kilwinning, Ayrshire; member of general assembly at Glasgow, 1638; chaplain to Lord Eglinton's regiment, 1639; sent by covenanting lords to London to draw up accusations against Laud, 1640; with covenanters army at Duuse Law, 1639, and in 1640: professor of divinity, Glasgow, 1642; waited on Charles II at the Hague on his being proclaimed in Scotland, 1649: D.D.; principal, Glasgow University, 1660; published controversial and other theological works.
  535. ^ Robert Baillie (d. 1684), patriot; an object of suspicion to the ruling episcopal party in Scotland, and imprisoned and fined, 1676; came to London and associated with Sydney, Russell, and Monmouth to obtain, if possible, mitigation of government measures; arrested, though innocent, for alleged complicity in Rye House plot; imprisoned, and ultimately hanged in Edinburgh.
  536. ^ Thomas Baillie (. 1802), navy captain ; lieutenant, 1745; served at Minorca, 1756; commander with post rank, 1757; engaged on convoy service, 1757-60; appointed to Greenwich Hospital, 1761; lieutenant-governor, 1774; having published charges against the internal government of the hospital, was deprived of his office and brought to trial for libel, 1778; defended by Erskine, afterwards lord chancellor, and acquitted; remained unemployed till 1782, when be was made clerk of deliveries,
  537. ^ William Baillie , LORD PROVAND (d. 1593), Scottish judge of court of session; president of the court, 1556-7, and 1568-93.
  538. ^ William Baillie (. 1648), Scottish general; went to Sweden in early life, and served under Gustavus Adolphus as colonel of regiment of Dutch foot, 1632; returned to Scotland, 1638; served with covenanters; under Leslie at Dunse Law, 1639, and at Marston Moor, 1644; commanded force against Montrose, and was worsted at Alford and Kilsyth, 1645; lieutenant-general of foot under Duke of Hamilton at Preston, 1648.
  539. ^ William Baillie (d. 1782), lieutenant-colonel under East India Company; entered East India Company's army, 1759, as lieutenant in infantry at Madras; brevet-captain, 1763; substantive captain, 1 764; major, 1772; lieutenant-colonel, 1775; commanded at Pondicherry during destruction of French works, 1779; while attempting to join forces with Munro, was defeated by Hy.U-r All and taken pri.-om-r, 1780; died in captivity at H dlT .Svriugapatam.
  540. ^ William Baillie (1723–1810), amateur engraver and etcher: educated at Dublin; entered Middle Temple, but received commission in army and fought at Culloden and Miudi-n: retired with captain's rank, 1761; commissioner of stamps 177:1 !)5; etched many plates, chiefly after Dutch and Flemish masters, which he published himself.
  541. ^ William Baillie , Lord Polkemmet (d. 1816), Scottish judge, 1793-1811; advocate, 1758.
  542. ^ Alexander D. W. R. C. Baillie-Cochrane, first BARON LAMINGTON (1816-1890). See COCHRANE-BAILLIE.
  543. ^ Charles Baily (1815–1878), architect ; for some years principal assistant to the city architect, London; F.S.A., 1844; contributed to publications of Surrey Archaeological Society.
  544. ^ Edward Hodges Baily (1788–1867), sculptor ; entered merchant's office at Bristol; forsook commerce and became pupil of Flaxman, 1807; A.R.A., 1817; R.A., 1821; executed the statue ofEve at the Fountainfor British Literary Institution, 1818, and many other celebrated portrait statues and groups.
  545. ^ Francis Baily (1774–1844), astronomer; apprenticed in a London mercantile house, 1788-95; travelled in America. 1795-8; entered into partnership with a London stockbroker, 1799; published successful works on annuities and assurances, 1808 and 1810; turned his attention to astronomy, and, 1820, was one of the founders of the Astronomical Society, of which he was four times president; retired from business, 1825; greatly advanced astronomy by his revision of star catalogues, including those of Flamsteed, Lalande, and Lacaille, his simplified tables for reduction of aberration, nutation, fec, and his reform of the Nautical Almanac ; received the Astronomical Society's gold medal, 1843, for a successful repetition of Cavendish's experiment for measuring the earth's density; hon. D.C.L. Dublin, 1835, and Oxford, 1844; permanent trustee of British Association, 1839; vice-president Geographical Society, 1830; long vice-president and treasurer of the Royal Society,
  546. ^ John Walker Baily (1809–1873), archaeologist, brother of Charles Baily; master of Ironmongers Company, 1862-3; formed collection of Romano-British and mediaeval remains excavated in city of London.
  547. ^ Thomas Baily (d. 1591), catholic divine; fellow and M.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1549; master, c. 1557; on Elizabeth's accession removed to Louvain and thence to Douay, where, and at Rheims, he was employed in government of the English College; D.D. Louvain.
