Wikipedia:WikiProject Missing encyclopedic articles/DNB Epitome 19

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This listing page belongs to Wikipedia:WikiProject Dictionary of National Biography, spun out of the “missing article” project, and is concerned with checking whether Wikipedia has articles for all those listed in the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), a 63-volume British biographical dictionary published 1885-1900 and now in the public domain. This page relates to volume 19 running from name Finch to name Forman.

Scope of the subproject

It is envisaged that the following work will be done:

  • Checks made that links on this page point to a wikipedia article about the same person;
  • Addition of new articles for all red-links based on DNB text;
  • Checking whether blue-linked articles would benefit from additional text from DNB.

Listings are posted as bulleted lists, with footnotes taken from the DNB summaries published in 1904. The listings and notes are taken from scanned text that is often corrupt and in need of correction. Not all the entries on the list correspond to actual DNB articles; some are “redirects” and there are a few articles devoted to families rather than individuals.

If you are engaged in this work you will probably find quite a number of unreferenced articles among the blue links. You are also encouraged to mention the DNB as a reference on such articles whenever they correspond to the summary, as part of the broader campaign for good sourcing. A suggested template is {{DNB}}.

Locating the full text

DNB text is now available on Wikisource for all first edition articles, on the page s:Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Vol 19 Finch - Forman. Names here are not inverted, as they are in the original: Joe Bloggs would be found at Wikisource s:Bloggs, Joe (DNB00). The text for the first supplement is available too: NB that this Epitome listing includes those supplement articles also.

List maintenance and protocols

List maintenance tasks are to check and manipulate links in the list with piping or descriptive parenthetical disambiguators, and to mark list entries with templates to denote their status; whilst as far as possible retaining the original DNB names:

  • piping: [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot, 1st Baron Colchester|Charles Abbot]]
  • descriptive parenthetical disambiguators [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)]]
  • both combined [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)|Charles Abbot]]

The work involves:

  • Checking that bluelinks link to the correct person; if so, {{tick}} them. If not, try to find the correct article and pipe or disambiguate the link.
  • Check whether redlinks can be linked to an article by piping or disambiguation.
  • Create articles based on the DNB text for redlinks for which no wikipedia article can be found
  • Check whether existing blue-linked articles could benefit from an input of DNB text (e.g. the article is a stub), and if so, update the article from DNB

A number of templates are provided to mark-up entries:

  • {{mnl}} the link runs to a wrong person; - produces the text: [link currently leads to a wrong person]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{dn}} the link runs to a dab page - produces the text [disambiguation needed]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{tick}} the link has been checked and runs to the correct person - YesY
  • {{tick}} {{tick}} the text of the linked article has been checked against DNB text and would not benefit from additional DNB text - YesY YesY
  • {{tick}} {{cross}} the text of the linked article looks short enough to suggest it would benefit from additional DNB text - YesY N

Note that before creating new articles based on DNB text you should undertake searches to check that the article's subject does not already have an article. It is easily possible that the disambiguation used in this page is not the disambiguation used in an existing wikipedia article. Equally, feel free to improve upon the disambiguation used in redlinks on this page by amending them.

Supplement articles

Because of the provenance of the listing, a number of the original articles will not in fact be in the announced volume, but in one of the three supplement volumes published in 1901. Since the DNB did not include articles about living people, this will be the case whenever the date of death is after the publication date of the attributed volume. In due course there will be a separate listing.

General thoughts

This project is intended as a new generation in “merging encyclopedias”, as well as being one of the most ambitious attempted. For general ideas of where we are, and some justification of the approach being taken, see the essay Wikipedia:Merging encyclopedias.







  1. ^ Anne Finch (d. 1679). See Anne Conway.
  2. ^ Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea (d. 1720), poetess; wife of Heneage Finch, fourth earl, son of Heneage Finch, second earl: maid of honour to the second wife of James, duke of York, and friend of Pope and Rowe, who complimented her in verse as Ardelia and Flavia. Her poem on Spleen appeared in 1701 In Gildon's Miscellany and her Miscellany Poems, written by a Lady in 1713.
  3. ^ Daniel Finch, second Earl of Nottingham and sixth of Winchilsea (1647-1730), statesman; eldest son of Heneage Finch, first earl of Nottingham; , privy councillor, 1680; first lord of the admiralty, 1681-4; 1 after the flight of James II proposed a regency and opposed the motion declaring the throne vacant; obtained I modification of oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and accepted the revolution; secretary-at-war, 1688-93; carried the Toleration Act; failed to get his Comprehension Bill passed; reluctantly dismissed by William III, 1693; remained out of office till the king's death; again secretary of state, 1702-4; resigned when the whigs became predominant; throughout the reign of Anne was active as the head of the high church tories, and (1711) carried an act forbidding the occasional conformity of dissenters; opposed preliminaries of peace with France, 1711; named president of council by George I in 1714, but dismissed in 1716 for advocating leniency to the Jacobite peers.
  4. ^ Edward Finch (fl. 1630–1641), royalist divine; probably younger son of Sir Henry Finch; dispossessed of the vicarage of Clirist Church, Newgate, by the parliamentary committee, 1641; published An i Answer to the Articles exhibited in Parliament against Edw. Finch 1641.
  5. ^ Edward Finch (1664–1738), composer ; fifth son of Heneage Finch, first earl of Nottingham; M.A., 1679; fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge; prebendary of York, 1704, Canterbury, 1710; aTeDeumand anthem i by him found in Tud way's manuscript collection; his i manuscript Grammar of Thorough Bass preserved in Euing Library, Glasgow.
  6. ^ Edward Finch (1756–1843), general : served with Coldstream guards in Flanders, 1793-5, in Ireland, 1798, and the Helder, 1799; commanded cavalry under Abercromby in Egypt, 1801, and brigade of guards in Copenhagen expedition, 1809; M.P., Cambridge in 1789-1819; named groom of the bedchamber, 1804.
  7. ^ Francis Oliver Finch (1802-1 86 2)," watercolour painter: worked five years under John Varley and joined Society of Painters in Water-colours, 1822; painted many views of Scottish and English landscapes; and printed An Artist's Dream a collection of sonnets.
  8. ^ Sir Heneage Finch (d. 1631), speaker of the ; House of Commons; grandson of Sir Thomas Finch; barrister, Inner Temple, 1606; M.P., Rye, 1607; defended royal prerogative in debate on impositions, 1610; M.P., West Looe, 1621; knighted, 1623; serjeant-at-law, 1623; recorder of London, 1620, and M.P. for the city, 1623-6; speaker, 1626.
  9. ^ Heneage Finch , first of Nottingham (1621-1682), lord chancellor; eldest son of Sir Heneage Finch; distinguished at the Inner Temple for his knowledge of municipal law: became at the Restoration M.P. for Canterbury and solicitor-general; created baronet, 1660; M.P. for Oxford University, 1661; appointed attorney-general, 1670; lord keeper of the seals, 1673: Baron Finch and lord chancellor, 1674; and Earl of Nottingham, 1681; a zealous and able supporter of policy of court, but independent as judge; the A mri ofAbsalom and Achitophel
  10. ^ Heneage Finch , second Earl of Winchilsea (d. 1689), provided troops for the king in the great rebellion, and money for Charles II when abroad; ambassador at Constantinople, 1661-9; published account of his embassy (1661), and of an eruption of Mount Etna, 1669.
  11. ^ Heneage Finch , first Earl of Aylesford (1647?-1719), second son of Heneage Finch, first earl of Nottingham; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; king's counsel, 1677, and solicitorgeneral, 1679-86; dismi&sed by James II, 1686; leading counsel for the seven bishops, 16S8; M.P. for Oxford University in several parliament*; created Huron Guernsey and privy councillor, 1703; created Earl of Aylesford, 1714.
  12. ^ Sir Henry Finch (1558–1625), serjeant-at-law; second son of Sir Thomas Finch; educated at Oriel College, Oxford; barrister, Gray's Inn, 1585; M.P., Canterbury, 1 5'J3; recorder of Sandwich. 1613; serjeant-at-law and knighted, 1616; one of those employed upon the attempted codification of statute laws; consulted by James I on monopolies. His World's Great Restauration, or Calling of the Jews 1621, was suppressed as derogatory to the royal power; but his valuable treatise on common law, 1613, fol., in legal French, was frequently translated, and finally edited by Danby Pickering, 1789.
  13. ^ Henry Finch (1633–1704), ejected minister; vicar of Walton, Lancashire, 1656: actively engaged in royalist rising under Sir George Booth; ejected for nonconformity, 1662; presbyterian minister of Birch Hall, Lancashire, 1672-97: aided Calamy, historian of the silenced ministers, with corrections.
  14. ^ Sir John Finch, Baron Finch of Fordwich (1584-1660), speaker and lord keeper; son of Sir Henry Finch; barrister, Gray's Inn, 1611: M.P., Canterbury, 1614, and recorder, 1617; king's counsel, 1626; speaker of the House of Commons, 1628; held down in the chair in the following session to prevent his adjourning the house; employed by the court in Star-chamber and high commission cases against Prynne and others: serjeant-at-law, 1634; appointed chief-justice of the common pleas, 1635: mainly responsible for the shipmoney judgment, 1637; named lord keeper by influence of Queen Henrietta Maria, January, and created baron, April 1640; impeached in the Long parliament, October 1640: fled to Holland, December 1640, but returned at the Restoration.
  15. ^ SirJohn Finch (1626–1682), physician; younger son of Sir Heneage Finch (d. 1631); after graduating B.A. at Balliol College, Oxford, 1647, and M.A. Christ's College, Cambridge, 1649, went to Padua, where he became English consul and syndic of the university; afterwards professor at Pisa; knighted by Charles II, 1661; admitted to council of Royal Society, 1663; minister to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 1665; ambassador at Constantinople, 1672-82; died soon after his return to England; buried at Christ's College, Cambridge, near his lifelong companion, Sir Thomas Baines.
  16. ^ Peter Finch (1661–1754), presbyterian minister; son of Henry Finch; M.A. Edinburgh, 1680; minister at Norwich, 1691-1754.
  17. ^ Robert Finch (1783–1830), antiquary; educated at St. Paul's School and Balliol College, Oxford; M.A., 1809; ordained in 1807: lived chiefly abroad; died at Rome; his literary and fine art collections preserved in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
  18. ^ Robert Poole Finch (1724–1803), divine; educated at Merchant Taylorsand Peterhouse, Cambridge; M.A., 1747: D.D., 1772; rector of St. Michael's, Cornhill, 1771; prebendary of Westminster, 1781; an eminent preacher; published treatise on oaths and perjury, 1788.
  19. ^ Sir Thomas Finch (d. 1563), military commander ; knighted for assisting in suppression of Wyatt's rising, 1553; drowned off Havre when about to act as knitrlitmarshal to the English force engaged there: his body buried at Eastwell, Kent, where he had acquired the Moyle property by his marriage.
  20. ^ William Finch (d. 1613), merchant ; agent to an expedition which obtained from the Great Mogul trading privileges for the East India Company at Surat in 1610; died at Babylon from drinking poisoned water,
  21. ^ William Finch (1747–1810), divine ; educated at Merchant Taylorsand St. John's College, Oxford: incumbent of Tackley, Oxfordshire; D.O.L. Oxford, 1775; publishedThe Objections of Infidel Historians and other Writers against Christianity (his Bampton lecture).
  22. ^ Edward Finch-Hatton (d. 1771), diplomatist ; fifth son of Daniel Finch, second earl of Nottingham; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1718; M.P., Cambridge University, 1727-64; instituted prize for Latin away: ambassador in Sweden, Holland, I'ohmd,;md Russia (1739); assumed name of Hatton, 1764, under will of aunt, daughter of Viscount Hatton.
  23. ^ George William Finch-Hatton, tenth Earl of Winchilsea and sixth Earl of Nottingham (1791-1858), politician; succeeded his cousin, George Finch, fifth earl of Nottingham and ninth of Winchilsea, in 1826; a violent opponent of catholic relief; fought a duel with Wellington, 1829; a frequent speaker in the House of Lords against liberal measures.
  24. ^ Edward Francis Finden (1791–1887), engraver; youngest brother of William Finden; engraved separately The Harvest Waggon after Gainsborough, and a few other pictures.
  25. ^ William Finden (1787–1862), engraver: apprenticed to James Mitan; established, with his brother, school of engraving; engraved with him the Elgin Marbles for British Museum, Murray's Arctic Voyages, Lodge's Portraits 1821-34, illustrations to Moore's Byron 1833, andThe Royal Gallery of British Art; engraved also Lawrence's George IV and pictures by Wilkie and Landseer.
  26. ^ Earls of Findlater . See OGILVY, James, fourth EARL, 1664-1730; OGILVY, JAMKS, sixth EARL, 1714V-1770.
  27. ^ Andrew Findlater (1810–1885), compiler; graduated at Aberdeen, 1810; LL.D. Aberdeen, 1864; edited Chambers's Encyclopaedia and (1867) Information for the People; wrote educational manuals.
  28. ^ Charles Findlater (1754–1838), agricultural writer; graduated at Edinburgh, 1770: minister of Newlands, 1790-1835; published General View of the Agriculture of the County of Peebles 1802, and contributed to Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland
  29. ^ Alexander George Findlay (1812–1875), geographer and hydrographer; F.R.G.S., 1844: compiled atlases of Ancient and Comparative Geography Coasts and Islands of the Pacific Ocean six nautical directories with charts; publishedLighthouses and Coast Fog Signals of the World; aided Franklin expedition of 1875, and African exploration.
  30. ^ Sir George Findlay (1829–1893), railway manager; assistant engineer on Birkenhead railway, 1849; superintended construction of line between Hereford and Ludlow, and on its completion, 1852, becamemanager under Thomas Brassey; district manager for North- Western railway in Shropshire and South Wales. 1862; general goods manager at Huston, 1864; general traffic manager, 1874; general manager, 1880; A.I.C.E., 1874; knighted, 1892; published Working and Management of an English Railway 1889.
  31. ^ John Ritchie Findlay (1824–1898), newspaper proprietor: educated at Edinburgh University; entered, 1842, office ofScotsman which he subsequently as,isted in editing: partner in firm, 1868, and principal proprietor, 1870; spent large sums on public objects, and presented to the nation the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh (opened 1889); received freedom of Edinburgh, 1H90; published Personal Recollections of De Quincey 186.
  32. ^ Robert Findlay (1721–1814), Scots divine: professor of divinity in Glasgow University, 1782; D.D.: carried on a controversy with Kennicott, 1761, and published a work combatingVoltaire's views on the credibility of Christian and Jewish writers, 1770.
  33. ^ John Finet or Finett (1571–1641), master of the ceremonies. His works include a book on the etiquette of embassies, published 1656.
  34. ^ Sir John Fineux (1441/-1527). See Fyneux.
  35. ^ Fingall, second Earl of (d. 1649). See Christopher Plunket.
  36. ^ Godfrey Finger or Gottfried (fl.–1685-1717), composer: born at Olmütz; came to England, c. 1685; published sonatas, and music for Congreve, Lee, and other dramatists, 1695-1701; became chamber-musician to the queen of Prussia, 1702, and chapel-master at Gotha, 1717.
  37. ^ Patrick Finglas (fl. 1535), Irish judge: chiefiu.-tioe of kiiiL'V bench in hvlund. 1534-5; bis Breviat of the getting of Ireland, and of the Decaie of the sameincluded in Harris's Hiberuica 1770.
  38. ^ John Finglow (d. 1586), Roman catholic divine : ordained priest at Douay, 1681; missioner in England; executed at York for high treason.
  39. ^ Robert de Finingham (d. 1460), Franciscan, of Norwich; author of several works in defence of his order.
  40. ^ John Finlaison (1783–1860), statistician and government actuary; introduced important reforms in victualling department of admiralty, and plan (1809) for indexing records, which was adopted also on the continent: compiled first official navy list 1814; initiated fund for orphans and children of civil employes in admiralty, 1819; in the treasury, 1822-51; published Life Annuities 1829, showing difference between male and female lives; first president of the Institution of Actuaries, 1847-60.
  41. ^ William Francis Finlason (1818–1895), legal writer; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1851; parliamentary and legal reporter for Times; master of bench of Middle Temple; published legal works.
  42. ^ Francis Dalzell Finlay (1793–1857), Irish journalist: began life as a printer's apprentice; founded in 1824 the Northern Whig; twice imprisoned for libel; supported liberal measures, but opposed repeal and Young Irelandism.
  43. ^ George Finlay (1799–1875), historian ; studied law at Glasgow and Gbttingen; went to Greece, 1823, and saw much of Byron; took part in the war of independence, at the close of which he bought an estate in Attica; died at Athens. His History of Greece covering a period of two thousand years, appeared in sections between 1844 and 1861, and was published collectively in 1877.
  44. ^ John Finlay (1782–1810), Scottish poet ; educated at Glasgow University, where he became a friend of 'Christopher North; published Wallace... and other Poems 1802, a collection of Scottish ballads, 1808, and other works.
  45. ^ Kirkman Finlay (d. 1828), philhellene; brother of George Finlay; spent his fortune and his life after twenty years fighting for the Greeks; killed before Scio.
  46. ^ Kirkman Finlay (1773–1842), lord provost of Glasgow; uncle of Kirkman Finlay (d. 1828); M.P., Glasgow, 1812-18; rector of the university, 1819; an advanced economist and founder of Glasgow commerce.
  47. ^ George Finlayson (1790–1823), traveller; as naturalist accompanied the expedition of 1821 to Siam and Cochin China; his journal edited by Sir Stamford Raffles, 1826.
  48. ^ James Finlayson (1758–1808), divine; professor of logic in Edinburgh University, 1787-1808. when he nominated his successor; incumbent of Grey Friars, 1793-9; moderator of general assembly, 1802; wrote life of Hugh Blair (published posthumously), and other works.
  49. ^ John Finlayson or Finleyson (1770–1854), disciple of Richard Brothers; published pseudo-scientific pamphlets.
  50. ^ Thomas Finlayson (1809–1872), U.P. minister ; incumbent of Rose Street Church, Edinburgh, 1847-72; moderator of supreme court and D.D. of Edinburgh, 1867; promoter of the manse fund.
  51. ^ Finn Barr, Saint and Bishop (d. 623), in popular usage Barra or Bairre; baptised by Bishop MacCorb: founded a school at Lough Eirce, where many famous saints were educated, and churches at Achaidh Durbchon (urce of the Lee), and Cluain (Queen's County); finally settled at Cork (Corcacb Mor), of which he became bishop; said to have visited Rome and Britain.
  52. ^ Saint Finnchu (fl. 7th cent.), baptised by Ailbe of Imlarb Ibair (Emly); abbot of Bangor (co. Down) till 608; helped the king of Mcatli to repel British pirates, and assisted the kings of Leinster and Munster in their wars; his day, 12 Nov.
  53. ^ Peter Finnerty (1766?–1822), journalist: punished for political libel in his paper, the DublinPn-~; 1797, though defended by Curran; imprisoned for libel on Castlereagh in Morning Chronicle 1811.
  54. ^ Samuel Finney (1719–1798), miniature-painter to Queen Charlotte; his manuscript history of his family printed in Cheshire and Lancashire Historical Collector vol. i.
  55. ^ Saint Finnian (d. 550), 'tutor of the saints of Ireland and chief of the second order of Irish saints; baptised by Saint Abban; stayed thirty years at St. David's (Cell Muine) in Wales, where he negotiated with the Saxon invaders; afterwards lived sixteen years at Aghowle (Achad Aball), Wicklow; founded many churches; established, c. 530, his great school at Clonard (Cluainiraird), Meath; his day, 12 Dec.
  56. ^ Saint Fintan (d, 595), 'chief head- of the monks of Ireland: founded, c. 548, a monastery at Clonenagh (Cluaiu-ednech), Queen's County, with a very rigorous rule; his day, 17 Feb. Comgall said to have been his most famous pupil.
  57. ^ Fintan or Munnu, Saint (d. 634), founder of a monastery at Taghmon (Tech Munnu), co. Wexford; a leper for twenty-three years; opposed change in the rule of Easter at council of Magh Ailbe or Whitefield; said to be buried at Kilmun in Co wall, Scotland; his day, 21 Oct.
  58. ^ Joseph Firbank (1819–1886), railway contractor ; son of a Durham miner; constructed forty-nine lines, 1846-86; built Midland goods depot, St. Pancras; employed thirty years in South Wales.
  59. ^ Henry Firebrace (1619–1691), royalist; as page of the bedchamber and clerk of the kitchen attended Charles I throughout the rebellion, 1648; devised two plans for his escape from Carisbrooke Castle; reinstated after the Restoration.
  60. ^ Giles Firmin (1614–1697), ejected minister; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge: went to New England, 1632, and was ordained deacon of the first church at Boston: received grant of land at Ipswich, Massachusetts, 1638: shipwrecked off coast of Spain on return to England, c. 1647; vicar of Shalford, Essex, 1648, till ejection, 1662; his house at Ridgewell licensed for presbyterian worship, 1672; practised medicine both in America and England; published theological pamphlets.
  61. ^ Thomas Firmin (1632–1697), philanthropist; girdler and mercer in Lombard Street; friend of Tillotson, John Biddle, and other divines; a governor of Christ's Hospital, 1673, and of St. Thomas's Hospital, 1693; established dep6t where corn and coal were sold to the poor at cost price; started hi 1676 a workhouse in Little Britain for employment of poor in linen manufacture, carrying it on at a loss till his death; also interested himself in debtorsprisons and French refugees; a walk named after him in Marden Park, Surrey.
  62. ^ Mark Firth (1819–1880), founder of Firth College, Sheffield; carried on large steel works at Sheffield, Birmingham, and Whittington, by which British government was supplied; erected and endowed Raumoor almshouses, 1869; gave public park to Sheffield, opened, 1876; founded Firth College, 1879.
  63. ^ Johann Christian Fischer (1733–1800), oboist and composer; after having been in the Dresden court band and that of Frederick the Great, settled in London. 1768: became musician to Queen Charlotte, 1780: married younger daughter of Gainsborough, who painted his portrait: published concertos and other works at Berlin and London.
  64. ^ John George Paul Fischer (1786–1875), painter; came to England from Hanover in 1810; painted miniatures for the court and nobility, including two of Queen Victoria (1819 and 1820) as an infant; exhibited at Royal Academy, 1817-52.
  65. ^ Simon Fish (d. 1531), theologian and pamphleteer : entered Gray's Inn, c. 1525; having incurred the displeasure of Wolsey fled to Holland; wrote there against the clergy his Supplication of the Beggars circulated in London, 1529, and answered by Sir Thomas More. It was printed in Foxe, 1546, and is one of The Four Supplications edited by Dr. Furnivall, 1871.
  66. ^ William Fish (1775–1866), musician : organist of St. Andrew's, Norwich: published a sonata, some ballads, an oboe concerto, and pianoforte and harp music.
  67. ^ Richard de Fishacre, Fissakre, Fishakle, or Fizacre (d. 1248), Dominican divine; wrote commentaries on Peter Lombard's Sentences the manuscripts of which are at Oriel and Balliol Colleges, Oxford.
  68. ^ Catherine Maria Fisher, known as Kitty Fisher (d. 1767), courtesan; afterwards wife of John Norris of Benenden: described under name of Kitty Willis in Mrs. Cowley's Belle's Stratagem; several times painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds.
  69. ^ Daniel Fisher (1731–1807), dissenting minister ; tutor at Homerton College from 1771.
  70. ^ David Fisher, the elder (17887-1858), actor and musician; appeared at Drury Lane in 1817 in Shakespearean roles; built several theatres in the eastern counties, and for some time led the Norwich choral concerts,
  71. ^ David Fisher , the younger (1816?–1887), actor; son of David Fisher the elder; played at the Princess's under Charles Kean, 1853-4; the original Abbe Latour in the Dead Heart at the Adelphi, 1859; final appearance in London, 1884, at the Lyceum, as Sir Toby Belch.
  72. ^ Edward Fisher (fl. 1627–1655), theological writer; B.A. Brasenose College, Oxford, 1630; author of an ti- puritan tracts; identified by some with E. P., author of the Marrow of Modern Divinity 1645.
  73. ^ Edward Fisher (1730–1785?), mezzotint engraver; engraved over sixty plates of portraits, including several after Reynolds, and published ten after his own designs, 1776.
  74. ^ George Fisher (1794–1873), astronomer; M.A. St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, 1821, having previously acted as astronomer to the Polar expedition of 1818; chaplain and astronomer to Parry's north-west passage expedition, 1821-3: F.R.S., 1825; several times vicepresident of Astronomical Society; carried on magnetical experiments in Mediterranean, 1827-32; heatl-master of Greenwich Hospital school, 1834-60, and principal, 1860-3; erected observatory for the school; propounded theory of the nature and origin of the aurora borealis, 1834; published scientific papers.
  75. ^ James Fisher (1697–1775), a founder of the Scottish secession church; studied at Glasgow University; ordained minister of Kinclaven, Perthshire, 1725; joined his father-in-law, Ebenezer Erskine, in forming the associate presbytery and in compiling Fisher's 'Catechism 1753-60; made professor of divinity by associate burgher synod, 1749; brought out Fisher's Catechism in parts, 1753 and 1760.
  76. ^ Jasper Fisher (fl. 1639), divine and dramatist ; M.A. Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 1614: D.D., 1639; divinity reader at Magdalen College, Oxford: appointed rector of Wilsden, Bedfordshire, e. 1631; published a play, Fuimus Trees, the True Trojans 1633.