  548. ^ Alexander Bain (1810–1877), telegraphic inventor; apprenticed as clockmaker at Wick; came as journeyman to London, 1837; applied electricity to working of clocks; invented electric fire-alarms, and, in 1843, the automatic chemical telegraph.
  549. ^ Christopher Bainbridge (1464?-1514), archbishop of York, and cardinal; provost of Queen's College, Oxford, in 1495; prebendary of Salisbury and, later, of Lincoln, till 1500; treasurer of St. Paul's, 1497; archdeacon of Surrey, 1501; prebendary and dean of York, 1503; dean of Windsor, 1605; master of rolls, 1504-7; bishop of Durham, 1507; archbishop of York, 1508; ambassador from Henry VIII to pope, 1509; cardinal, 1611; LUD.
  550. ^ John Bainbridge (1582–1643), physician and astronomer; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1607; M.D., 1614; L.C.P., 1618; first Savilian professor, Oxford, 1619; M.D., Oxford, 1620; junior (1631) and senior (1635) reader of Linacre's lecture. He published astronomical works and left many mathematical collections in manuscript,
  551. ^ Reginald Bainbrigg (1489?–1555?), probably uncle of Reginald Bainbrigg (1546-1606); M.A. Cambridge, 1509; B.D., 1526; proctor of university, 1517; master of Catherine Hall, c. 1527; prebendary of Wells, 1637.
  552. ^ Reginald Bainbrigg or Baynbridge (1645 600), antiquary; B.A. Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1577; headmaster of Appleby Grammar School, 1574-1606. Collected stones hearing ancient inscriptions in Xorthmnberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, while several papr- relating to these counties in the Cottonian MSS. are attributed to him.
  553. ^ Thomas Bainbrigg (rf. 1646), master of Christ's College, Cambridge; master, 1620: vice-chancellor of the university, 1627; perhaps authorised Milton's I rustication or expulsion from his college.
  554. ^ Thomas Bainbrigg, Bambidge, or Bembridge (1636-1703), protestant controversialist; M.A. Cambridge, 1661; proctor, 1678: D.D., 1684; fellow and j vice-master of Trinity College; M.A. Oxford, 1669: vicar of Chesterton; rector of Orwell; published protestant ! controversial pamphlets.
  555. ^ Sir Philip Bainbrigge (1786–1862), lieutenantgeneral; entered navy as midshipman, but in 1800 received an ensigncy in 20th regiment; lieutenant, 1800; studied at Deptford; gazetted to company in 18th royal Iri-Ii in West Indies, 1805; inspector of fortifications, Curaeoa, 1807; entered Royal Military College, High Wycombe, 1809; deputy assistant quartermaster -general in Portugal, 1811; rendered important services at several engagements in Peninsular war; major: served in France, 1815: brevet lieutenant-colonel, 1817; O.B., 1888; deputy quartermaster-general, Dublin, 1841; major-general, and commander of Belfast district, 1846; commander of forces In Ceylon, 1852-4; lieutenant-general, and K.O.B., 1854.
  556. ^ James Baine (1710–1790), Scottish divine ; M.A. Glasgow; successively minister at Killearn and Paisley; resigned living of Paisley; being an ardent supporter of evangelical doctrine, joined Gillespie, founder of the Relief church, and became minister of the first Relief congregation in Edinburgh, 1766; published a history of modern church reformation.
  557. ^ Edward Baines (1774–1848), journalist ; apprenticed as printer in Preston, Lancashire, and in Leeds; j started as printer on his own account; became proprietor ofLeeds Mercury 1801, and entered largely into the whig agitations of the day; M.P. for Leeds, 1834-41; published works relating to history of George Ill's r and topography of Yorkshire and Lancashire, ii. 4
  558. ^ Sir Edward Baines (1800–1890), journalist and economist; son of Edward Baines; educated at the New College, Manchester; entered office of Leeds Mercury, 1 1815, and was editor, 1818; studied sociology and economics, and advocated repeal of corn laws; supported catholic emancipation, 1829; published History of Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain 1835; advocated public education independent of state; served on schools inquiry commission, 1865; M.P. for Leeds, 1859-74; chairman of Yorkshire College, Leeds, 1880-7; knighted, 1880; published writings on political and social subjects.
  559. ^ Francis Baines (1648–1710).
  560. ^ John Baines (1787–1838), mathematician; contributed largely to LadiesDiary Gentleman's Diary 4 York Miscellany and similar periodicals.
  561. ^ Matthew Talbot Baines (1799–1860), politician; son of Edward Baines; graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge; called to bar, 1825; Q.O., 1841; M.P. for Hull, 1847, and Leeds, 1852; president of poorlaw board, 1849; chancellor of duchy of Lancaster, 1855.
  562. ^ Paul Baines (d. 1617). See Baynes.