  77. ^ John Fisher (1459–1535), bishop of Rochester; educated at Michaelhouse, Cambridge, of which he became master in 1497; M.A., 1491; senior proctor, 1494; vice-chancellor, 1501; first Lady Margaret professor of divinity, 1503; chancellor of the university and bishop of Rochester, 1504; president of QueensCollege, Cambridge, 1505-8; took chief part in the foundation of Christ's, 1505, and St. John's colleges, 1511, acting for his patroness, Margaret, countess of Richmond; opposed in convocation Wolsey's subsidy, 1523; brought Erasmus to Cambridge; wrote three treatises against Luther, 1623-6; opposed church reform, 1529; fined for denying the validity of the divorce of Queen Catherine, 1534; committed to the Tower for refusing to swear to the Act of Succession; deprived, attainted, and beheaded, 1535, for refusing to acknowledge the king as supreme head of the church. His Latin theological works were issued in 1597; vol. i. of his collected English works appeared in 1876.
  78. ^ John Fisher (1569–1641), Jesuit (real name Percy); educated at the English colleges at Rbeims and Rome; admitted into society by Aquaviva: imprisoned in Bridewell on arrival in London, but escaped, 1695; sent by Garnet to the north; afterwards with Gerard in Northamptonshire and chaplain to Sir Everard Digby; imprisoned in the Gatehouse, 1610, and then banished; after some time in Belgium returned and again imprisoned; disputed with James I and Laud; pardoned on conclusion of Spanish marriage, but again imprisoned, 1634-5; published theological works.
  79. ^ John Fisher (1748–1826), bishop of Salisbury; educated at St. Paul's School and Peterhouse; M.A., 1773; fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1773; D.D. Cambridge, 1789; tutor to the duke of Kent, 1780-6, of the Princess Charlotte, 1805; bishop of Exeter, 1803; translated to Salisbury, 1807; published sermons,
  80. ^ John Abraham Fisher (1744–1806), violinist; received musical degrees at Oxford, 1777; played at court and on the continent; expelled from Austria for ill-treatment of his second wife, Anna Storace; retired to Ireland; composed violin pieces, six symphonies, songs, an anthem, and dramatic music.
  81. ^ Sir John William Fisher (1788-1876), surgeon; M.R.C.S., 1809; F.R.C.S., 1836; M.D. Erlangen, 1841; surgeon-in-chief to metropolitan police, 1829-65; knighted, 1858.
  82. ^ Jonathan Fisher (d. 1812), landscape-painter ; studied art while a draper in Dublin; painted Irish scenes; employed in stamp office, Dublin.
  83. ^ Joseph Fisher (d. 1706), archdeacon of Carlisle; fellow of Queen's College, Oxford; M.A., 1682; archdeacon, 1702.
  84. ^ Mary Fisher (1652–1697), Yorkshire quakeress (afterwards Bayley and Cross); imprisoned at Boston, Massachusetts, 1655; attempted to convert sultan Mahomet IV, at Adrianople, 1660; was living in South Carolina, 1697.
  85. ^ Payne Fisher (1616-1693), poet; of Hart Hall, Oxford, and Magdalene College, Cambridge; served in royalist army in Ireland, becoming captain; deserted at Marston Moor (1644); afterwards wrote Latin poems celebrating the exploits of Cromwell and his generals, and after the Restoration two English prose works on the tombs in London churches, 1668 and 1684.
  86. ^ Samuel Fisher (1605–1665), quaker educated at Trinity College and New Inn Hall, Oxford; M.A., 1630; lecturer at Lydd till he joined the baptists, after which he went about disputing on baptism; became a quaker, 1664; with John Stubbs went to Rome and addressed the cardinals; several times imprisoned after his return; died of the plague; published tracts long in use among quakers.
  87. ^ Samuel Fisher (fl. 1692), puritan ; M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1640; ejected at the Restoration from Thornton-in-the-Moors rectory, Cheshire.
  88. ^ Thomas Fisher otherwise Hawkins (d. 1677), a protege of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland; afterwards secretary to the Duke of Somerset; obtained grant of estate of St. Sepulchre's Priory, Warwick; M.P. for Warwick, 1554-8; wrongly identified with John Fisher (compiler of Black Book of Warwick).
  89. ^ Thomas Fisher (1781?–1836), antiquary; fortysix years in the India House; F.S.A., 1836; published Collections, Historical, Genealogical, and Topographical, for Bedfordshire 1812-16, also lithographic plates of, eastern and other inscribed monument*.
  90. ^ William Fisher (1780–1852), rear-admiral; served against Villeneuve, 1805; surveyed the Mozambique in the Racehorse, 1809-10; captured slavers and pirates off Guinea coast, 1816-17; senior officer of the Alexandria detached squadron, 1840.
  91. ^ William Webster Fisher (1798?-1874), Downing professor of medicine at Cambridge, 1841-74; fellow of Downing College, Cambridge, 1834-41; MJX, Montpellier, 1825, Cambridge, 1841.
  92. ^ William Fisk (1796–1872), painter ; exhibited at the Academy, the British Institution, and Suffolk Street Gallery: his historical pictures chiefly remarkable for their fidelity.
  93. ^ William Henry Fisk (1827–1884), painter and drawing-master; son of William Fisk; exhibited landscapes in London and Paris; anatomical draughtsman to College of Surgeons; very successful as art teacher at University College School, London, and lecturer,
  94. ^ William Fisken (d. 1883), presbyterian minister of the secession church; with his brother Thomas invented the steam plough, the steam tackle (patented 1885), and other machines.
  95. ^ Ralph Fitch (fl. 1583–1606), traveller in India ; one of the first Englishmen who made the overland route to India; left London with other Levant merchants, 1583, and travelled down the Euphrates valley by caravan and boat: imprisoned by Portuguese at Ormuz and Goa, 1583; escaped across Deccan and visited court of the Great Mogul (Akbar); thence sailed down the Jumna and the Gauges; first Englishman to visit Burmah and Siam, 1586-7; returned by the Malabar coast and Euphrates valley, reaching London, 1591; his narrative in Hakluyt.
  96. ^ Thomas Fitch (d. 1517).
  97. ^ William Fitch (1563–1611). See Benedict Canfield.
  98. ^ William Stevenson Fitch (1793–1859), antiquary; postmaster of Ipswich; made collections for a history of Suffolk.
  99. ^ John Fitchett (1776–1838), poet ; a Warrington attorney: left, besides Minor Poems (printed 1836), an unfinished romantic epic, King Alfred, completed by Robert Roscoe, and published, 1841-2.
  100. ^ James Fittler (1758–1835), engraver; A.R.A., 1800; marine engraver to George III. His works include 'Titian's Schoolmaster' (Moroni), Velasquez's Innocent X,: and the plates for Forster's British Gallery
  101. ^ Sir Alexander Fitton (d. 1698), lord chancellor of Ireland; barrister, Inner Temple, 1662; lost Gawsworth estates by litigation with Lord Gerard of Brandon; made chancellor by James II, 1687, after whose abdication he was attainted and fled to France; died at St. Germains.
  102. ^ Sir Edward Fitton, the elder (1527–1579), lord president of Connaught, 1569-72; vice-treasurer of Ireland, 1573; imprisoned Clanricarde, 1572, and carried on war with the Burkes; escorted Kildare and his sons to England, 1575.
  103. ^ Sir Edward Fitton, the younger (1548?–1606), son of Sir Edward Fitton; grantee of part of the Desmond estates.
  104. ^ Mary Fitton (fl. 1600), maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth; daughter of Sir Edward Fitton the younger ; most doubtfully identified with the dark lady of Shakespeare's sonnets; mistress of William Herbert, third earl of Pembroke; married Captain W. Polwhele, 1607, and Captain Lougher.
  105. ^ Michael Fitton (1766–1852), naval lieutenant; midshipman at relief of Gibraltar, 1782; as commander of Abergavenny tender performed many daring exploite; promoted after attack on Curacao, 1804; captured forty French privateers, including the Superbe, 1806; admitted into Greenwich Hospital, 1835.
  106. ^ William Henry Fitton (1780–1861), geologist ; B.A. Dublin, 1799; studied geology under Jameson at Edinburgh; afterwards practised as physician at Northampton; M.D. Cambridge, 1816; after marriage removed to London and devoted himself to geology: several years secretary of Geological Society; president, 1828; F.R.S., 1815; Wollaston medallist, 1852; published scientific pamphlets and laid down proper succession of strata between oolite and chalk, 1824-36.
  107. ^ Henry Fitzailwin (d. 1212), first mayor of London; appointed probably between 1191 and 1193, and possibly as early as 1189: presided over a meeting of citizens in 1212 after the great fire, and probably held office till his death.
  108. ^ Bertram Fitzalan (d. 1424), Carmelite of Lincoln, where he founded a library; left theological manuscripts,
  109. ^ Brian Fitzalan, Lord of Bedale (d. 1306), warden of Castles Forfar, Dundee, Roxburgh, and Jedburgh, 1290; a guardian of Scotland during interregnum, 1292 and 1297: served against Welsh, 1294, and against Scots, 1299 and 1303; summoned to English parliament, 1295.
  110. ^ Edmund Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel (1285-1326), son of Richard I Fitzalan, earl of Arundel: served against Scots, 1306-7; refused to attend council at York, 1309; one of the lords ordainers, 1310; joined Lancaster against Gaveston, and (1314) refused to accompany Edward II to Stirling; captain-general north of Trent, 1316; member of council of barons, 1318; joined the king, 1321; one of Lancaster's judges, justice of Wales, and warden of the Welsh marches; finally captured and executed by Queen Isabella and Mortimer.
  111. ^ Henry Fitzalan , twelfth Earl of Arundel (1511?-1580), godson of Henry VIII, whom he accompanied to France, 1532; lord-deputy of Calais, 1540-3; K.G., 1544; stormed Boulogne, 1544; created lord chamberlain on his return to England; retained office under Edward VI; member of council; joined Warwick against Somerset, but was removed by former from council; next allied himself with Somerset, on whose fall he was imprisoned and fined; secret partisan of Mary, for whom he raised the city against Northumberland, and then captured the latter; lord steward of the household and member of the council, 1553; one of the English commissioners to mediate between France and the emperor, 1555; lieutenant-general and captain of the forces, 1557; lord steward and privy councillor at accession of Elizabeth; chancellor of Oxford university, 1559; resigned lord stewardship, 1564, and went out of favour; headed the catholic party, whose object was to depose Elizabeth in favour of Mary Stuart and the Duke of Norfolk; restrained to his own houses, 1569; restored to council by influence of Leicester, 1570; opposed the Alenoii match; again imprisoned after Ridolfi plot, 1571-2. His portrait was painted by Holbein.
  112. ^ John Ii Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry, Clun and Arundel (1223–1267), at first fought with the barons against Henry III (1258-61), but afterwards led royal troops against the baronial partisan, Llewelyn of Wales, 1258 and 12GO; finally joined the party of Prince Ed ward; captured by the barons at Lewes, 1264.
  113. ^ John VI Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel (1408-1435), summoned to parliament as a baron, 1429; recognised as earl, 1435 (the title having been contested by the Mowbrays); distinguished himself as a soldier in France; captain of Rouen Castle, 1432; Duke of Touraiue and K.G.; wounded and captured at Gouruay; died at Beauvais.
  114. ^ Richard Fitzalan I, Earl of Arundel (1267-1302), grandson of John II Fitzalan, lord of Oswestry ; served against Welsh and Scots and in Gascony; signed the letter to the pope from Lincoln, 1301.
  115. ^ Richard II Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel and Warenne (1307?–1376), son of Edmund Fitzalan, earl of Arundel; married a daughter of Hugh le Despenser; restored to his estates after fall of Mortimer, 1330; justice of North Wales for life, 1334; commander of English army in north, 1337; as admiral of the ships at Portsmouth distinguished himself at Sluys, 1340; joint warden of Scottish marches; joint lieutenant of Aquitaine, 1344; admiral of the west, 1345-7; commanded division at Crecy, 1346, and took part in siege of Calais; at naval action with Spanish off Winchelsea, 1350; one of the regents, 1355; much employed in diplomatic missions by Edward III, to whom he also lent large sums.
  116. ^ Richard III Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel and Surrey (1346–1397), son of Richard Fitzalan II, earl of Arundel; one of the council appointed hy the Good parliament: member of council of regency, 1 380; admiral of the west, 1377; joint governor ot Richard II, 1381: joined reforming party under Gloucester, 1386; won a naval victory over the French, Spanish, and Flemings off Margate, 1387; took leading part in the opposition to Richard II after his own attempted arrest, 1387; one of the lords appellant, 1388; removed from the council and admiralty, j but soon restored; quarrelled with John of Gaunt; im- I pri.-onwl; after his release conspired with Gloucester and Warwick and was executed on Tower Hill; his tomb in the Augustinian church for many years an object of pilgrimage.
  117. ^ Thomas Fitzalan alias Arundel (1353–1414). See Arundel.
  118. ^ Thomas Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel and Surrey (1381–1415), son of Richard III Fitzalan; escaped from custody of his half-brother to the continent, where he joined his uncle the archbishop; with him accompanied Henry of Lancaster to England, 1399; created by Henry IV one of the first knights of the Bath,; and restored to his titles and estates; defeated and captured Exeter and Insurgent nobles; procured execution of Scrope and Mowbray, 1405; of the Beauforte: one of the commanders of the English expedition to help Burgundy, 1411: made lord treasurer and warden of the Cinque ports by Henry V, 1413; took part in siege of Harfleur, 1415; died of dysentery.
  119. ^ William Fitzalan (d. 1160), rebel; defended Shrewsbury Castle against Stephen, 1138, and afterwards joined the army of the Empress Matilda and her son, who restored him his fiefs. His younger brother Walter (d. 1177) was ancestor of the house of Stuart.
  120. ^ William Fitzaldhelm (fl. 1157–1198), steward of Henry II and governor of Ireland; one of the royal justices, c. 1165; acted as Henry II's representative before he came to Ireland; succeeded Strougbow as justiciar in Ireland, 1176-8; sheriff of Cumberland and justice in Yorkshire and Northumberland, 1189; wrongly identified with William de Burgh (d. 1204).
  121. ^ Henry Fitzalwyn (d. 1212). See Fitzailwin.
  122. ^ Edward Fitzball (1792–1873), dramatist; apprenticed as printer at Norwich, 1809-12; attempted dramatic writing with some success, and adopted profession of dramatist, c. 1819, and subsequently produced numerous melodramas and other pieces, among the most successful of which werePeveril of the Peak 1823, Waverley 1824,The Pilot 1825,Jonathan Bradford 1833, andNitocris 1855; wrote also many romances, librettos, and songs, including The Bloom is on the Rye 1831; publishedThirty-five Years of a Dramatic Author's Life 1859.
  123. ^ Charles Fitzcharles, Earl of Plymouth (1657?-1680), natural son of Charles II by Catherine Pegge.
  124. ^ Lord Adolphus Fitzclarence (1802–1866), rear-admiral; younger son of William IV by Mrs. Jordan; entered navy, 1814; commanded royal yacht, 1830-53, when he attained flag-rank.
  125. ^ George Augustus Frederick Fitzclarence, first Earl of Munster (1794–1842), majorgeneral; eldest son of William IV by Mrs. Jordan: served in Spain at age of fifteen; wounded and captured at Fuentes d'Onoro, 1811; escaped; severely wounded ut Toulouse, 1814; aide-de-camp to Marquis Hastings in Mahratta war, 1816-17; sent home overland with news of peace, 1817; created a peer, 1831; lieutenant of the Tower; supposed to have influenced his father against reform; committed suicide. He did much to promote oriental studies, being some time president of the Asiatic Society, and published fragments of military history.
  126. ^ Brian Fitzcount (fl. 1125–1142), warrior and author; brought up and knighted by Henry. I; one of the chief supporters of the Empress Matilda, in defence of whose right to the crown he wrote a treatise; thrice besieged by Stephen in his castle of Wallingford.
  127. ^ Charles Fitzgeffrey (1675?–1638), poet and divine; M.A. Broadgates Hall, Oxford, 1600; incumbent of St. Dominic, Eastwellshire; published a poem on Drake, 1596, and The Blessed Birthday 1634 (reprinted by Grosart), and a volume of Latin epitaphs and epigrams; mentioned in Palladis Tamia 1598, and quoted in England's Parnassus 1000.
  128. ^ Henry Fitzgeffrey (fl. 1617), author ; perhaps a son of Charles Fitzgeffrey; published satires ami epigrams, 1617 (twelve copies reprinted at Beldornie Mb, 1843).
  129. ^ David Fitzgerald . See David.
  130. ^ Lord Edward Fitzgerald (1763–1798), Irish rebel; son of James Fitzgerald, first duke of Leinster ; served in the American war and was wounded at Eutaw Springs, 1781; M.P. in the Irish parliament for Athy and Kildare; as major of the 54th, got Cobbett bis discharge; travelled in America, and was admitted to the Bear tribe of Indiana; cashiered for attending revolutionary banquet at Paris, 1792, in which year he married Pamela; returned to Ireland, and began to take an active part in politics; joined United Irishmen, 1796, and with Arthur O'Connor, went to Basle to negotiate with Hoche: declined to re-enter parliament; headed military committee to co-operate with French invaders; while being arrested, was wounded by Major Henry Charles Sirr : died of his wounds.
  131. ^ Edward Fitzgerald (1770?–1807), Irish insurgent; released from Wexford gaol by mob; held commands during rebellion of 1798; surrendered to Wilford; imprisoned in Dublin; after living in England, rearrested, 1800; died at Hamburg.
  132. ^ Edward Fitzgerald (1809–1883), poet and translator; educated at Bury St. Edmunds and Trinity College, Cambridge; graduated, 1K30; lived a retired life in Suffolk; friend of Carlyle, Thackeray, Speddlng, and the Tennysons. His chief work was an English poetic version (from the Persian) of theRnbaiyat of Omar Khayyam (anon., 1859). He also published anonymously a life of Bernard Barton, prefixed to Barton's collected poems (1849),Euphranor(1851),Polonius(1852), English versions of the Agamemnon and of two plays of Sophocles, and selections from Crabbe; and under his own name,Six Dramas of Calderon freely translated (1853).
  133. ^ Lady Elizabeth Fitzgerald , ' the Fair Geraldlne(15287-1589), youngest daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth earl of Kildare; in the household of Princess Mary, afterwards of Queen Catherine Howard; was twice married, first, at fifteen, to Sir Anthony Browne, and, secondly, to Edward Fiennes de Clinton, earl of Lincoln; celebrated in verse by Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, Michael Drayton, and Sir Walter Scott.
  134. ^ George Fitzgerald, sixteenth Earl of Kildare (1611–1660), rebuilt ancestral castle of Maynooth ; befriended Shirley, the dramatist, when in Dublin; governor of co. Kildare, 1641; governor of Dublin for the parliament, 1647.
  135. ^ George Robert Fitzgerald (1748?-1786), Fighting Fitzgerald; notorious for his duels, gallantries, and extravagances; married, against her parentswishes, a daughter of Thomas Conolly; took part in volunteer movement; quarrelled with his family; executed for murder of Patrick M'Donnell.
  136. ^ Gerald Fitzgerald, Lord of Offaly (d. 1204), son of Maurice Fitzgerald (d. 1176), often known as Fitzmaurice; distinguished himself as an opponent of Roderic O'Connor, 1171; received property in Kildare from Strongbow, and built Mayuooth; ancestor of the Earls of Kidare.
  137. ^ Gerald Fitzgerald , fourth (properly third) Earl of Desmond (d. 1398), justiciar of Ireland, 13b7-9 son of Maurice Fitzthomas, first earl of Desmond; generally styled Gerald Fitzmaurice: granted by Edward III the lands of his deceased elder brother Maurice, on condition of marrying the Earl of Ormonde's daughter; as justiciar of Ireland, 1367-9, carried on policy of amalgamation with natives; defeated and captured by Brien O'Brien, 1369; upheld the king's authority in Munster.
  138. ^ Gerald Fitzgerald, eighth ('the great') Earl of Kildare (d. 1513), son of Thomas Fitzgerald, seventh earl; nominated deputy-governor in Ireland by the council at Dublin, 1477, and held office in opposition to a nominee of Edward IV; afterwards deputy for Richard, duke of York, and his son, Prince Edward; pardoned by Henry VII, and continued in office; attainted and imprisoned in the Tower as a partisan of Warbeck, 1494; reappointed deputy of Ireland, 1496; died of a wound received in battle with a Leinster sept.
  139. ^ Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth Earl of Kildare (1487-1534), son of Gerald Fitzgerald, eighth earl; educated in England; appointed lord high treasurer on hia return to Ireland, 1504; lord justice and lord deputy, 1513; gained great successes against the Irish; charged with maladministration at instance of Ormonde, and removed, 1520; reappointed, 1524; again removed, being charged with treason by Ossory (Ormonde) and imprisoned in the Tower, 1526; returned to Ireland with Skefflngton, whom he displaced as deputy, 1632; wounded at siege of Birr Oastle, 1533; again summoned to England, and died prisoner in the Tower.
  140. ^ Gerald Fitzgerald, fifteenth Earl of Desmond (d. 1583), son of James (Fitzjohn) Fitzgerald, fourteenth earl; summoned to England on account of a quarrel with Thomas Butler, tenth earl of Ormonde , and confined, 1562 allowed to return to Ireland, 1564; again summoned to England on account of fresh feud with Ormonde, and bound over next year; again imprisoned, for refusing to accept Sir H. Sidney's award in favour of Ormonde, 1567-73; rearrested after return to Ireland: escaped; carried on war in Munster and was outlawed; submitted, but after temporising, again rebelled, 1579; after four years fighting was captured and killed at Glanaginty.
  141. ^ Gerald Fitzgerald , eleventh Earl of Kildare (1525–1585), son of Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth earl; educated in France and at Rome; served with knights of Rhodes against Moors and with Cosimo de Medici; restored to his estates by Edward VI, and to earldom by Mary; warred against the Irish and Spanisli invaders; committed to the Tower on suspicion of treason, 1582; allowed to return to Ireland, 1584; died in London.
  142. ^ Gerald Fitzgerald (Fitzmaurice), Baron of Offaly (1265?–1287?), son of ,Maurice Fitzgerald (d. 1268); attacked by the native Irish of his barony, 1285.
  143. ^ Henry Vesey Fitzgerald (d. 1860), dean of Emly (1818-26) and dean of Kilmore (1826-60 ); son of James Fitzgerald (1742-1835)
  144. ^ James Fitzgerald (Fitzjohn), fourteenth Earl of Desmond (d. 1558), second son of ir John Desmond; assumed title on death of his grandfather, John Fitztbomas (1536), and allied himself with the rebel O'Brien of Thomond; four years later submitted to lord deputy St. Leger; received by Henry VIII, who acknowledged his title, 1542 created lord treasurer of Ireland by Edward VI, and continual in office by Mary, though arrested for treason; did much to pacify Munster.
  145. ^ James Fitzgerald (Fitzmaurice), thirteenth Earl of Desmond (d. 1640); waylaid and slain near Cork by Sir Maurice of Desmond.
  146. ^ James Fitzgerald (Fitzmaurice) (d. 1579), arch-traitor; assumed the position of captain of Desmond and rebelled against the English government; submitted to Sir John Perrot, 1573; on return of Desmond (1575), retired to France and saw Catherine deMedici; visited Spain and Italy; concerted with Pope Gregory XIII and Stukely plan for invasion of Ireland; sailed from Spain with first body of invaders, 1579; killed in a skirmish, soon after landing, by his cousin, Theobald Burke.
  147. ^ James Fitzgerald , 'the Tower Earl' or 'the Queen's Earl of Desmond(1570 ?-1601), son of Gerald Fitzgerald, fifteenth earl of Desmond, by his second wife; delivered by his mother to the Irish government on rebellion of his father, 1579; removed to Tower of London and imprisoned there sixteen years; released in 1600 and taken to Munster to bring back the Geraldines to their allegiance; failed, and returned to London, where he died.
  148. ^ James Fitzgerald (Fitzthomas), the Sugan Earl of Desmond (d. 1608), assumed the title of earl in 1598, and for three years carried on war in Munster; captured in a cave near Mitchel*town by the White knight, Edmund Fitzgibbon; removed to England and imprisoned in the Tower, where he died insane.
  149. ^ James Fitzgerald, first Duke of Leinster (1722-1773), M.R for Athy in Irish parliament (as Lord Offaly), 1741; succeeded as twentieth Earl of Kildare, 1744; created Viscount Leinsterin English peerage, 1747: procured recall of Duke of Dorset from Ireland, 1754; himself appointed lord deputy, 1756; created Earl ot Offaly and Marquis of Kildare in Irish peerage, and Duke of Leinster, 1761-6.
  150. ^ James Fitzgerald (1742–1835), Irish politician; educated at Trinity College, Dublin; called to Irish bar, 1769; had a large practice, and became prime serjeant, 1787; entered Irish parliament for Ennis, 1772; represented co. Kildare in last Irish parliament; distinguished himself as an orator and was dismissed for his speeches against the union; M.P. for Ennis in imperial parliament, 1802-8 and 1812-13; refused a peerage; his wife created Baroness Fitzgerald, 1826.
  151. ^ James Edward Fitzgerald (1818–1896), prime minister in New Zealand; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1842; under-secretary of British Museum, 1849: accompanied to New Zealand, 1850, Edward Gibbon Wakefield and John Robert Godley , and pioneers of Canterbury settlement; first superintendent of province of Canterbury and member for Lyttelton in first New Zealand parliament, 1853; prime minister, 1854; founded * Press newspaper, 1861; controller-general, 1866; commissioner of audit, 1872; controller and auditor-general, 1878.
  152. ^ John Fitzgerald , first Earl of Desmond . See John Fitzthomas, d. 1316.
  153. ^ Sir John Fitzgerald, of Desmond (d. 1581), Irish rebel; brother of Gerald Fitzgerald, fifteenth earl of Desmond; for some time chief of the Irish rebels; hanged at Cork.
  154. ^ John David Fitzgerald, Lord Fitzgerald (1816-1889), Irish judge; studied at King's Inns, Dublin, and Gray's Inn; called to Irish bar, 1838; joined Munster circuit; Q.C., 1847; liberal M.P. for Ennis, 1852; solicitor-general for Ireland and bencher of King's Inns, 1855; attorney-general, 1856-8 and 1859; Irish privy councillor, 1856; introduced and passed bill for establishing court of chancery appeal in Ireland, 1856; justice of queen's bench, in Ireland, 1860-82; appointed lord of appeal with life peerage, and English privy councillor. 1882; honorary bencher of Gray's Inn, 1883; honorary LL.D. Dublin, 1870.
  155. ^ John Fitzgerald (Fitzedund) (d. 1589), seneschal of Imokilly; joined the rebellion of James (Fitzmaurice) Fitzgerald,the arch-traitor 1569-1573, after whose death he became the virtual head of the second rising; submitted, 1583; arrested four years later; died in Dublin Castle.
  156. ^ Sir John Fitzgerald (Fitzedmund) (1528-1612), dean of Cloyne; granted an annuity for his support of government; knighted, and made dean of Oloyne, though a layman.
  157. ^ Sir John Forster Fitzgerald (1784?–1877), field-marshal; ensign, 1793; distinguished himself whilo serving with 60th foot at siege of Badajos, 1812; while commanding brigade in the Pyrenees was captured, but exchanged; created O.B. for services in Peninsula; afterwards held commands in Canada and India; majorgeneral, 1830; K.C.B., 1831; lieutenant-general, 1841, general, 1854, G.O.B., 1862, field-marshal, 1875; M.P. for co. Clare, 1862-7; died at Tours, the oldest officer in the service.
  158. ^ Katherine Fitzgerald , the 'old' Countess of Desmond (1500?-1604); second wife of Thomas, twelfth earl; said to have lived to the age of 140 (probably a mistake for 104).
  159. ^ Maurice Fitzgerald (d. 1176), an English conqueror of Ireland; brother of David II, bishop of St. David's; went to Ireland, 1169, and commanded the English contingent in the expedition of Dermot against Dublin; led the great sally from the city, 1171; received grant of property in Kildare; died at Wexford, where his ruined monument was seen several hundred years later.
  160. ^ Maurice Fitzgerald (d. 1268), nephew of Maurice Fitzmaur'Kv Fit-nil'l; inherited barony of Offaly; drowned In the Irish Channel.
  161. ^ Mauriob II Fitzgerald, Baron of Offaly (1194?- 1257), justiciar of Ireland; sun of Gerald Fitzgerald, lonl of Offaly; appointed justiciar, 1232; d.Luted and captured Richard, the earl marshal, 1234, whom he was suspected to have poisoned: carried ou wars in Connaught and Ulster: resigned office, 1245, but was deputy to his successor, and helped him in his wars.
  162. ^ Maurice Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald (1238?-1277?), justiciar of Ireland; son of Maurice Fitzgerald, baron of Offaly (1194 ?-1257); was granted (1259) Athlone Castle and the shrievalty of Connaught: justiciar of Ireland, 1272-3; captured O'Brien, king of Thomond, 1277.
  163. ^ Maurice Fitzgerald, first Earl of Desmond (d. 1356).
  164. ^ Maurice Fitzgerald, fourth Earl of Kildare (1318-1390), justiciar of Ireland: youngest son of Thomas Kittferald, second earl; generally known as Maurice Fitzthomas; opposed the Anglicising policy of Ralph D'Ufford; present with Edward III at siege and capture of Calais, 1347; justiciar, 1356-7, 1361, 1371, and 1376, and several times deputy.
  165. ^ Maurice Fitzgerald, knight of Kerry (1774-1849), Irish statesman; represented co. Kerry for thirty seven years in the Irish and imperial parliaments; commissioner of customs in Ireland, 1799-1802; a lord of the treasury in England, 1827; vice-treasurer of Ireland, 1830; unable to regain his seat for Kerry after Reform Act; friend of Wellington and Castlereagh.
  166. ^ Pamela Fitzgerald (1776?–1831), wife of Lord Edward Fitzgerald; described in her marriage contract as of Newfoundland parentage, but popularly supposed to be a daughter of Madame de Genlis, by Philip, duke of Orleans, in whose family she was brought up, although she was never recognised; came to England in 1791 and met Sheridan; was seen by Fitzgerald next year at Paris, and married to him at Tournay; accompanied him to Ireland; visited him during his imprisonment; after leaving Ireland, married a second time, but retained name of Fitzgerald; died in Paris.
  167. ^ Sir Peter George Fitzgerald (1808–1880), nineteenth knight of Kerry: son of Maurice Fitzgerald (1774-1849); vice-treasurer of Ireland in Sir Robert Peel's administration, 1841-6; created baronet,1880.
  168. ^ Raymond Fitzgerald, 'Le Gros' (d. 1182?), nephew of Maurice Fitzgerald (d. 1176); landed in Ireland as Strongbow's representative, 1170; took chief part in capture of Waterford, and led centre in Dublin expedition, 1170: returned with Strongbow to Ireland, but soon retired to Wales; came to his relief when besieged in Waterford, 1174, and married his sister; defeated Donald O'Brien, 1176, and ruled Ireland till the arrival of Fitzaldhelm; reduced Cork.
  169. ^ Thomas Fitzgerald, second Earl of Kildare (d. 1328), justiciar of Ireland: son of John Fitzthomas, first earl; married Joan, daughter of Richard de Burgh, earl of Ulster; led a great army against Edward Bruce, 1316; justiciar, 1320 and 1327; a partisan of Roger Mortimer.
  170. ^ Thomas Fitzgerald , eighth Earl of Desmond (1426?-1468), lord deputy of Ireland, 146S-7: superseded, 1467, and attainted on charge of alliance with Irish executed at Drogheda.
  171. ^ Thomas Fitzgerald, seventh Earl of Kildare (d. 1477), lord deputy of Ireland, 1455-9, for Richard, duke of York, and 1461-2 for Clarence; lord chancellor of Ireland, 1463: attainted in 1467, but respited and restored; again deputy for Clarence, 1468-75.
  172. ^ Thomas Fitzgerald, Baron Offaly and tenth Earl of Kildare (1513–1537), son of Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth earl; appointed deputy-governor of Ireland, 1534, but renounced his allegiance and slew Archbishop Allen; submitted to Lord Leonard Grey, 1535; executed at Tyburn with his five uncles.
  173. ^ Sir Thomas Judkin Fitzgerald (d. 1810). See Judkin-Fitzgerald.
  174. ^ William Fitzgerald (1814–1883), bishop of Killaloe; graduated at Trinity College, Dublin; B.A. 1836; D.D., 1853; professor of moral philosophy in the university, 1847-52, and of ecclesiastical history, 1852-7: archdeacon of Kildare, 1855: bishop of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, 1857-62; translated to Killaloe, 1862; edited Butler's Analogy of Religion and publi-h.-d numerous other works.
  175. ^ William Robert Fitzgerald , second Duke of Leinster (1749-1804), son of James Fitzgerald, first duke; M.P. for Dublin in Irish parliament, 1769-73; colonel of the Dublin regiment of volunteers; the first K.P., 1783; master of the rolls in Ireland, 1788; mad.; great efforts to save bis brother, Lord Edward Fitzgerald ; supported the union.
  176. ^ Sir William Robert Seymour Vesey Fitzgerald (1818–1885), governor of Bombay; M.A., Oriel College, Oxford, 1844; Newdigate prizeman, 1835; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1839; M.P., Horsham, 1852-85; under-secretary for foreign affairs, 1868-9; hon. D.O.L. Oxford, 1863; governor of Bombay, 1867-72; on his return to England was again M.P. for Horsbam; became chief charity commissioner, 1875.
  177. ^ William Thomas Fitzgerald (1759?–1829), versifier; clerk in navy pay office; author of patriotic effusions; parodied in Rejected Addresses
  178. ^ William Vesey Fitzgerald, Baron Fitzgerald and Vesey (1783–1843), statesman ; sou of Right Hon. James Fitzgerald (1742-1835); M.P.,Ennis, 1808; Irish privy councillor and lord of treasury, 1810; English privy councillor, 1812; chancellor of Irish exchequer, 1812-16; M.P., co. Clare, 1818; envoy to Sweden, 1820-3; paymaster-general, 1826; president of board of trade, 1828; defeated by O'Connell for Clare; elected for Cornish boroughs, 1829 and 1830; M.P., Ennis, 1831-2; succeeded to his mother's peerage, 1832; created an English peer by Peel, 1835; president of board of control, 1841-3.
  179. ^ Edmund Fitzgibbon (FiTZJOHN) (1552?–1608), theWhite Knight probably implicated in O'Neill's rebellion, though sheriff of Cork at the time; captured the Sugan Earl (James Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, d. 1608) , and (1604) was created by James I Baron of Clangibbon; this creation, and the intended restoration of his estates (of which he had been deprived by bis father's attainder) did not take effect, since no parliament assembled before his death.
  180. ^ Edward Fitzgibbon (1803–1867), writer under the name Ephemera; after living six years in France wrote in England for the Morning Chronicle and Bell's Life; published a goodHandbook of Angling 1847, andThe Book of the Salmon (with A. Young), 1850; edited The Compleat Angler 1853.
  181. ^ Gerald Fitzgibbon (1793–1882), lawyer and author; M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1832; called to the Irish bar, 1830; Q.C., 1841; defended Dr. Gray in the state trials of 1844, when he ref used a challenge sent him by the attorney-general; appointed receiver-master in chancery, 1860; published works, including Ireland in 1868, the Battlefield for English Party Strife and a pamphlet advocating a conditional fixity of tenure in Irish land, 1869.
  182. ^ John Fitzgibbon, Earl of Clare (1749–1802), lord chancellor of Ireland; distinguished himself at Trinity College, Dublin; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1770; called to the Irish bar, 1772; obtained a large practice, and (1783) became attorney-general: represented Dublin University as a moderate nationalist, 17* 1783, after which he sat for Kilmallock: fought a duel with Curran, in consequence of a speech in support of the commercial treaty with England, 1785: began hi* policy of repression with the Whiteboy Act, 1787: made powerful speeches in support of Pitt's regency proposals, 1789 lord chancellor of Ireland, 1789-1802; created Baron Fitzgibbon, 1789, Viscount Fitzgibbon, 1793, and Earl of Clare, 1795: became at the union a peer of the Unite! Kingdom; as chancellor a zealous law reformer and strong opponent of catholic emancipation; the passing of the Act of Union mainly due to him.
  183. ^ Richard Fitzgilbert (d. 1090?). See Richard de Clare.
  184. ^ Richard Fitzgilbert (d. 1136?). See Richard de Clare.
  185. ^ Robert Fitzhamon (d. 1107), conqueror of Glamorgan: rewarded for his support of the crown in Odo's revolt (1088) by grants of lands in Gloucestershire, Buckinghamshire, and Cornwall; soon afterwards began his conquest of South Wales, aided by twelve knights: supported Henry I against Duke Robert, by whom he was captured in Normandy (1105) and imprisoned at Bayenx; rescued by the king, 1105: procured the surrender of Caen; died from effects of wound received at siege of Falaise; buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, of which he was second founder.
  186. ^ Robert Fitzharding (d. 1170), founder of the second house of Berkeley; probably grandson of Eadnoth , the staller: as reeve of Bristol supported cause of the Empress Matilda, and bought much property in the west from Robert of Gloucester: granted by Henry II the lordship of Berkeley Hernesse: built priory of St. Augustine, now Bristol Cathedral.
  187. ^ Baron Fitzhardinge (1788–1867). See Maurice Frederick Fitzhardinge Berkeley.
  188. ^ Edward Fitzharris (1648?–1681), conspirator; an Irish catholic; resigned lieutenancy in the army after Test Act, 1 673; impeached for publishing pamphlet advocating the deposition of Charles II in favour of James, duke of York, 1681: his impeachment interrupted by the dissolution of parliament; tried before the king's bench and convicted of libel; executed after vainly endeavouring to fix the authorship on Lord Howard of Escrick and to implicate others in a charge of conspiracy,
  189. ^ Meiler Fitzhenry (d. 1220), justiciar of Ireland; grandson of Henry I, through his bastard son Henry: accompanied his unole, Robert Fitzstephen, to Ireland, and distinguished himself in the invasion of Ossory, 1169; returning to Ireland received grant of property in Kildare, 1174, and received further grants in Kerry and Cork from King John, for whom he was justiciar, 1200-x: founded (1202) Connall Abbey, Kildare, where he was buried.
  190. ^ Mrs Fitzhenry . (d. 1790?), actress ; nte Flannigan; after the death of her first hnsband, Capt. Gregory, appeared at Covent Garden, 1764; afterwards made a reputation in Dublin; reappeared at Covent Garden in her original part of Hermione in The Distressed Mother and Lady Macbeth, 1757; married Fitzbenry, a lawyer; played again in Dublin, 1759-64, Oalista in The Fair Penitent and Shakespearean parts: acted at Drury Lane, 1765; rival of Mrs. Yates on the Irish boards.
  191. ^ Alleyne Fitzherbert, Baron St Helens (1753-1839), diplomatist; educated at Eton and St. John's College, Cambridge; M.A., 1777; visited while at Cambridge by Gray; ambassador at Brussels, 1777-82; negotiated preliminaries of peace with Franca and Spain, 1782-3; envoy extraordinary at court of Russia, 1783-7; chief-secretary for Ireland, 1787-9; envoy extraordinary at the Hague, 1789: as ambassador at Madrid, 1791-4, settled the Nootka Sound difficulty, and concluded a treaty with Spain, for which he was created an Irish peer; returned to the Hague; raised to the British peerage for concluding a treaty with Russia, 1801; created a lord of the bedchamber, 1804.
  192. ^ Sir Anthony Fitzherbert (1470–1538), judge; barrister, Gray's Inn; serjeant-at-law, 1510; king's serjeant, 1516: knighted and appointed a judge of the common pleas, 1522; one of the commissioners who negotiated pacification in Ireland between Kildare and Ormonde, 1524; signed articles of impeachment against Wolsey, 1529; a member of the courts which tried the Carthusians and Fisher and More. HisLaGrannde Abridgement (published 1514) is the first important attempt to systematise the whole law; other works are also attributed to him.
  193. ^ Maria Anne Fitzherbert (1756–1837), wife of George IV: daughter of Walter Smythe; married first Edward Weld of Lulworth Castle, 1775, and secondly Thomas Fitzherbert of Swynnerton, 1778; lived at Richmond after the death (1781) of her second husband; married to George, Prince of Wales, at her bouse, December 1785, before witnesses; lived with the Prince of Wales till 1803; recognised by the royal family in spite of the Royal Marriage Act and the Act of Settlement, which made the marriage illegal on account of the minority of the prince and the Roman catholic religion of Mrs. Fitzherbert. Fox's denial in parliament that the ceremony had taken place was privately repudiated by the prince.
  194. ^ Nicholas Fitzherbert (1550–1612), secretary to Cardinal Allen; grandson of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert ; studied at Exeter College, Oxford, Douay, and Bologna; attainted, 1580, for his activity in raising funds for the English (catholic) college at Rheims; became secretary to Cardinal Allen at Rome, 1587; opposed the policy of Parsons; drowned at Florence, where he is buried; his published works include a history of Roman Catholicism in England, 1608 and 1638.
  195. ^ Thomas Fitzherbert (1552–1640), Jesuit; grandson of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert; educated at Oxford; imprisoned for recusancy at Oxford, 1672; after his release assisted Parsons and Campion; retired to France, 1582, and afterwards to Spain, where he was pensioned by the king; charged with a plot to poison Queen Elizabeth, 1598; ordained priest at Rome; became a Jesuit in 1613; for twelve years agent for the English clergy: became superior of the English mission at Brand!, 1616; rector of the English college at Rome, 1618-39, where he died; published works dealing with political aspects of Roman Catholicism.
  196. ^ William Fitzherbert (d. 1154), archbishop of York: generally known as St. William of York: treasurer and canon of York,. 1130: one of King Stephen's chaplains; elected archbishop of York uuder pressure from King Stephen, 1 142; opposed by a minority of Cistercians, and compelled to go to Rome to secure consecration; denied the pallium by Eugenius III under the influence of St. Bernani of Clairvaux: suspended from his see; took refuge with Roger, king of Sicily: deposed at the council of Rheims, 1147: restored to his see and received his pall from Anastasius IV, 1153; died very suddenly, perhaps from poison. In 1227 he was canonised, and his remains were removal to a shrine behind the high altar in York Minster, in the presence of Edward 1, 1283.
  197. ^ Sir William Fitzherbert (1748–1791), eldest brother of Alleyne Fitzherbert, baron St. Helens; gentleman-usher to George III; created baronet, 1784: author of Maxims and a Dialogue on the Revenue Laws
  198. ^ Robert Fitzherbert (. 1140), freebooter; a Flemish mercenary, who came over with Stephen; carried on private war, seizing the castles of Malmesbury and Devizes; hanged before the latter by the Earl of Gloucester.
  199. ^ Robert Fitzhugh (d. 1436), bishop of London; master of King's Hall, Cambridge, and vice-chancellor of the university, 1424; ambassador to Rome and Venice, 1429; bishop of London, 1431, being ronsecrated at Foliyrno, Italy; one of the English delegates at the council of Basle, 1434, on the way home from which he died; buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.
  200. ^ James Fitzjames, Duke of Berwick (1670-1734), marshal of France; natural son of James, duke of York (James II), by Arabella Churchill; born and educated in France; came to England after his father's accession and was created Duke of Berwick, 1687; distinguished himself in Hungary against the Turks; served in Ireland against William III, 1689-90, and in Flanders as a French officer, being taken prisoner at Neerwinden, 1693; commanded with success French army in Spain, 1704; partially subdued the Camisards and took Nice, for which he was created Marechal de France; defeated the English under Galway (Ruvigny) at Aluianza, 1707; defended south-eastern France against Prince Eugene, 1709-10; after the peace of Utrecht supported the English alliance: appointed to command the French army of the Rhine, 1733; killed at the siege of Philipsbourg in the second campaign, next year.
  201. ^ Sir John Fitzjames (1470?–1542?), judge; nephew of Richard Fitzjames, bishop of London; treasurer of the Middle Temple, 1509; recorder of Bristol, 1510; attorney-general, 1519; serjeant-at-law, 1521; chief baron of the exchequer, 1522; chief-justice of the king's bench, 1526; signed articles of impeachment against Wolsey, 1529; member of the court which tried the Carthusians and More and Fisher; retired from office, 1538.
  202. ^ Richard Fitzjames (d. 1522), bishop of London; M.A. Merton College, Oxford; fellow of Merton, 1465; proctor, 1473; principal of St. Alban Hall, 1477-81; chaplain to Edward IV; warden of Merton, 1483-1507; bishop of Rochester, 1497; one of the negotiators of the Great Intercourse, 1499; bishop of Colchester, 1504, of London, 15UG. He introduced reforms at Oxford and built Fulham Palace.
  203. ^ Reginald Fitzjocelin (1140?–1191), archbishop-elect of Canterbury; called the Lombard from his education in Italy; at first a friend of Becket; became his opponent when Becket excommunicated his father lather, the Bishop of Salisbury: employed by Henry II on several embassies to the pope; bishop of Bath, 1174; founded hospital of St. John at Bath, 1 180: one of the commissioners to repress heresy at Toulouse, 1178; attended Lateran Council, 1179; helped to overthrow Longchamp, 1191; elected to see of Canterbury, 1191.