  563. ^ Peter Augustine Baines (1786–1843), Roman catholic bishop; studied for the church at the English Benedictine abbey of Lambspring, Hanover, which was seized by the Prussians in 1803, when the students came to England, and inaugurated the Benedictine College of St. Lawrence, Ampleforth: entered Benedictine order, 1804; ordained subdeacon, 1807, and priest, 1810; teacher at Ampleforth till 1817, when he undertook charge of mission at Bath; appointed coadjutor-bishop to Bishop Collingridge, and, later, bishop of Siga, 1823; toured for his health on the continent; preached frequently in Rome, 1827-9; returned to England, and succeeded Bishop Collingridge as vicar-apostolic of western district, 1829; purchased Prior Park, where he founded ecclesiastical and lay colleges; author of numerous controversial writings, sermons, lectures, and pastoral charges.
  564. ^ Roger Baines (154–1623).
  565. ^ Sir Thomas Baines (1622–1680), physician; friend of Sir John Finch, M.D.; M.A. Chrises College, Cambridge, 1649; M.D. Padua and Cambridge: Greaham professor of music; knighted, 1672; accompanied Finch on embassies to Florence, Tuscany, and Constantinople, where he died.
  566. ^ Thomas Baines (1822–1875), artist and explorer ; artist with British army in Kafir war, 1848-51; accompanied exploring expeditions to North-west Australia, Zambesi (under Livingstone), Victoria Falls, the Tati goldfields, and the Kafir country.
  567. ^ Thomas Baines (1806–1881), journalist; son of Edward Baines; editor of Liverpool Times 1829; published histories of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Yorkshire,
  568. ^ James Bainham (d. 1532), martyr ; member of Middle Temple; practised as lawyer; accused of protestant heresy, 1531: imprisoned and tortured in Tower; recanted, but withdrew recantation, and was burned at Smithfield.
  569. ^ John de Baiocis (rf. 1249). See Bayeux.
  570. ^ Sir David Baird (1757–1829), general: ensign, 1772; served at Gibraltar, 1778-6: lieutenant, 1778; captain of 73rd (afterwards 71st) Highland light infantry in India, under Monro, 1780; joined Colonel Baillie's force, and, after its defeat by Hyder Ali, was captured; released, 1784; major, 1787; in England, 1789-91; commanded sepoy brigade against Tippoo; took Poudicherry, 1793; colonel, 1795; at the Cape, 1795-8; major-general in second war against Tippoo, 1798; stormed Seringapat am, 1799; commanded Indian force in Egypt against French, 1801-2; returned to India, and received command of northern division of Madras army, 1802: resigned, and returned to England; knighted; lieutenant-general in expedition to recapture Cape of Good Hope, 1805; commanded first division in expedition invading Denmark, 1807; second in command under Moore in Spain, 1808; wounded at Ooruna; K.B., 1809; created baronet, 1810; general, 1814; governor of Kinsale, 1819, and of Fort George, 1829; commander of Irish forces and privy councillor, 1820.
  571. ^ George Husband Baird (1761–1840), principal of Edinburgh University; educated at Edinburgh; private tutor, 1784; licensed as presbyterian preacher, 1 786; presented to parish of Dunkeld, 1787, and to New Greyfriars church, Edinburgh, 1792; professor of oriental languages, Edinburgh; principal of Edinburgh University, 1793; translated to North parish church, 1799, and to the high parish church, 1801; did much for education of poor in Scottish highlands and islands.
  572. ^ James Baird (1802–1876), ironmaster; with his father and brothers leased coalfields of Sunnyside, Hollandhirst, and New Gartsherrie, 1826, and the ironstone in lands of Cairnhill, 1828; assumed, 1830, active management of the business, which was subsequently enlarged and included coalmines and ironworks in Ayr, Stirling, Dumbarton, and Cumberland; M.P. for Falkirk burghs, 1861-7; deputy-lieutenant for counties of Ayr and Inverness. He was a liberal benefactor to the church of Scotland.
  573. ^ Sir John Baird (1620–1698), Scottish judge ; admitted advocate, 1647; knighted, 1651; lord of session, with title of Lord Newbyth, 1664-81, and 1689 till death; M.P. for Aberdeenshire in Scottish parliamente, 1665 and 1667; commissioner for negotiation of treaty of union, 1670.
  574. ^ John Baird (d. 1804), Irish divine ; presbyterian minister in Dublin, 1767-77; D.D.: conformed, and was rector of Cloghran, near Dublin, 1782; published Dissertation on the Old Testament 177f.
  575. ^ John Baird (1799–1861), Scottish divine: successively minister of Legertwood, Eccles, and Swintou, Berwickshire: founded Plinian Society, Edinburgh, 123; evangelical preacher in Ireland, 1826; minister of Yetholm, Roxburghshire, 1829-61; worked extensively for education of Scottish gipsiea.
  576. ^ William Baird (.103-1872), Scottish physician : prai-tUi-d in London: employed in zoological department of British Muslim, 1841-72: published Natural History of British Entomostraca 1850, and Cyclopaedia of Natural Sciences 1868.