  204. ^ Eustace Fitzjohn (d. 1157), judge; justice itinerant in the north and governor of Bamborough Castle under Henry I, who gave him much property in Yorkshire; supported the Empress Matilda; fought at the battle of the Standard in David's army, 1138; founded Almvick Abbey 1147, and Gilbertine houses in Yorkshire; as constable of Chester fell while taking part in Henry II's first expedition into Wales. The Barons de Vescy were descended from his son William.
  205. ^ Pain Fitzjohn (d. 1137), judge; brother of Eustace Fitzjohn: justice-itinerant under Henry I; sheriff of Shropshire and Herefordshire; supported Stephen: slain in battle with Welsh rebels.
  206. ^ Thomas Fitzjohn, second Earl of Kildare (d. 1328).
  207. ^ Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, third Marquis of Lansdowne. See Petty-Fitzmaurice.
  208. ^ James Fitzmaurice (d. 1579). See James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald.
  209. ^ Mrs Fitzmaurice actress (fl. 1741–1766). See E. Hippesley.
  210. ^ Patrick Fitzmaurice , seventeenth Lord Kerry and Baron Lixnaw (1551?–1600), son and heir of Thomas Fitzmaurice, sixteenth lord Kerry [q.v]; joined Desmond's rebellion, 1580; escaped, 1581, from Limerick, where he was confined again captured, 1587, and imprisoned at Dublin till 1592; joined O'Neill's rising and lost Lixnaw.
  211. ^ Thomas Fitzmaurice , sixteenth Lord Kerry and Baron Lixnaw(1602-1590); served in imperial army at Milan; rebelled against Queen Elizabeth's government, 1582; pardoned, 1583.
  212. ^ Thomas Fitzmaurice, eighteenth Lord Kerry opinions before the pope at Avignon, where he probably and Baron Lixnaw (1574-1630), son of Patrick Fitzmaurice seventeenth lord Kerry; took an active part in O'Neill's rebellion, but submitted in 1603; imprisoned in London for refusing jointure to his son.
  213. ^ Richard Fitzneale or Fitznigel, otherwise Richard of Ely (d. 1198), bishop of London; son of Nigel, bishop of Ely, whom he succeeded as treasurer of England, 1169; became justice-itinerant, 1179; dean of Lincoln, 1184; his election to the bishopric of Lincoln annulled by Henry II in favour of Hugh; appointed bishop of London. 1189; continued as treasurer by Richard I; mediated between Prince John and Long- of Euston M.P for Bury St. Edmunds, 1766; succeeded champ; protected Geoffrey Plautagenet from Long-champ, and was loyal to Richard I against Prince John; patron of learning; wrote 'Dialogus de Scaccario' and 'The Acts of King Henry and King Richard' ('Tricolumnus'), the latter wrongly ascribed to Benedict (d. 1193)[q.v.] of Peterborough.
  214. ^ William Fitzosbern, Earl of Hereford (d. 1071), son of Osbern the seneschal, who was guardian of William the Conqueror when Duke of Normandy; urged on William conquest of England, and led right wing at Hastings, 1066; granted lauds in the west; joint viceroy
  215. ^ William Fitzosber (d. 1071) joint virceory of England during William's absence, 1067: as Earl of Hereford defended the border against the South Welsh; sent Normandy to administer Normandy for the queen, 1070; killed at Cassel fighting for Countess of Flanders,
  216. ^ William Fitzosbert (d. 1196), demagogue; known a- Lunbeard; led agitation in London against the city magnates, particularly in connection with the aid* levied for Richard I's ransom, 1194; dragged from -ancillary in Bow Church by order of the primate and hammed in chains at Smithfield.
  217. ^ Sir Barnaby Fitzpatrick, Baron of Upper Ossory (1535?-1581), educated at court with Prince Edward (Edward VI); while in France corresponded with the king (correspondence printed in 'Literary Remains of Edward VI'); active in suppression of Wyatt's rebellion, 1553; rebellion, 1553; went to Ireland, where he had lifelong feud with Ormonde; his wife and daughter abducted, 1573; killed the rebel Rory O'More, 1578.
  218. ^ Richard Fitzpatrick, first Baron Gowran (d. 1727), naval commander; distinguished himself against the French, 1687-1702; granted land in Queen's County and created an Irish peer, 1715.
  219. ^ Richard Fitzpatrick (1747–1813), general, politician, and wit; grandson of Richard Fitzpatrick, first baron Gowran [q.v.]; began at Westminster life-long friendship with 0. J. Fox; entered the army, 1765; served in America, 1777-8; M.P. for Tavistock, 1774, 1807 and 1812; M.P. for Bedfordshire, 1807-12; chief secretary for Ireland, 1782; secretary of war in coalition of 1783, and in ministry of all the talents, 1806-7; one of the chief writers of the 'Rolliad.'
  220. ^ William John Fitzpatrick (1830–1895), Irish biographer; educated at Clongowes Wood Roman catholic college, co. Kildare; honorary professor of history at Royal Hibernian Academy of Arts, 1876; honorary LL.D. Royal University of Ireland. He published a number of works, relating chiefly to the secret history of eminent personages, including 'Life and Times of Bishop Doyle,' 1861, 'Lord Edward Fitzgerald,' 1859, 'The Sham Squire' 1866, 'Ireland before the Union,' 1867, and 'The Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell,' 1888. He also produced a pamphlet, 1866, claiming for Thomas Scott, brother of Sir Walter Scott, the chief credit for a large part of the Waverley novels.
  221. ^ Geoffrey Fitzpeter, Earl of Essex (d. 1213), one of the five judges of the king's court while Richard I was on crusade; joined opposition to Longchamp from champ and was excommunicated; appointed chief justitciar, 1198: ennobled by John, whose succession he did much to secure; joint-vicegerent when the king set out for Poitou.
  222. ^ Richard Fitzralph, 'Aarmachanus' (d. 1360), archbishop of Armagh; fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and perhaps chancellor; dean of Lichfield, 1337; archbishop of Armagh, 1347; had great repute as a preacher; attacked the friars, and was cited in 1357 to defend his opinions before the pope at Avignon, where he probably died; wrote treatises against the errors of Armenian Christians and against the friarsdoctrine of obligatory poverty.
  223. ^ Gilbert Fitzrichard (d. 1115?). See Gilbert de Clare.
  224. ^ Simon Fitzrobert (d. 1207). See Simon de Wells.
  225. ^ Augustus Henry Fitzroy, third Duke of Grafton (1735-1811), statesman; educated at West-minster and Peterhouse, Cambridge; M.A. 1753; as Earl of Euston M.P. for Bury St. Edmunds; 1756; succeed to to dukedom, 1757, being also named lord-lieutenant of Suffolk; opposed Bute; visited Wilkes in the Tower, 1763; secretary of the north department in Rockingham's first ministry, 1765-6, but resigned when it was not supported by Pitt; became nominal head of the Chatham administration, 1766, and actual first minister when Pitt retired two years later; outvoted in his own cabinet on the repeal of the American tea duty, and attacked by Junius and Chatham; resigned, January 1770; held the office of privy seal under Lord North, 1771-5, without a seat in the cabinet; in opposition again till March 1782, when he joined second Rockingham cabinet as lord privy seal; wrote, in retirement, a work in defence of unitarianism and an autobiography (first published in complete form, 1899). As chancellor of Cambridge University he appointed the poet Gray professor of modern history.
  226. ^ Charles Fitzroy, first Duke of Southampton and Cleveland (1662-1730), natural son of Charles II by Barbara Villiers: created Baron of Newbury, Earl of Chichester, and Duke of Southampton, 1675; became Duke of Cleveland on death of his mother, 1709.
  227. ^ Charles Fitzroy , first Baron Southampton (1737-1797); as Colonel Fitzroy served under Ferdinand of Brunswick in the seven yearswar, and was his aidede-camp at Minden, 1769; created peer, 1780.
  228. ^ Lord Charles Fitzroy (1764–1829), general: second son of Augustus Henry Fitzroy, third duke of Grafton; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1784; served in Flanders, 1793-4; aide-de-camp to George III, 1795; M.P., Bury St. Edmunds, 1784-90 and 1802-18.
  229. ^ Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy (1796–1858), colonial governor; son of Lord Charles Fitzroy; present at Waterloo as a member of Sir Hussey Vivian's staff, 1815; M.P., Bury, 1831; lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward island, 1837; governor of the Leeward islands, 1841; as governor of New South Wales (1846-50), resisted the importation of convicts; governor-general of Australia, 1850-5.
  230. ^ George Fitzroy, Duke of Northumberland (1665-1716), youngest son of Charles II by Barbara Villiers; created Baron of Pontefract, 1674, and Viscount Falmouth and Earl of Northampton, 1 674; created duke of Northumberland on his return from Venice, 1683; lieutenant-general, 1710; privy councillor, 1713.
  231. ^ George Henry Fitzroy, fourth Duke of Grafton (1760–1844), eldest son of Augustus Henry Fitzroy, third duke; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1799; as Lord Euston was returned with Pitt for Cambridge University in 1784, and represented it till 1811; after the revolution became a whig.
  232. ^ Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond (1519-1536), natural son of Henry VIII by Elizabeth Blount (afterwards Talboys); suspected to have been poisoned by Anne Boleyn and her brother.
  233. ^ Henry Fitzroy, first Duke of Grafton (1663-1690), second son of Charles II by Barbara Villiers; married whilst a child to a daughter of Henry Bennet, earl of Arlington; created Earl of Euston, 1672, and duke of Grafton, 1675; distinguished himself as a sailor in command of the Grafton at battle of Beachy Head (1690), and saw service as a soldier with the French in Flanders, 1684, and at Sedgemoor, 1685; professed loyalty to James II, 1688, but soon deserted him for William III; mortally wounded while in command at the siege of Cork.
  234. ^ Henry Fitzroy (1807–1859), statesman ; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford: M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1828; M.P., Grimsby, 1831-2, and Lewes, 1837-59; a lord of the admiralty, 1845; under-secretary for home department, 1852-5; chairman of committees, 1855; chief commissioner of works, 1859.
  235. ^ James Fitzroy , otherwise Crofts, afterwards Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleugh 1649–185. See Scott.
  236. ^ Mary Fitzroy, Duchess of Richmond (d. 1557), daughter of Thomas Howard, third duke of Norfolk; married to Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond, 1533, but never lived with him; gave evidence inculpating her brother, the Earl of Surrey, on charge of treason, 1540.
  237. ^ Robert Fitzroy (1805–1866), vice-admiral, hydrographer, and meteorologist; son of Lord Charles Fitzroy ; in command of the Beagle, conducted survey of Patagonia and the Straits of Magellan (1828-36), having Darwin as naturalist for the last fire years: wrote with Darwin a narrative of the voyage, 1839; elected M.P. for Durham, 1841; governor of New Zealand, 1843-5; F.R.S., 1851; chief of meteorological department, 1854; suggested plan of Fitzroy barometer and instituted a system of storm-warnings, the first weather forecasts; published meteorological works.
  238. ^ Henry Fitzsimon (1566–1643), Jesuit; of Hart Hall, Oxford; at first a zealous protentant, but converted to Roman Catholicism by Thomas Darbyshire; admitted to Society of Jesus, 1592; afterwards held chair of philosophy at Douay; carried on a mission at Dublin, for which he was arrested (1599) and imprisoned five years, disputing while in prison with Ussher and others; after some time in Spain, Flanders, and Rome was army chaplain in Bohemia, 1620, writing a history of the campaign; returned to Ireland, 1630, and was involved in the rebellion of 1641; published theological works.
  239. ^ Walter Fitzsimons or Fitzsymond (d. 1511), archbishop of Dublin, 1484; the first consecrated in St. Patrick's; espoused cause of Lambert Simnel, 1487, but was pardoned; appointed lord deputy of Ireland, 1492 and 1503, and lord chancellor, 1496, 1601, and 1509-11.
  240. ^ Robert Fitzstephen (d. 1183?), Norman conqueror of Ireland; as constable of Cardigan (Aberteivi) carried on war with the Welsh, and was three years their prisoner; accompanied his half-brother Maurice Fitzgerald (d. 1176) to Ireland, 1169: took Wexford and invaded Ossory; surrendered at Carrig, 1171, but was given up to Henry II on his arrival; with Miles Cogan received from him kingdom of Cork, 1177, where he was besieged, 1182-3.
  241. ^ William Fitzstephen (d. 1190?), biographer of Becket; dissuaded Becket at the council of Northampton, 1164, from excommunicating his enemies if they laid hands on him; present at his murder. His Vitu Saucti Thomae(first printed, 1723) contains an account of London in the twelfth century.
  242. ^ Arnold Fitzthedmar (1201–1274?), alderman of London; of German parentage; as alderman of the Germans took the royalist side in the barons war; probably the author of Chronica Majorum et Vicecomitum Londoniarum (edited, 1846).
  243. ^ John Fitzthomas , first Earl of Kildare and sixth Baron of Offaly (d. 1316), grandson of Maurice Fitzgerald II; took part in the expedition of 1288 against the Irish of Offaly and Leix; accused of treason by justiciar De Vesci in connection with the Conuaught succession, 1294; his Sligo and Connaught estates forfeited after his capture of Richard de Burgh, earl of Ulster (1294-5); afterwards served Edward I and his son in Scotland; his territory in Kildare constantly disturbed by the Irish; allied himself by marriage with the De Burghs, 1312; created Earl of Kildare, 1316, after having had his territories invaded by Edward Bruce.
  244. ^ Maurice Fitzthomas or Fitzgerald, first Earl of Desmond (d. 1356), justiciar of Ireland; kinsman and ward of John Fitzthomas, first earl of Kildare; married Catherine de Burgh (1312); created Earl of Desmond with grant of palatine county of Kerry, 1329; imprisoned by the justiciar and viceroy, who had intervened in his feud with the Earl of Ulster; took lead in resistance of Anglo-Irish to the English policy of viceroys, 1341-6; imprisoned, but eventually liberated and received back his forfeited estates, and governed Ireland as viceroy, 1355-6.
  245. ^ Reginald Fitzurse (fl. 1170), one of the murderers of Becket; had been one of his tenants when chancellor. According to Hoveden, he died while doing penance in a religious house near Jerusalem, but by another account he went to Ireland and there founded the family of McMahon.
  246. ^ Barons Fitzwalter. See Radclippe or RATCLIFPK, JOHN, Fitzwalter, JOHN (d. 1412?).
  247. ^ Robert Fitzwalter (d. 1235), baronial leader; lord of Duninow and Baynard's Castle; was grandson through his mother of Richard de Lucy; exiled for conspiracy against John, 1212; flod to France: returned after the king's submission to the pope, and received back his estates; led baronsarmy, 1215, when London was seized and the Great Charter extorted; excommunicated, as one of the twenty-five executors of the Great Charter; offered the crown to the dauphin Louis, for whom he raised the siege of Mountsorrel; defeated and captured at Lincoln by William Marshall, 1217; went on the fifth crusade, and was present at the siege of Damietta, 1219-1220: after hia return submitted to the government of Jfcnry III. A legend relating to his daughter Matilda find her supposed solicitation and murder by King John has been the subject of several poems and plays.
  248. ^ Fulk Fitzwarine , the name of eleven successive persons having property in Shropshire between 1150 and 1420. A traditional history of the family contained in an old French manuscript in the British Museum was published in French, 1840, and was first printed in English by Thomas Wright, 1855.
  249. ^ Fulk Fitzwarine (fl. 1156), head of his family and a powerful noble.
  250. ^ Fulk II Fitzwarine (d. 1197), son of Fulk Fitzwarine I
  251. ^ Fulk III Fitzwarine (d. 1256?), baron; opposed King John and was specially excommunicated: made his peace with Henry III, but in 1246 was deputed by the barons to order the papal nuncio to leave the country.
  252. ^ Fulk IV Fitzwarine (d. 1264), baron; was drowned at the battle of Lewes, 1264.
  253. ^ Charles William Wentworth Fitzwilliam, third Earl Fitzwilliam (1786–1857), son of William Wentworth Fitzwilliam, second earl; M.P. (as Viscount Milton) for Yorkshire, 1807-31, and for Northamptonshire, 1831-3; K.G., 1851; supported parliamentary reform, and was one of the earliest advocates of free trade; edited (1844) Burke's correspondence between 1744 and 1797.
  254. ^ Edward Fitzwilliam (1788–1852), actor; played under Elliston at the Olympic and Royal Circus (Surrey), and under Thomas John Dibdin at the latter house; his best parts, Leporello, Dumbiedykes, Partridge, and Humphry Clinker.
  255. ^ Edward Francis Fitzwilliam (1824–1857), song-writer; son of Edward Fitzwilliam; composed a Stabat Mater at twenty-one; musical director at the Lyceum with Madame Vestris, 1847-9, and afterwards at the Haymarket; composed two operettas for the latter theatre, the music for Green Bushes (Adelphi), and a cantata performed by Hullah, 1851, besides songs.
  256. ^ Ellen Fitzwilliam (1822–1880), actress ; wife of Edward Francis Fitzwilliam: played for twenty-two years under Buckstone at the Haymarket; died at Auckland, New Zealand, after having acted in Australia.
  257. ^ Fanny Elizabeth Fitzwilliam (1801–1854), actress; wife of Edward Fitzwilliam; played as a child at Dover, where her father (Copeland) was manager; appeared at the Haymarket, 1817, and at the Olympic and Surrey under Thomas John Dibdin; at Drury Lane, 1821-2; leased Sadler's Wells, 1832; went with Webster to the Haymarket, 1837; played with great success in America in The Country Girl and after her return to England attained the height of her reputation inGreen Bushes and Flowers of the Forest (Adelphi, 1845-7); subsequently returned to the Haymarket.
  258. ^ John Fitzwilliam (d. 1699), nonjuror ; fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1661-70; university lecturer on music, r. 1662; chaplain to the Duke of York and tutor to Princess (afterwards queen) Anne; subsequently canon of Windsor; refused to take the oaths to William and Mary; left bequests to the Bodleian and Magdalen College Library, Bishop Ken being his executor.
  259. ^ Ralph Fitzwilliam (1256?-1316), baron of Grimthorpe; served against the Welsh and Scots; joined baronial opposition to Edward II; warden of the northern marches, where he had large property.
  260. ^ Richard Fitzwilliam, seventh Viscount Fitzwilliam of Meryon (1745–1816), founder of the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge (begun in 1837); M.A. Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 1764; F.R.S.; author of The Letters of Atticus (originally composed in French.)
  261. ^ Roger Fitzwilliam, alias Roger de Breteuil, Earl of Hereford . 1071–1075), succeeded to title and estates of his father, William Fitzosbern, earl of Hereford,; with his brother-in-law Ralph, earl of Norfolk, ired against William I, and was sentenced to forfeiture and perpetual imprisonment (1076).
  262. ^ Sir William Fitzwilliam (1460?–1534), sheriff of London; warden of Merchant Taylors' Company, 1494 and 1498, and master, 1499; obtained a new charter for the company, 1502, and left it a bequest: alderman of Bread Street ward and sheriff of London, 1606; refused to serve, 1510; treasurer and chamberlain to Wolsey, whom he entertained when disgraced; knighted, 1522; sheriff of Northampton, 1524.
  263. ^ William Fitzwilliam, Earl of Southampton (d. 1542), lord high admiral; wounded in action off Brest, 1513; knighted at Tournay, 1513, and created vice-admiral of England when treasurer of Wolsey's household; went as ambassador to France, 1521; vice-admiral under Surrey, 1522; comptroller of royal household and K.G., 1526; chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster, 1529; lord privy seal, 1533; lord high admiral, 1636-40; created Earl of Southampton, 1537; served Henry VIII, both at home and abroad, being his intimate friend from childhood; died while in command of the van of Norfolk's expedition against Scotland.
  264. ^ Sir William Fitzwilliam (1626–1599). lord deputy of Ireland; grandson of Sir William Fitzwilliam , the sheriff; though a protestant, supported Mary; vice- treasurer in Ireland, 1559-73; assisted Sussex against Shane O'Neill, 1561: lord justice in Ireland, 1571; lord deputy, 1572-5; reduced Desmond to submission; re-appointed, 1588, when he made an expedition into Connaught; pacified Monaghan and suppressed Maguire in Cavan; left Ireland, 1699. He was governor of Fotheringay Castle when Mary Queen of Scots was executed, and was given by her a portrait of her sou James.
  265. ^ William Wentworth Fitzwilliam , second Earl Fitzwilliam (1748–1833), statesman ; nephew and heir of Charles Wentworth. Marquis of Rockingham; educated at Eton and Cambridge; joined Pitt as one of the Old Whigs and became president of the council, 1794; went to Ireland as lord-lieutenant, 1795, but was recalled within three months, on account of his premature and unauthorised avowal of sympathy with the demand for catholic emancipation; fought duel with Beresfonl, whom he had tried to dismiss from the commissionership of the customs; lord-lieutenant of the West Riding of 1 Yorkshire, 1798; president of council under Lord Grenville, 1806-7; remained in opposition for the rest of his life, and was dismissed from his lieutenancy (1819) for his censure of the Peterloo massacre
  266. ^ Comtesse de Flahault (1788–1867). See Margaret Mercer Elphinstone.
  267. ^ William Flakefield (fl. 1700), first weaver of ! checked linen in Great Britain; served in the army till i 1700, when he began to make check handkerchiefs at Glasgow, of which, at his death, he was town drummer.
  268. ^ Rannulf Flambard (d. 1128), bishop of Durham and chief minister of William II; according to Florence of Worcester, rose by buying the custody of vacant sees and other benefices for ready money and an annual rent; adviser and instrument of William Rufus's extortions; rewarded with bishopric of Durham, 1099; sent to the Tower by Henry I; escaped and fled with his mother to Normandy; became minister of Duke Robert, but after Robert's defeat at Tenchebrai (1106) was pardoned and restored to his see by Henry I; for three years acting bishop of Lisieux; completed the nave of Durham Cathedral, and renewed the walls of the city; built Norham Castle. The abuse of feudal customs (especially the relief) probably originated with him.
  269. ^ Thomas Flammock (d. 1497), rebel ; led a body of Cornishmen, who were discontented at the taxation levied for the contemplated Scottish expedition, to London; defeated at Deptford Strand and hanged at Tyburn.
  270. ^ John Flamsteed (1646–1719), first astronomer royal; educated at the free school, Derby; in a tract written in 1667 explained the cause of and gave rules for the equation of time (in Horrocks's Posthumous Works 1673); began systematic observations with Townley's mensurator, 1671; entered his name at Jesus College, Cambrdge, where he made the acquaintance of Newton, and was created M.A., 1674; made a barometer and thermometer for Charles 11 and the Duke of York. 1674; appointed astronomer royal, 1675; took orders, 1675; F.K.S., 1677. Though he was overworked and underpaid, with very defective instruments, his observations gave great help to Newton in writinir his 1'rincipia and he laid the basis of modem astronomy by ascertaining absolute right ascensions through simultaneous observations of the sun and a star near both equinoxes. In 1707 the first volume of his catalogue and observations of the stars (containing the work done between 1676 and 1689) was printed at the expense of Prince George of Denmark, but disputes then arose with Newton and Halley, who published in 1712, without Flamsteed's consent, an imperfect edition of his later observations. Three-fourths of the copies of this edition were obtained by him and destroyed; the authorised work was completed in 1725 by his assistant, Joseph Crosthwait.
  271. ^ Roderick Flanagan (1828–1861), journalist; with his brother founded at Sydney a weekly paper, * The Chronicle; afterwards edited The Empire writing in it severe criticisms upon colonial treatment of the aborigines; died at London when superintending publication of his History of New South Wales (issued 1862).
  272. ^ Thomas Flanagan (1814–1865), compiler; president of Sedgley Park Roman catholic school: afterwards prefect of studies at Oscott; published Manual of British and Irish History and History of the (Catholic) Church in England to 1850 (1857), with other works.
  273. ^ Flann (d. 1056), Irish historian: commonly called Mainistrech; eleven of his poetical histories are in the Book of Leinster
  274. ^ Flannan, saint and Bishop of Killaloe 0Cill-da-Lua) (fl. 7th cent.); said to have been consecrated at Rome and to have visited the Isle of Man; his day 18th December.
  275. ^ Elnathan Flatman (1810–1800), jockey: entered service of William Cooper, the trainer, at Newmarket, 1825, and from 1839 to 1859 was one of the most popular jockeys in the field: his greatest triumph, the winning of the Doncaster Cup, 1850, when, on Lord Zetland's Voltigeur he beat the Flying Dutchman, ridden by Marlow; died of consumption resulting from an accident on Bath racecourse.
  276. ^ Thomas Flatman (1637–1688), poet and miniature-painter: of Winchester and New College; M.A. Cambridge, 1666; publishedPoems and Songs(1674), which had appeared separately. Two miniatures of himself from his own hand are preserved,
  277. ^ Philip Flattisbury (fl. 1500), compiler; drew up the Red Book of the Earls of Kildare now in the possession of the Duke of Leinster, and transcribed a collection of Anglo-Irish annals, first printed in Camden's Britannia
  278. ^ John Flavel (1596–1617), logician : educated at Trinity and Wadham colleges, Oxford: M.A., 1617; professor of grammar, 1617; his manuscriptTractatus de Demonstratione Methodicus et Polemicus edited by A. Huish, 1619.
  279. ^ John Flavel (1630?–1691), presbyterian divine : educated at University College, Oxford: ejected from Dartmouth, 1662; continued to minister there secretly; published Husbandry Spiritualised 1669, and many other works, a selection from which appeared in 1823 (ed. Bradley).
  280. ^ John Flaxman (1766–1826), sculptor and draughtsman; son of a plasterer; cast maker in Covent Garden; at twelve gained the first prize of the Society of Arts for a medal; studied at the Royal Academy schools; began to be employed by the Wedgwoods to design wax models for prizes and medalflona in Wedgwood ware, c. 1775; first exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1770, and ten years later showed his design for the Chatterton monument; became acquainted with Blake and stot hard; introduced by Romney to William Hayley, who became a useful patron; spent seven years (1787-94) in liome and Italy; made a great reputation in Italy by his drawings (executed for the mother of the Hares) for the Iliad and Odyssey and for Dante and Eschylus; ex, hibited the Mansfield and Paoli models for Westminster Abbey, and the designs for Sir William Jones's portrait statue at Oxford; A.H.A., 1797, and R.A., 180; Lidiploma work the marble relief, Apollo and Marpessa; first professor of sculpture at the Royal Academy, 1810; executed the Baring monument at Micheldever, 1805-11, model for the Reynolds in St. Paul's, 1807, and the i pedimental group at Woburn, 1820. In 1817 appeared i his outlines to Hesiod, engraved by Blake, and next year the Achilles shield, drawings, and models. Among his later works are the marble groups at Petworth, the statues of Burns and Kemble in Westminster Abbey, and the completion of the friezes at Buckingham Palace. Collections of his drawings are at South Kensington, the British Museum, University College, London, and at Cambridge,
  281. ^ Mary Ann Flaxman (1768–1833), artist; halfsister of John Flaxman (1755-1826); published six designs for Hayley's Triumphs of Temper 1803 (engraved by Blake); and exhibited drawings at the Royal Academy, 1786-1819.
  282. ^ William Flaxman (1753?–1795?) artist; exhibited at the Academy a wax portrait of his brother John Flaxman (1755-1826), 1781; a good woodcarver,
  283. ^ Gerbarus Fleccius (fl. 1646–1554). See Fliccius.
  284. ^ Richard Flecknoe (d. 1678?), poet; said to have been an Irish priest: printed privately several poems and prose works, includingA Relation of Ten Years Travels in Europe, Asia, Affrique, and America 1656; satirised by Dryden in Mac Flecknoe 1682.
  285. ^ Sir John Fleet (d. 1712), governor of the East India Company, 1695; amalgamated Old with New East India Company, 1702; sheriff of London, 1688; lord mayor, 1692; M.P. for the city, 1693-1705.
  286. ^ Charles Fleetwood (d. 1692), parliamentarian soldier; admitted at Gray's Inn, 1638; one of Essex's bodyguard, 1642; wounded at first battle of Newbury I when captain, 1643; appointed receiver of the court of wards forfeited by his royalist brother, Sir William, 1644; 1 commanded regiment of horse in the new model at Naseby, 1645; M.P., Marlborough, 1646; took leading part in quarrel between army and parliament, 1647, on side of former; joint-governor of Isle of Wight, 1649; lieutenant-general of horse at Duubar, 1650; member of the third council of state (1651) and commander of the forces in England before Worcester, where he did good service: married as his second wife Cromwell's eldest daughter (Bridget), the widow of Ireton, 1652; named commander-in-chief in Ireland, where in 1654-7 he was also lord-deputy; after the first year came to England and only nominally filled the office; recalled on account of his partiality to the anabaptists; one of the Protector's council, 1654; major-general of the eastern district, 1655; a member of Cromwell's House of Lords, 1656; nominal supporter of Richard Cromwell: headed the army's opposition to the parliament; commander-in-chief, 1659; failed to make terms with General Monck; and at the Restoration was incapacitated for life from holding office.
  287. ^ George Fleetwood (fl. 1650?), regicide; M.P. for Buckinghamshire in the Long parliament, 1640; one of the commissioners for trial of Charles I, 1648-9; member of last Commonwealth council of state and M.P. for Buckinghamshire, 1653; for Buckingham, 1654; member of Cromwell's House of Lords, 1667; joined Monck, 1660, and though condemned to death at the Restoration, was never executed.
  288. ^ George Fleetwood (1605–1667), general in the Swedish service and baron; brother of Charles Fleetwood; served under Gustavus Adolphus in the thirty yearswar; created baron by Queen Christina, 1654; envoy extraordinary to England, 1655; member of Swedish council of war, 1665; died in Sweden, where he left descendants.
  289. ^ James Fleetwood (1603–1683), bishop of Worcester: brother of George Fleetwood (fl. 1660 ?); educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge; prebendary of Lichfield, 1636; created D.D. of Oxford for .- TMoes at Edgebill, 1642; ejected from Sutton Coldfield by parliament; chaplain to Charles 11; provost of King's College, Cambridge, 1660; bishop of Worcester, 1676.
  290. ^ Sir Peter Hesketh Fleetwood, first baronet (1801-1866); changed to Fleetwood in 1831 his original surname of Hesketh; founded the town of Fleetwood, Lancashire, in 1836; M.A. Trinity College, Oxford, 1826; M.P. for Preston, 1832-47; created baronet, 1838.
  291. ^ Thomas Fleetwood (1661–1717), drainer of Marton Meer, Lancashire. The work begaii in 1692 was completed, by Sir Peter Hesketh, afterwards Fleetwood.
  292. ^ William Fleetwood (1536?–1594), recorder of London; of Brasenose College, Oxford; barrister. Middle Temple; counsel for the Merchant Taylors against the Cloth workers Company, 1565; M.P. for Marlborough in last parliament of Queen Mary and for Lancaster in first two of Elizabeth; elected recorder of London by Leicester's influence, 1571, and (1572) M.P. for the city; re-elected M.P. for London, 1586 and 1588; famous for his vigorous enforcement of the laws against vagrants and papists.
  293. ^ William Fleetwood (1656–1723), bishop of Ely ; nephew of James Fleetwood; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, where he gained a high reputation as a preacher; M.A.,1683; D.D., 1705; chaplain to William III; canon of Windsor, 1702; bishop of St. Asaph, 1708-14, of Ely, 1714-23. A preface to some of his sermons attacking tory principles was condemned by parliament to be burnt, but was published as No. 384 of the Spectator Besides many religious works, he published Chronicon Pretiosum, or an Account of English Gold and Silver Money (c. 1707, anon.)
  294. ^ Miss Fleming, afterwards Mrs. Stanley (1796-?1861), actress; reputed granddaughter of West Digges; chiefly remembered for her connection with the Haymarket, where she played in the role of old women.
  295. ^ Abraham Fleming (1552?–1607), antiquary and poet; B.A. Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1582: chaplain to Countess of Nottingham and rector of St. Pancras, Soper Lane, London; author of verse translation from the classics and some prose works, including a digest of Holinshed and a history of English earthquakes, 1680.
  296. ^ Alexander Fleming (1824–1875), medical writer; M.D. Edinburgh, 1844. His Physiological and Medicinal Properties of Aconitum Napellus (1845) led to introduction of Fleming's tincture.
  297. ^ Caleb Fleming (1698–1779), dissenting polemic; joint-pastor of Bartholomew Close presbyterian congregation, 1740, pastor of Pinner Hall, 1753-77; D.D. St. Andrews; published A Survey of the Search after Souls 1758, and numerous controversial pamphlets,
  298. ^ Christopher Fleming (1800–1880), surgeon; B.A. Dublin, 1821, and M.D., 1838; president, College of Surgeons (Ireland), 1856.
  299. ^ Sir Daniel Fleming (1633–1701), antiquary; of Queen's College, Oxford, and Gray's Inn; sheriff of Cumberland, 1660; knighted, 1681; M.P., Cockermouth, 1685-1687; left in manuscript a Description of the County of Westmoreland published 1882 (ed. Sir G. F. Duckett).
  300. ^ Sir George Fleming (1667–1747), bishop of Carlisle; fifth son of Sir Daniel Fleming; succeeded as second baronet, 1736; M.A. St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford, 1694; domestic chaplain to Dr. Smith, bishop of Carlisle, of which he was canon, 1700, archdeacon, 1705, dean, 1727, and bishop, 1734.
  301. ^ James Fleming, fourth Baron Fleming (1534?-1568), lord high chamberlain of Scotland (an office also held by his father Malcolm); accompanied Mary Queen of Scots to France, 1548; was one of the four Scots Commissioners who died on their way home after attending her marriage with the dauphin (Francis II).
  302. ^ James Fleming or Flemming (1682–1751), major-general and colonel, 36th foot; wounded at Blenheim, 1704; as brigadier served against Jacobites, 1745-6.
  303. ^ John Fleming, fifth Baron Fleming (d. 1572), younger brother of James, fourth baron Fleming, whom he succeeded in the title; chamberlain, 1565; governor of Dumbarton Castle, 1567; accompanied Bothwell, husband of Mary Queen of Scote, in his flight to the north of Scotland, 1567; joined the queen's lords, was present with Mary at Langside (1568), and accompanied her to England; interviewed Elizabeth on her behalf in London; represented her at York; held Dumbarton for two years; escaped to France and conducted an unsuccessful expedition in aid of Mary; accidentally killed by French soldiers at Edinburgh.
  304. ^ John Fleming, first Earl of Wigtown or Wigtun (d. 1619), lord of Cumbernauld; created earl, 1607.
  305. ^ John Fleming, second Earl of Wigtown or Wigton (d. 1650), privy councillor, 1641; entered into association in support of Charles I at Cumbernauld, 1660.
  306. ^ John Fleming (d. 1815), botanist; M.D. Edinburgh; president of Bengal medical service; contributed 'Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants and Drugs to Asiatick Researches.
  307. ^ John Fleming (1785–1867), naturalist; entered the presbyteriun ministry and held charges at Bressay, Flisk, and Clackmannan; joined the free church, 1843: created D.D. of St. Andrews, 1814; appointed professor of natural philosophy, Aberdeen, 1834, of natural science at Edinburgh, 1846 (Free Church College). He published Economical Mineralogy of the Orkney and Zetland Islands The Philosophy of Zoology (1822), and British Animals (1828).
  308. ^ Sir Malcolm Fleming, Earl of Wigtown (d. 1360?), steward of the household to David II (David Bruce); as keeper of Dumbarton Castle received the king after his defeat at Halidou, 1333; accompanied him in his escape to France; created earl and sheriff of Wigtown on the king's return, 1341; captured at battle of Neville's Cross, 1346; confined in Tower of London; one of the commissioners for treaty of Berwick (1357).
  309. ^ Margaret Fleming (1803–1811),'Pet Margarie' ; a youthful prodigy; daughter of James Fleming of Kirkcaldy; played with Sir Walter Scott; composed a poem on Mary Queen of Scots, and other verses.
  310. ^ Patrick Fleming (1599–1631), Franciscan friar I of the Strict Observance; studied at Douay, Louvain, and I Rome; first superior of the college of the Immaculate j Conception, Prague; killed by peasants near Beneschau. i His life of St. Columban was published by Thomas ! O'Sherrin at Lou vain, 1667.
  311. ^ Richard Fleming (d. 1431), bishop of Lincoln ; and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; of University College; junior proctor, 1407; condemned by Archbishop Arundel for Wycliffite tendencies, 1409; prebendary of York and rector of Boston; bishop of Lincoln, 1420; represented England at councils of Paviaand Siena (1428 1429), where he championed the papacy: given by the pope the see of York, but was not confirmed by the king; caused Vy cliff e's bones to be exhumed, 1428.
  312. ^ Robert Fleming (d. 1483). See Flemming.
  313. ^ Robert Fleming, the elder (1630–1694), Scottish divine; ejected from Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, 1662; went to Rotterdam, 1677; died in London; published, among other works, The Fulfilling of the Scripture reissued", 1845 (abridgment still current).
  314. ^ Robert Fleming , the younger (1660?–1716), presbyterian minister; son of Robert Fleming the elder q. v.l; studied in Holland, where he was ordained; pastor at Leyden and afterwards at Rotterdam; at Founder's Hall, Lothbury, 1698; lecturer at Salters' Hall. His works include Christology 1705-8, and Apocalyptical Key, 1701 (reprinted, 1849).
  315. ^ Sir Thomas Fleming (1544–1613), judge; called to the bar from Lincoln's Inn, 1574; commissioner to Guernsey, 1579; recorderof Winchester and M.P.. Winchester, 1584-92; recorder of London, 1594: solicitor! general, 1595; M.P., Hampshire, 1597-16O4: chief-baron of the exchequer, 1604; chief-justice of the king's bench, 1607; tried gunpowder plotters; gave judgment for the crown in Bate's case, 1606; commissioner for lord chancellor, 1610.
  316. ^ Thomas Fleming (1593–1666), Roman catholic archbishop of Dublin; professor of theology at Louvain; archbishop, 1623; with archbishop of Tuam agreed to treat with Ormonde, 1643, and six years later signed declaration of oblivion, but excommunicated Ormonde when the declaration of oblivion was repudiated by Charles I on the advice of Ormonde.
  317. ^ James Flemming (1682–1751). See Fleming.
  318. ^ Richard Flemming (d. 1431). See Fleming.
  319. ^ Robert Flemming (rf. 1483), dean of Lincoln (1451) and benefactor of Lincoln College, Oxford, founded by his uncle, Richard Fleming; lived chiefly in Italy, where he wrote Latin poems; prothonotary to Pope Sixtus IV.
  320. ^ Malcolm Flemyng (d. 1764), physiologist; pupil of Boerhaave and Monro; practised as a surgeon in Hull and Lincolnshire; M.D.; taught physiology in London, and published Introduction to Physiology (1759) and * Neuropathia 1740, with other works.
  321. ^ Fleta, name of a Latin text-book of English law (not of a person) probably written in the Fleet prison c. 1290 by a judge whom Edward I had imprisoned.
  322. ^ Abraham Fletcher (1714–1793), mathematician; self-taught; published The Universal Measurer (Whitehaven, 1753), and The Universal Measurer and Mechanic (1762).
  323. ^ Alexander Fletcher (1787–1860), presbyterian divine; M.A. Glasgow; came to London, 1811; minister of Albion Chapel, 1816; suspended after breach of promise case, 1824; separated from secession church, and was for thirty-five years minister at Finsbury Circus Chapel (largest in London); ultimately restored; celebrated for his sermons to children and his Family Devotions
  324. ^ Andrew Fletcher, LORD Innerpeffer (d. 1650), judge; ordinary lord of session, 1623-6; member of commissions to revise acts and laws of Scotland, 1C33; reappointed judge, 1641; M.P. for Forfarshire, c. 1646, 1647, and 1648; commissioner of the exchequer, 1645-9; member of committee of estates, 1647 and 1648; fined by Cromwell, 1648.
  325. ^ Andrew Fletcher (1665–1716), Scottish patriot (Fletcher of Saltoun); son of Sir Robert Fletcher of Salton, East Lothian; as a commissioner in the Scots convention of estates opposed policy of Lauderdale and James, duke of York; became an adviser of Monmouth both in London and in Holland; accompanied Monmouth's expedition to England, but left it on account of a private quarrel, 1685; went to Spain and afterwards served in Hungary against the Turks; joined William of Orange at the Hague, 1688, and returned to Scotland; his estates restored; again joined opposition to English rule, which culminated in the Act of Security, 1704; a violent opponent of the Union; for a short time imprisoned in London (1708) for supposed complicity in the attempted French invasion; introduced from Holland an improved barley-mill and fanners; published important pamphlets recommending establishment of a national militia, and compulsory employment of vagrants, also his speeches in the parliament of 1703, and a political dialogue, 1704. In his Account of a Conversation 1703, appeared his famous dictum that a nation's ballads were more influential than its laws. His library at Salton is still preserved.
  326. ^ Andrew Fletcher , Lord Milton (1692–1766), lord justice clerk; nephew of Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun; became a lord of session, 1724; lord justiciary, 1726; lord justice clerk, 1735-48; keeper of the signet, 1746; presided at the trial of Captain John Porteous, 1736.
  327. ^ Archibald Fletcher (1746–1828), reformer; called to the Scottish bar, 1790; was gratuitous counsel for Joseph Gerrald and other friends of the people 1793; commenced agitation for the reform of Scottish burghs, publishing a work on the subject.
  328. ^ Banister Fletcher (1833–1899), architect; began practice at Newcastle-on-Tyne, c. 1853; A.R.I. l:.., 1860; F.R.I.B.A., 1876; came to London, 1870; surveyor to board of tirade; liberal M.P. for north-west Wiltshire, 1885-6: professor of architecture and building construction, King's College, London, 1890; fellow, 1891; published works on architecture and surveying.  ? Dav
  329. ^ Eliza Fletcher (1770–1858), nte Dawson ; wife of Archibald Fletcher, whom she married 1791; left Autobiography (privately printed, 1874), published, 1875.
  330. ^ George Fletcher (1764–1855), reputed centenarian; pretended to have been born in 1747.
  331. ^ Giles Fletcher , the elder (1549?–1611), civilian, ambassador, and poet; of Eton and King's College, Cambridge, fellow, 1668; M.A., 1673; LL.D., 1581; chancellor of Chichester; M.P., Winchelsea, 1585; envoy to Russia, 1588; remembrancer of London; treasurer of St. Paul's, 1597; his book on Russia (1591), suppressed and partially printed only in Hakluyt and Purchas, was published entire in 1856 (ed. Bond);Licia, or Poemes of Love(1593), printed by Grosart, 1871.
  332. ^ Giles Fletcher , the younger (1588?-1623), poet ; younger son of Giles Fletcher the elder; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1606; reader in Greek grammar, 1615, and language, 1618; rector of Alderton, Suffolk. His Christ's Victorie and Triumph in Heaven and Earth (1610) has been several times reprinted.
  333. ^ Henry Fletcher (fl. 1710–1750), engraver; executed vignettes and tail-pieces for Voltaire's * Henriade 1728, and drawings of flowers and birds by Peter Casteels and Charles Collins.
  334. ^ Sir Henry Fletcher (1727–1807), politician; eighteen years a director of the East India board; whig M.P. for Cumberland, 1768-1806; created baronet, 1782; a commissioner under Fox's India BUI, 1783.
  335. ^ John Fletcher (1579–1625), dramatist; younger son of Richard Fletcher; became intimate with Francis Beaumont about 1607, and between that date and 1616 collaborated with him in many plays, includingThe Scornful Lady (published, 1616),The Maid's Tragedy 1619, Philaster 1620, and A King and no King (licensed, 1611, printed, 1619). He also wrote with Massinger The Honest Man's Fortune (performed, 1613),The Knight of Malta (produced, 1619), Thierry and Theodoret (published, 1621), and many others. He had help from Shakespeare inKing Henry VIII (composed, 1617), and perhaps in The Two Noble Kinsmen (published, 1634). From his own pen alone were The Faithful Shepherdess (1609) and fifteen plays, the best of which are the comedies Women Pleased (probably produced, c. 1620),The Pilgrim(played, 1621),The Wildgoose Chase(played, 1621), and Monsieur Thomas (first published, 1639).
  336. ^ John Fletcher (1792–1836), medical writer; M.D. Edinburgh, 1816, lecturing there on physiology and medical jurisprudence; his Rudiments of Physiology published 1835-7, and wrote Elements of Pathology published posthumously, 1842.
  337. ^ John Fletcher (d. 1848?), Roman catholic divine; professor at St. Omer during the imprisonment of members of the college at Arras and Dourlens; afterwards came to England; created D.D. by Pius VII, 1821; published, among other works, The Catholic's Prayer Book 1830.
  338. ^ John William Fletcher or De La Flechere (1729-1785), vicar of Madeley; born at Nyon in Switzerland; educated at Geneva; came to England after several attempts to become a soldier, c. 1752; ordained deacon and priest, 1757; intimate with the Wesleys; accepted the living of Madeley (1760), a rough parish, where he spent the rest of bis life; superintendent of Lady Huntingdon's College at Trevecca (1768-71), but resigned on account of his Arminian views, which he defended in 'Checks to Antinomiauism 1771; published theological works.
  339. ^ Joseph Fletcher (1582?–1637), religious poet; educated at Merchant TaylorsSchool and St. John's College, Oxford; M.A., 1608; rector of Wilby, Suffolk, 16091637; author of The Historie of the Perfect, Cursed, Blessed Man (1628-9), and, perhaps, of Christes Bloodie Sweat (1613), both reprinted by Grosart.
  340. ^ Joseph Fletcher , the elder (1784–1843), theological writer; M.A. Glasgow, 1807; congregational minister of Blackburn, 1807-23, ami afterwards at Stepney; D.D. Glasgow, 1830: author of lectures on the Principles and Institutions of the Roman Catholic Religion 1817, and other work.
  341. ^ Joseph Fletcher (1813–1852), statistician; inspector of schools, 1844; editor of the Statistical 'journal; published Summary of the Moral Statistics of 1.upland and Wales 1850, and several treatises on education,
  342. ^ Joseph Fletcher , the younger (1816–1876), congregational minister; son of Joseph Fletcher (1784-1843) , whose life he wrote; published also a History of Independency 1847-9.
  343. ^ Mrs Maria Jane Fletcher (1800–1833). See Jewsbury.
  344. ^ Phineas Fletcher (1682–1650), poet; elder son of Giles Fletcher the elder; of Eton and King's College, Cambridge; M.A., 1608; B.D.; fellow, 1611; rector of Hilgay, Norfolk, 1621-50; published, in imitation of the Faery Queene hisPurple Island, or the Isle of Man 1633, and other poems, English and Latin.
  345. ^ Richard Fletcher (d. 1596), bishop of London; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1566; D.D., 1581; fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1569; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1572; chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, 1581: dean of Peterborough, 1583; chaplain at execution of Mary Queen of Scots, having previously drawn up an account of her examination at Fotheringay; bishop of Bristol, 1589, of Worcester, 1593, and London, 1594. He lost the queen's favour for his share in the Lambeth articles, and was suspended by her on account of his second marriage.
  346. ^ Sir Richard Fletcher (1768–1813), lieutenant-colonel, royal engineers; wounded in St. Lucia; served with the Turks, 1799-1800, helping to construct defences at El Arish and Jaffa; captured by the French after reconnoitring Aboukir Bay; released, 1802: joined Copenhagen expedition, 1807; acted as engineer on Wellington's staff in Portugal, 1808; complimented for his conduct at Talavera, 1809; as chief engineer constructed lines of Torres Vedras, 1809-10; distinguished at Busaco, 1810; directed siege operations at Badajoz and Ciudad Rodrigo, 1811-12; wounded at third siege of Badajoz, 1812; received baronetcy and pension, 1811; served at Vittoria and directed sieges of Pampeluna and San Sebastian; fell at capture of San Sebastian.
  347. ^ Robert Fletcher (fl. 1586), verse-writer ; fellow of Merton College, Oxford, 1563-9; M.A., 1567; afterwards a schoolmaster at Taunton; published three very rare volumes of verse.
  348. ^ Thomas Fletcher (1664–1718), poet; of Winchester and Balliol and New Colleges, Oxford: M.A., 1693; D.D., 1707; fellow of New College, Oxford; fellow of Winchester, 1711-12; prebendary of Wells, 1696-1718; published Poems and Translations (1692).
  349. ^ John Flete (fl. 1421–1465), prior of Westminster, 1448, and author of a Latin chronicle of the monastery of St. Peter's, Westminster, from the earliest times to 1386.
  350. ^ Roger Flexman (1708–1795), preabyterian minister; minister at Rotherhithe, 1747-83, and lecturer at Little St. Helens, Bishopsgate, 1754; D.D. Aberdeen, 1770; Dr. Williama's librarian, 1786; compiled lour volumes of the index to theCommons Journalsand appended a bibliography to an edition of Burnet's Own Time edited by himself.
  351. ^ Richard Flexmore (1824–1860), pautomimist; son of Richard Flexmore Geatter; imitated the leading dancers of his day at several London theatres and also on the continent, together with bis wife (nie Auriol).
  352. ^ Fliccius or Fliccus, Gerbarus, Gerlachus, or Gerbicus (fl. 1546-1564), portrait-painter in style of Lucas Cranach; of German origin. He painted the portrait of Cranmer, still preserved in the National Portrait Gallery.
  353. ^ Benjamin Flight (1767?–1847), organ-builder; with his son and Joseph Robson constructed the apollonicon.
  354. ^ Walter Flight (1841–1885), mineralogist; educated at Queenwood College and at Halle, Heidelberg, Berlin, and London, becoming doctor of science, London University; assistant in British Museum, 1867; F.R.S., 1883; author of A Chapter in the History of Meteorites (posthumous).
  355. ^ Thomas Flindell (1767–1824), editor and printer ; edited the Doncaster Gazette; founded Royal Com wall Gazette 1803, and Western Luminary for a libel in which on Queen Caroline he was imprisoned, 1821; printed works by Polwhele and Hawker at the Stannary i Press Helston, and at Falmouth part of an edition of the bible.
  356. ^ Matthew Flinders (1774–1814), naval captain, hydrographer and discoverer; Milted George Bass to survey the coast of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, 1795-1800; in command of the Investigator and afterwards of the Porpoise and Cumberland, made the first survey of a large part of the Australian coast, 1801-3; detained as a prisoner in Mauritius by the French for more than six years; wrote paper for the Royal Society during his detention, drawing attention to the error in the compass due to attraction of iron in ship; granted poet rank on reaching England, 1810; his Voyage to Terra Australis published posthumously.
  357. ^ George Dawson Flutter (rf. 1838), soldier of fortune; served in the 7th West India regiment, 1811 -16; interpreter at Caracas, 1815: entered Spanish army and served on side of Isabella in Carlist war; in command at Toledo; defeated Carlists, 1838; committed suicide at Madrid on removal from command: published an account of the revolution of Caracas, 1819, and books on Porto Rico, 1834, and Spain and her colonies, 1834.
  358. ^ Luke Flintoft (d. 1727), composer ; B.A. Queens' College, Cambridge, 1700; minor canon of Westminster; his double chant in G minor perhaps the first of its kind.
  359. ^ Henry Flitcroft (1697–1769), architect; called Burlington Harry from name of his patron; employed in board of works, becoming comptroller of works in England, 1758; designed churches of St. Giles-in-theFields and St. Olave's, Southwark, and made alterations at Woburn Abbey and Wentworth House.
  360. ^ Sir Frederick Flood (1741–1824), Irish politician; M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1764; LL.D., 1772; called to the Irish bar, 1763; M.P. for co. Wexford,1776; created baronet of Ireland, 1780; prominent volunteer and opponent of the union; M.P. for Wexford in imperial parliament, 1800-18.
  361. ^ Henry Flood (1732–1791), statesman and orator ; natural son of chief-justice Warden Flood; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and Christ Church, Oxford: M.A. Oxford, 1752; entered Irish parliament for Kilkenny, 1759, and was returned for Callan, 1760; organised and headed an opposition; carried rejection of money bill, 1769; contributed to Baratariaua (an attack on the viceroy); supported the proposed absentee tax, 1773: vicetreasurer of Ireland, 1775; elected for Enniskillen, 1776, continuing to hold office till 1781, though he had been a colonel of volunteers; resumed opposition and co-operated with Grattan in obtaining the independence of the Irish parliament, 1782; quarrelled with Grattan on the expei diency of continuing the volunteer movement and on the enfranchisement of Roman catholics; opposed commercial propositions of 1786, and continued to bring forward Irish reform bills; M.P., Winchester, 1783, being at the time M.P. for Kilbeggan in the Irish parliament; returned for Seaford, 1784; spoke in English House of Commons against commercial treaty with France, 1787, and in 1790 brought forward a reform bill based upon household suffrage in counties; mortally wounded James Agar in a duel, 1769; came near fighting a duel with Grattan, 1783.
  362. ^ Robert Flood (1674–1637). See Fludd.
  363. ^ Valentine Flood (d. 1847), anatomist; M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1823; M.D., 1830: lecturer on anatomy in Richmond Hospital school, Dublin, c. 1838; chief work,The Sargical Anatomy of the Arteries, and Descriptive Anatomy of the Heart 1839.
  364. ^ Florence of Worcester (d. 1118), chronicler; monk of Worcester; author of a Chronicon ex Chronicis based upon the work of Marianus (an Irish monk), extending to 1117, which was continued by other hands till 1295 (Cambridge MS.) It was first printed in 1592, and translated for Bohn (1847) and for Stevenson's Church Historians (1853). Nine manuscripts exist,
  365. ^ John Florio (1563?–1626), author; son of Michael Angelo Florio; entered Magdalen College, Oxford, 1581; patronised by the Earls of Leicester, Southampton, and Pembroke; reader in Italian to Queen Anne, 1603; groom of the privy chamber, 1604. His great Italian-English dictionary (1598) was edited by Torriano (with English-Italian added) in 1669. He published translation of Montaigne's Essays in three books, 1603 (frequently reprinted).
  366. ^ Michael Angelo Florio (fl. 1550), protestant refugee; fled from persecution in the Valteline; preacher to Italian protestant congregation in London, 1550; taught Italian in London; published in Italian a catechism, and a biography of Lady Jane Grey, with translations into Italian of works attributed to her.
  367. ^ Benjamin Flower (1755–1829), political writer; after a visit to Prance, in 1791, edited theCambridge Intelligencer a pro-revolution and radical paper; imprisoned for libel on Bishop Watson, 1799; afterwards published The Political Register 1807-11
  368. ^ Edward Fordham Flower (1805–1883), author; nephew of Benjamin Flower; a brewer at Stratford-on-Avon thirty years; published several works on bearing reins and management of horses.
  369. ^ Eliza Flower (1803–1846), musical composer; elder daughter of Benjamin Flower; published political songs and music to Hymns and Anthems (1841-6) for South Place Chapel, including settings to words of her sister, Sarah Flower Adams.
  370. ^ John Flower (d. 1658), puritan divine; B.A. New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1647; created M.A. by parliamentary visitors, 1648.
  371. ^ Roger Flower (d. 1428?), speaker; M.P. for Rutland, 1396-7, 1399, 1402, 1404, and 1413-14; four times speaker, 1416, 1417, 1419, and 1422. The Irish viscounts of Ashbrook descend from him.
  372. ^ William Flower (1498?–1588), Norroy king of arms; Rouge Croix, 1644; Chester herald, 1546; Norroy, 1562; published Visitation of Yorkshire, 1563-1564 (printed, 1881), of Lancashire, 1567 (printed, 1870), and of Durham, 1575 (printed, 1820).
  373. ^ Sir William Henry Flower (1831–1899), director of Natural History Museum, London; son of Edward Fordham Flower; educated at University College, London: studied medicine and surgery at Middlesex Hospital; M.B. London, 1851; volunteered for medical service in Russian war, 1854; assistant-surgeon, Middlesex Hospital; curator of Huuterian Museum, Royal College of Surgeons, 1861-84, and Hunterian professor of comparative anatomy and physiology, 1870-84; president of Zoological Society, 1879 till death; F.R.S., 1864, and royal medallist, 1882; director of Natural History Museum, 1884-98, during which period he developed very successfully both the popular and scientific sides of the museum; president of Anthropological Institute, 1883-5; president British Association for meeting at Newcastle, 1889; O.B., 1887; K.C.B., 1892; honorary LL.D. Edinburgh and Dublin, and D.C.L. Durham. His original investigations related almost exclusively to the mammalia, including man, and he made considerable contributions to scientific literature. His works include, Introduction to Osteology of Mammalia 1870, Fashion in Deformity 1881, and The Horse 1890.
  374. ^ Edward Flowerdew (d. 1586), judge; treasurer of the Inner Temple, 1679; counsel to the dean of Norwich and town of Yarmouth; recorder of Great Yarmouth, 1680; third baron of the exchequer, 1584; died on circuit, of gaol fever.
  375. ^ Frederick Flowers (1810–1886), police magistrate; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1839; recorder of Stamford, 1862; magistrate at Bow Street, 1864-86.
  376. ^ George French Flowers (1811–1872), musical composer; brother of Frederick Flowers; studied in Germany and took musical degrees at Oxford; founded Contrapuntists Society, 1843, and taught vocalisation on the lines of Voglei;. He publishedEssay on the Contraction of Fugue 1846, and composed organ and choral fugues.
  377. ^ Edward Floyd, Floud, or Lloyd (d. 1648?), Roman catholic barrister, who, having spoken slighting words of the elector palatine and his wife, was impeached and sentenced by the Commons, 1621. The case was afterwards referred to the Lords, who imposed a severer punishment. It was decided during the proceedings that the Lower House had only power to try persons for offences affecting their corporate privileges.
  378. ^ Sir Godfrey Floyd (fl. 1667). See Lloyd
  379. ^ Henry Floyd (1563–1641), Jesuit; employed in connection with establishments of Father Parsons in Spain and Portugal; professed Jesuit, 1618; missiouer in England, j and frequently imprisoned.
  380. ^ John Floyd (d. 1523). See Lloyd
  381. ^ John Floyd (1572–1649), Jesuit; in religion Daniel à Jesu; brother of Edward Floyd; joined Jesuits while at Rome, 1592, where he was famed as a preacher and teacher; after frequent arrests in England retired to Louvain, but died at St. Omer; published, under initials 1 and the pseudonyms, Daniel a Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, George White, and Annosus Fidelis Verimentanus, twenty one controversial treatises.
  382. ^ Sir John Floyd (1748–1818), general; cornet, 1760; served in Eliott's light horse (15th hussars) during I the seven yearswar, being riding-master at the age of fifteen; went to Madras, 1781, in command of the newly raised 23rd (19th) light dragoons; commanded cavalry , on Coromandel coast and distinguished himself against Tippoo Sultan, 1790-4; major-general, 1794; second in command under Harris during second war with Tippoo: distinguishing himself at Malavalli; led the covering army during the siege of Seringapatam, 1799; lieutenantgeneral, 1801; general, 1812: governor of Gravesend and Tilbury, 1817; created baronet, 1816.
  383. ^ Thomas Floyd (fl. 1603), author; B.A. New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1593; M.A. Jesus College, Oxford, 1596; I published The Picture of a Perfect Commonwealth 1600.
  384. ^ Sir John Floyer (1649–1734), physician; M.A. i Queen's College, Oxford, 1671; M.D., 1680; practised at ! Lichfield; knighted, c. 1686; published important works i on bathing and upon asthma; the first to make regular I observations upon the rate of the pulse (in the Physii cian's Pulse Watch 1707, 1710).
  385. ^ John Flud (d. 1523). See Lloyd.
  386. ^ Robert Fludd or Flud (1574–463?), rosicrucian ; M.A. St. John's College, Oxford, 1598; M.D. Christ Church, Oxford, 1605; studied chemistry abroad; four times censor of the College of Physicians; practised in London; entered into controversy with Kepler and Gassendi, and published works in defence of the rosicrucians, some of them under the pseudonyms Rudolf Otreb and Joachim Frizius.
  387. ^ Sir Samuel Fludyer (1705–1768), lord mayor of London; great-uncle of Sir Samuel Romilly; with his brother Thomas made a fortune as a clothier; alder 1 man, 1761; sheriff, 1764; mayor. 1761; knighted, 1755, and created baronet, 1759; M.P., Chippenham, 1754-68.
  388. ^ Laurence Fogg (1623–1718), dean of Chester; studied at Emmanuel and St. John's Colleges, Cambridge; D.D. Cambridge, 1679; held various livings; prebendary of Chester, 1673; dean, 1691; published theological works.
  389. ^ George Foggo (1793–1869), historical painter: I associated with his brother James Foggo in painting and lithography, also in foundation of society for ! obtaining free access to museums and exhibitions; pubi liRhed the first National Gallery catalogue, 1844, and * Adventures of Sir J. Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak 1853.
  390. ^ James Foggo (1789–1860), historical painter; studied under Regnault in Paris; came to London and in 1816, exhibited at the Academy; painted and lithographed with his brother, 1819-tiO, among their pictures being The Christian Inhabitants of Parga preparing to emi-ir.ite on which they worked three yeurs; with his brother managed the Puutheou exhibition, 1852-5.
  391. ^ Foillan, saint and bishop (d. 655), brother of Fursa, who placed him over the monastery of Cnoberesburgh; afterwards followed Fursa abroad, and was placed by Gertrude, daughter of Pepin, In charge of her monastery at Nivelles; killed by robbers in Soiguies forest; buried at Fosse.
  392. ^ George Folbury (d. 1540), master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1537-40; B.A. Cambridge, 1514; B.D., 1524; canon of York; D.D. Montpellier.
  393. ^ Folcard or Foulcard (fl. 1066), hagiographer; probably came to England in the time of Edward the Confessor from Flanders: at first a monk of Christ Church, Canterbury; set over Thorney Abbey by William I, c. 1066; subsequently returned to Flanders; wrote * Vita S. Johauuis Episcopi Eboracensis and lives of several other saints.
  394. ^ John Foldsone (d. 1784?), painter; known for his small portraits executed in a day; exhibited at the Society of Artists and (1771-83) at the Royal Academy.
  395. ^ Daniel Foley (1815–1874), of humble parentage; B.D. Trinity College, Dublin; prebendary of Cashel; professor of Irish at Trinity College, Dublin, 1849-61; published an English-Irish dictionary, 1855.
  396. ^ John Henry Foley (1818–1874), sculptor; studied in the Royal Dublin Society schools and those of the Royal Academy; A.R.A., 1849; R.A., 1858. The best of his early works wereInnocence(1839),Ino and Bacchus ( 1840), and Egeria ( 1856). Among his public works are equestrian statues of Sir James Outram, Lord j Canning, and Lord Hardiuge at Calcutta; statues of ! (VConnell, Goldsmith, and Burke in Dublin; one of Lord Clyde at Glasgow and of Clive at Shrewsbury; the group of Asia and the figure of the Prince Consort in the Albert ! Memorial, Hyde Park; a statue of John Stuart Mill on the Thames Embankment and of Sir Charles Barry in the i House of Commons; and the sepulchral monument of John Nicholson in Lisburn Cathedral.
  397. ^ Paul Foley (1645?–1699), speaker of the House of Commons; second son of Thomas Foley (1617-1677); tory M.P. for Hereford in seven parliaments; speaker, 1695-8; ancestor of the Barons Foley of Kidderminster,
  398. ^ Samuel Foley (1655–1695), bishop of Down and Connor; fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, 1679; chancellor of St. Patrick's, 1689; dean of Achonry, 1691; bishop of Down, 1694.
  399. ^ Thomas Foley (1617–1677), founder of Old Swinford Hospital, Worcestershire; son of an iron manufacturer near Stourbridge, who introduced the Swedish splitting machine; successfully carried on the business, and increased his property by a wealthy marriage; high sheriff of Worcestershire, 1656: represented Bewdley in the convention of 1660; founded Old Swiuford Hospital, 1667.
  400. ^ Thomas Foley , baron (d. 1733), grandson of Thomas Foley; M.P., Stafford and Worcester; one of the twelve tory peers created in 1712.
  401. ^ Sir Thomas Foley (1757–1833), admiral: entered navy, 1770; took part in operations under Keppel, 1778, and Sir Charles Hardy, 1779: present at the action off Finisterre and relief of Gibraltar, 1780: served in West Indies, 1781-5; as flag-captain to Gell and Parker off Toulon, 1793; and at St. Vincent, 1797; while In command of the Goliath led the English line into action at the Nile (1798), engaging the French van on the inside; as flag-captain on the Elephant gave great assistance to Nelson at Copenhagen, 1801; rear-admiral, 1808; commander-in-cbief in the Downs, 1811; vice-admiral, 1812; admiral, 1825; K.C.B., 1815; G.O.B., 1820; commanderin-chief at Portsmouth, 1830.
  402. ^ Gilbert Foliot (d. 1187), bishop of London; after having been prior of Clugny and Abbeville, became abbot of Gloucester; bishop of Hereford, 1147-63, and of London, 1163-87; opposed election of Becket to primacy, ll-;.; refused to yield him obedience as metropolitan; Henry II's envoy to the French king and the pope on Becket's escape; administrator of Canterbury during Becket's absence; excommunicated by Becket, 1167 and 1169; obtained absolution at Rouen, 1170: again excommunicated as one of those whiM-on-M-erat.-l Henry II's eldest sou; absolved, 1172; exerted great influence over the king till his death.
  403. ^ Robert Foliot (d. 1186), bishop of Hereford; related to Gilbert Foliot; called Melundinensis, having studied at Melun or Meaux; archdeacon of Oxford, 1151; canon of Hereford, 1165; bishop, 1174; one of the English representatives at the Lateran council, 1179. Bale attributes to him several learned works.
  404. ^ Lucretia Folkes (ft. 1707–1714), actress ; nee Bradshaw; married Martin Folkes, 1714.
  405. ^ Martin Folkes (1690–1754), antiquary ; studied at Saumur University; M. A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1717; D.C.L. Oxford, 1746; F.R.S., 1713: vice-president, 1723; president, 1741-63; member of the Academic des Sciences, 1742; president of Society of Antiquaries, 1750-4; published Tables of English Gold and Silver Coins 1736 and 1745; and helped Theobald in his notes to Shakespeare. In 1792 a monument to him was erected in Westminster Abbey.
  406. ^ Sir William Webb Follett (1798–1845), attorney-general; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1830: called to the bar from Inner Temple, 1824; had large election petition practice, 1831-3; M.P., Exeter, 1836; K.O., 1834: solicitor-general under Peel, 1834-5, and again in 1841; attorney-general, 1844; defended Lord Cardigan in the duel case and appeared for Norton against Lord Melbourne. There is a statue of him in Westminster Abbey.
  407. ^ Ruth Follows (1718–1809), quakeress; nee Alcock; preached extensively throughout England and Wales, and also in Ireland and Scotland.
  408. ^ Albany Fonblanque (1793–1872), radical journalist; third son of John de Grenier Fonblanque; studied at Woolwich and read law with Chitty; early contributed toTimesandMorning Chronicle wrote for the Westminster Review leader-writer for the Examiner 1826; editor of theExaminer 1830-47; for many years proprietor of the Examiner; statistical officer in board of trade, 1847. His best articles were republished inEngland under Seven Administrations (1837).
  409. ^ John de Grenier Fonblanque (1760–1837), jurist; educated at Harrow and Oxford: barrister, Middle Temple, 1783: counsel against the Quebec Bill, 1791; K.C., 1804; M.P., Camelford, 1802-6; diedfather of the bar; edited Ballow's Treatise on Equity on which subject he was a great authority; wrote also two tracts.
  410. ^ John Samuel Martin de Grenier Fonblanque (1787–1865), legal writer, eldest son of John de Grenier Fonblauque; educated at Charterhouse and Cains College, Cambridge; served in the army in Spain and Italy, and in the second American war; captured at New Orleans, 1815; called to the bar, 1816: commissioner of bankruptcy, 1817; joint-author of Medical Jurisprudence (1823); and one of the founders of The Jurist
  411. ^ Thomas George Fonnereau (1789–1860), author and artist; while practising as a lawyer entertained artists and wits at bis chambers in the Albany; printed privately Mems. of a Tour in Italy, from Sketches by T. G. F. and Diary of a Dutiful Sou, by H. E. O. (1849), published in 1864.
  412. ^ John de Fontibus (Fountains) (d. 1225), bishop of Ely: ninth abbot of Fountains, 1211; bishop of Ely, 1219; his skeleton discovered entire in 1770; witnessed Magna Charta.
  413. ^ Jesse Foot, the elder (1744–1826), surgeon : practised in West Indies (1766-9), at St Petersburg, and afterwards in London; published lives of John Hunter (hostile), Arthur Murphy, and A. R. Bowes, besides numerous medical tracts and A Defence of the Planters in the West Indit* 1792.,.
  414. ^ Jesse Foot , the younger (1780–1860), surgeon; nephew of Jesse Foot the elder; to whose practice he succeeded; published Ophthalmic Memoranda (1838) and The Medical Pocket-Book for 1835 (1834).
  415. ^ Edward James Foote (1767–1833), vice-admiral; maternal nephew of Sir Horace Mann; entered navy, 1780; present at battle of Dominica, 1782, and St. Vincent, 1797; while in command of the Seahorse captured off Sicily Baraguay d'Hilliers and staff on their way to Egypt, 1798: as senior officer in the Bay of Naples signed capitulation (1799) of Uovo and Nuovo (annulled by Nelson), afterwards publishing a vindication: conducted Abercromby to Egypt, 1800; appointed to the royal yacht Augusta, 1803; vice-admiral, 1821; K.C.B., 1831.
  416. ^ Lydia Foote (1844?–1892), actress, whose real name was Lydia Alice Legge; appeared first at Lyceum, 1852, and subsequently played at many London theatres, her best parts including Esther Eccles in Caste 1867, and Anna in The Danischeffs 1877.
  417. ^ Maria Foote, fourth Countess Harrington (1797?-1867), actress; appeared with great success at Covent Garden as Amanthis in The Child of Nature (Inchbald), 1814; played at same theatre till 1825; subsequently acted at Drury Lane; toured extensively throughout Great Britain and Ireland till 1831; married Charles Stanhope, fourth earl of Harrington, 1831. She had previously had an intrigue with Colonel Berkeley, and recovered damages for breach of promise from Pea Green Haynes, winning much popular sympathy.
  418. ^ Samuel Foote (1720–1777), actor and dramatist; matriculated at Worcester College, Oxford, 1737; dissipated a fortune at Oxford: while a law student at the Temple appeared as an amateur at the Haymarket, 1744; played comedy parts in imitation of Gibber at Drury Lane, 1745; his Diversions of the Morning prohibited at the Haymarket, 1747; substituted for this prohibited piece an amusing entertainment in which he humously, 1763 (republished by Lord Medwyn, 1835). mimicked leading actors and actresses; produced The lord justice; procured regium donum for presbyterians; Knights ridiculing Italian opera, 1749; and 1753 The Englishman in Paris (Covent Garden and Drury Lane): brought out The Englishman Returned from Paris (Covent Garden), 1756; hisAuthor given at Drury Lane, suppressed, 1757; failed in the part of Shylock, 1758; his piece ridiculing the methodists,The Minor when first produced at Dublin (1760), a failure, but successful when given in London in an enlarged form; acted in his co-lessee Murphy's plays at Drury Lane, and (1762) played Peter Paragraph in his own Orators: Commissary 1765,The Devil upon Two Sticks 1768, The Nabob 1779, and The Capuchin 1776 (an adaptation of The Trip to Calais which had been suppressed by the influence of the Duchess of Kingston, who was libelled in it). Foote obtained, through the Duke of York, a patent for a theatre in Westminster, 1766, as compensation for a practical joke at a party which had cost him his leg; built the new Haymarket, 1767, which lie held till 1777: much broken by the litigation with William Jackson (1737?-1795), the Dr. Viper of the Capuchins; died at Dover while on his way to France for the purpose of recovering his health. His portrait by Reynolds is at the Garrick Club.
  419. ^ Alexander Penrose Forbes (1817–1875), bishop of Brechin; second son of John Hay Forbes, baron Medwyn; educated at Glasgow University and Haileybury; after three years in the service of the East India Company in Madras presidency, returned to England and graduated B.A. Brasenose College, Oxford, 1844; ordained, 1844; vicar of St. Saviour's, Leeds, 1847; bishop of Brechin, 1848; censured for promulgating the doctrine of the real presence, 1860: an intimate friend of Pusey and Dollinger, he published Explanation of the Thirty nine Articles 1867-8, Kalendars of Scottish Saints 1872, and edited Lives of St. Ninian, St. Kentigern, and St. Columba 1875.
  420. ^ Archibald Forbes (1838–1900), war correspondent; educated at Aberdeen and Edinburgh; served in royal dragoons, c. 1857-67; started and ran London Scotsmanweekly journal, 1867-71; war correspondent to Morning Advertiserand subsequently to Daily News in Franco-Prussian war, 1870-1, Russo-Turkish war, 1877, Afghanistan, 1878-9, and Zulu war, 1880, and was on several occasions first to convey to England news of important events; published several volumes of war correspondence and military biography, besides Memories and Studies of War and Peace 1895.
  421. ^ Sir Arthur Forbes, first Earl of Granard (1623-1696), born and brought up in Ireland; served under Montrose and was imprisoned two years at Edinburgh; returned to Ireland, 1655, whence he went to Breda to represent to Prince Charles the state of the country; a commissioner of court of claims and M.P. for Mullingar, 1660-1; Irish privy councillor, 1670, and several times a
  422. ^ Forannan, saint and Bishop (d. 982), bishop of Domhnach mor (Donoughmore), then the metropolis of Ireland; left Ireland, 969, and went to Rome, where he was made abbot: afterwards placed over Count Eilbert's monastery of Walciodor, now Wassor, Belgium, where he died; his day, 30 April.
  423. ^ Alexander Forbes, first Baron Forbes (d. 1448), served in France against English and was present at Beauge (1421); created a lord of parliament by James II of Scotland between 1436 and 1442.
  424. ^ Alexander Forbes, fourth Baron Forbes (d. 1491); fought for James III against his son, but was pardoned and received into favour by James IV.
  425. ^ Alexander Forbes (1564–1617), bishop of Aberdeen: M.A. St. Andrews, 1585; supported James VFs efforts to restore episcopacy; bishop of Caithness, 1604: member of the Scotch high commission court; translated to Aberdeen, 1616. created Baron Clanehugh and Viscount Granard, 1676; created earl and colonel of 18th foot, 1684; removed from his command by James II; protested against the acts of his parliament, and was besieged by the Irish at Castle Forbes; reduced Sligo for William III.
  426. ^ Sir Charles Forbes (1774–1849), politician: educated at Aberdeen University; head of the first mercantile house in Bombay, in the town hall of which stands his statue by Chantrey: tory M.P., Beverley, 1812-18, and Malmesbury, 1818-32; supported Wellington on the reform question; created baronet, 1823; lord rector of Aberdeen University.
  427. ^ Sir Charles Fergusson Forbes (1779–1852), army surgeon; M.D. Edinburgh, 1808; saw service in the Peninsular war, Holland, and Egypt, retiring as inspectorgeneral of hospitals, 1814; physician at Westminster Eye Hospital, 1816-27; fought two duels with George James Guthrie, his colleague, 1827; F.R.C.P., 1841; G.C.H., I 1842.
  428. ^ David Forbes (1777?–1849), major-general; entered 78th Highlanders, 1793, and served with distinction in Holland, 1794, and in the Quiberon and Belleisle expediI tion, 1795; served in India twenty years; took part in Java expedition, 1811; C.B., 1838; major-general, 1846.
  429. ^ David Forbes (1828-1 876), geologist and philologist; brother of Edward Forbes: ten years superintendent of the Espedal mining works in Norway; thanked by the king of Sweden for arming miners to support the government against a threatened revolution in 1848; F.R.S., 1856; traversed Bolivia and Peru, 1857-60, in search of the ores of nickel and cobalt; studied volcanic phenomena of South Pacific; many years foreign secretary of Iron and Steel Institute; secretary to Geological Society, 1871-6; one of the first to apply the microscope to study of rocks; author of fifty-eight important scientific papers.
  430. ^ Duncan Forbes (1644?–1704), genealogist; educated at Bourges; M.P., Nairn county, 1678, 1681-2, Inverness county, 1689, 1689-1702, and Nairnshire again, 1702-4; active in Scotland against James II; his estates at Culloden and Ferintosh ravaged by Jacobites, 1689; published The Familie of Innes (edited by Spalding Club, 1864), to which his wife belonged, and Plan for Preserving the Peace of the Highlands left in manuscript an interesting diary.
  431. ^ Duncan Forbes (1685–1747), lord president of the court of session; second son of Duncan Forbes (1644 ?1704); studied law at Leyden; advocate and sheriff of Midlothian, 1709; made depute-advocate for services against rebels in 1715; M.P., Inverness burghs, 1722; lord advocate, 1725; president of court of session, 1737; active in the enforcement of the revenue laws; took a prominent part in opposing punishment of Edinburgh for the Porteous affair, 1737; endeavoured to detach Lovat from the cause of Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, against whom he raised a force, but was obliged to fly to Skye; published theological works on the lines of John Hutchinson (1674-1737)
  432. ^ Duncan Foebes (1798–1868), orientalist: graduated M.A. St. Andrews, 1823 (created LL.D. 1847); spent three years in Calcutta; became assistant-teacher of Hindu.-t:ihi in London, 1826, and was professor of oriental languages at King's College, London, 1837-61; made first catalogue of Persian manuscripts for British Museum and publishedHistory of Chess 1860, also Persian, Bengali, and Hindustani grammars, and other oriental manuals.
  433. ^ Edward Forbes (1815–1854), naturalist; brother of David Forbes (1828-1876); studied at Edinburgh University, where he founded the University Magazine; in vacations made natural-history expeditions to Isle of Man, and to Norway, France, Switzerland, Germany, and Algeria; collected three thousand plant specimens 011 a tour through Austria, 1838; lectured in various places: as naturalist to the Beacon, collected marine animals and investigated their relation with plants in the .rfEgean, 1841; made tour through Lycia, collecting molluscs and plants, 1842, aided by a grant from British Association, to which he read aReport 1843; professor of botany at King's College, London, and lecturer of the Geological Society, 1842; palaeontologist of the Geological Survey, 1844; lectured at Royal Institution onLight thrown on Geology by Submarine Researches P.R.S., 1845; showed that Purbeck beds belonged to oolitic series, 1849; president of Geological Society, 1853; professor of natural history at Edinburgh, 1854, but died within six months of appointment; published History of British Mollusca 1848, andHistory of British Star-fishes (1842), besides important geological, botanical, and palaeontological papers.
  434. ^ Sir Francis Forbes (1784–1841), first chief-justice of New South Wales; called to the bar from Lincoln's Inn, 1812; attorney-general of Bermuda, 1813; chief-justice of Newfoundland, 1816, of New South Wales, 1823; member of legislative and executive councils, 1825: knighted in England. 1837.
  435. ^ George Forbes, third Earl of Granard (1685-1765), naval commander and diplomatist; grandson of Sir Arthur Forbes, first earl; served as midshipman at capture of Gibraltar and battle of Malaga, 1704; appointed brigadier in the horse guards under Argyll, 1707; held a naval command in Mediterranean, and was wounded at Villa Viciosa, 1710; governor of Minorca, 1716-18; went on a special mission to Vienna, 1719; took part in defence of Gibraltar, 1726-7; created Baron Forbes of Ireland, 1727; governor of the Leeward Islands, 1729-30; returned to the navy, 1731; negotiated treaty with Russia, 1733; admiral, 1733; Earl of Granard, 1733; elected M.P. for Ayr boroughs, 1741; a member of the committee of inquiry into Walpole's conduct; privy councillor of Ireland.
  436. ^ George Forbes, sixth Earl of Granard in peerage of Ireland and first Baron Granard in the United Kingdom (1760-1837), lieutenant-general; opposed Buckingham administration in Ireland: raised an Irish regiment, 1794, and commanded another at Castlebar, 1798: opposed the union; created Baron Granard, 1806; lieutenant-general, 1813; died in Paris.
  437. ^ Henry Forbes (1804–1859), pianist and composer; pupil of Smart, Hummel, and Moscheles; organist of St. Luke's, Chelsea, and conductor of the Societa Armonica, 1827-50; published National Psalmody 1843, and other musical compositions.
  438. ^ James Forbes (1629?–1712), nonconformist divine; M.A. Aberdeen and Oxford; ejected from Gloucester Cathedral, 1661; imprisoned frequently; for fifty-eight years iuiiii.sU.-r at (iloucester.
  439. ^ James Forbes (1749–1819), author of 'Oriental Memoirs in service of the East India Company, 17651784; imprisoned in France after rupture of peace of Amiens; allowed to return to Kn-lan.l, 1804; published Letters from France 1806, andOriental Memoirs 18131815; took charge of his grandson, Montalembert, the future historian, who witnessed his death at Aix-laChapelle.
  440. ^ James Forbes (1779–1837), inspector-general of army hospitals: M.I). Edinburgh; entered army, 1803; staff-surgeon in Peninsular and Walcheren expedition, 1809; had charge of casualties from Waterloo; afterwards served in West Indies and Canada; principal medical officer in Ceylon, 1829-36.
  441. ^ James David Forbes (1809–1868), man of science; elected F.R.S.E. at age of nineteen; joined Brewster in founding British Association, 1831; F.R.8., 1832; professor of natural philosophy at Edinburgh, 1833, and dean of Faculty of Arts, 1837; D.C.L. Oxford, 1853; principal of St. Andrews, 1859; received Rumford medal of Royal Society for discovery of polarisation of heat, and the royal medal for his paper on the influence of the atmosphere on the sun's rays; three times Keith medallist of the Edinburgh Society; secretary, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1840-51. His chief work was Travels through the Alps of Savoy and other parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers 1843. He was the first to study scientifically the phenomena of glaciers, but his claim to be the first observer of their veined structure and other of their characteristics was contested by Agassiz and Tyudall.
  442. ^ James Ochoncar Forbes , seventeenth Baron Forbes (1765–1843), served with the Coldstream guards in Flanders, and (1799) at the Helder; colonel of the 94th and 64th foot, 1809, and of the 21st, 1816: general, 1819; Scottish representative peer, 1806; baronet of Nova Scotia: high commissioner of church of Scotland, 1826; died at Bregenz, Switzerland.
  443. ^ John Forbes (1571–1606), Capuchin friar; 'Father Archangel'; escaped from Scotland to Antwerp disguised as a shepherd's boy; took the habit of a Capuchin at Touniay, 1593; said to have converted three hundred Scots soldiers to Catholicism at Dixmude; died at Ghent; a Latinlifeof him by Faustinus Cranius (1620) was translated into English (1623), French, and Italian.
  444. ^ John Forbes (1568?–1634), minister of Alford, Aberdeenshire, 1593; went on a special mission to London, 1605; banished from Scotland for denying the jurisdiction of the privy council over the church, 1606; after living some time in France, became pastor of Middelburg, 1611, and Delft, 1621; published theological treatises.
  445. ^ John Forbes (1593–1648), professor of divinity : second son of Patrick Forbes of Corse; studied at Heidelberg and other foreign universities; professor of divinity at King's College, Aberdeen, 1620-39; published defence of episcopacy, 1629, and attacked the national covenant, 1638, for refusing to take which he lost his professorship, 1639; went to the Netherlands to avoid taking the solemn league and covenant, 1644; returned to Scotland, 1646, and lived at Corse: published, among other works,Instructioues Historico-Theologicae de Doctrine Christiana(Amsterdam, 1645). His collected works 1702-3, include a Latin diary.
  446. ^ John Forbes (1710–1759), brigadier: entered Scots Greys, of which regiment he became lieutenantcolonel, 1750; colonel of 17th foot, 1757; adjutant-general and brigadier in America, 1757; led expedition to Fort Du Quesne, which was abandoned by the French, 1758: died at Philadelphia.
  447. ^ John Forbes (1714–1796), admiral of the fleet; second son of George Forbes, third earl of Granard; commanded the Norfolk at the action off Toulon, 1744; rear-admiral, 1747: commauder-in-chief in the Mediterranean, 1749; as a lord of the admiralty refused to sign the warrant for Byng's execution, 1767, and resigned, but was reappointed and held office till 1763: vice-admiral. 1755; admiral of the blue, 1758: general of marines, 1764; admiral of the white, 1770; admiral of the fleet, 1781. His Memoir of the Earls of Granard was published in 1868.
  448. ^ John Forbes (1733–1808), usually called FOKBK8-Pkklater ; joined Portuguese service under Lippe-Buckeburg, and became adjutant-general; general in t lie Portuguese service, 1789; commanded corps in the early Peninsular war, but left for Brazil with Maria Pia, queen of Portugal, prince-regent, and court, when they fled before Junot; died governor of Rio Janeiro.
  449. ^ John Forbes (1799–1823), botanist; went to east coast of Africa for Horticultural Society, 1822; died at Senna; the genus Forbesia, Eckl., named after him.
  450. ^ Sir John Forbes (1787–1861), physician ; studied at Aberdeen and Edinburgh; assistant-surgeon in navy, 1807; M.D. Edinburgh, 1817; practised at Penzance, Ohichester.and London; became physician to the queen's household, 1840; F.R.C.S., 1845; hon. D.C.L. Oxford, 1852; knighted, 1853; joint-editor of a Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine 1832-5, and chief founder of the British and Foreign Medical Review 1836-47; published 'Illustrations of Modem Mesmerism 1845, andNature and Art in the Cure of Disease 1857, also translations of Laennec's Mediate Auscultation 1821, and Auenbrugger's work on the stethoscope, 1824.
  451. ^ John Hay Forbes, Lord Medwyn (1776–1854), Scottish judge; second son of Sir William Forbes; a lord of session, 1825; lord of justiciary, 1830-47; edited 'Thoughts concerning Man's Condition by Alexander, fourth baron Forbes, with life of the author.
  452. ^ Patrick Forbes (1564–1636), of Corse, bishop of Aberdeen; studied at Glasgow and St. Andrews; with Andrew Melville visited Oxford and Cambridge; ordained minister of Keith, 1610; bishop of Aberdeen, 1618-35; opposed the church policy of Charles I; published commentary on the Apocalypse, 1612.
  453. ^ Patrick Forbes (1611?–1680), bishop of Caithness; third son of John Forbes (1568 ?-1634); graduated at Aberdeen, 1631; minister of Delft, 1641; military chaplain in Holland; bishop of Caithness, 1662.
  454. ^ Robert Forbes (1708–1775), bishop of Ross and Caithness; M.A. Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1726; episcopal minister at Leith, 1736; arrested as a Jacobite, 1746; elected bishop of Ross and Caithness, 1769, though still a Jacobite; published The Lyon in Mourning(17471775), extracts from which were given by R. Chambers in 'Jacobite Memoirs(1834). HisJournalswere edited by Rev. J. B. Craven (1886).
  455. ^ Walter Forbes , eighteenth Baron Forbes (1798-1868), son of James Ochoncar Forbes, seventeenth baron; commanded a company of the Coldstream guards at Waterloo; benefactor of St. Ninian's Cathedral, Perth.
  456. ^ William Forbes (1685–1634), first bishop of Edinburgh; M.A. Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1601; professor of logic at Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1602-6; studied abroad and formed friendships with Grotius and Scaliger; minister of Aberdeen, 1618, of Edinburgh, 1620; soon returned to Aberdeen in consequence of the unpopularity of his high church doctrines; appointed first bishop of Edinburgh, 1634; left in manuscript a Latin work (published, 1758) attempting to harmonise the doctrines dividing the Roman and protestant churches.
  457. ^ Sir William Forbes (1739–1806), oPitefigo, banker and author; entered firm of Coutta at Edinburgh, 1764, and soon became a partner, changing the name to Forbes, Hunter & Co. in 1773; took lending part in preparation of Bankruptcy Act of 1783; consulted by Pitt, who (1799) offered him an Irish peerage; acquired Pitsligo estates, 1781; a member of Johnson's literary club; author of Memoirs of a Banking House 1803, and a life of Beattie, 1806.
  458. ^ William Alexander Forbes (1858–1883), zoologist; educated at Winchester, Edinburgh University and University College, London; fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge; prosector to the Zoological Society, London, 1879; sailed for Peruambuco, 1880; died at Shonga on the Niger; left valuable papers on the anatomy of birds.
  459. ^ Robert Forby (1769–1825), philologist ; fellow of Caius College, Cambridge; M.A., 1784; rector of Fiucham, Norfolk, 1789; F.L.S., 1798-1801; published The Vocabulary of East Auglia (edited by Rev. George Tunier, 1830).,
  460. ^ Francis Forcer, the elder (1650?–1705?), musical composer; joint-lessee of Sadler's Wells music gardens, c. 1697; several of his songs included in Playford's Choyce Ayres and Dialogues.
  461. ^ Francis Forcer, the younger (1675?–1743), master of Sadler's Wells, 1724-43.
  462. ^ Ann Ford (1737–1824). See Ann Thicknesse.
  463. ^ David Everard Ford (1797–1875), author and musical composer; congregational minister at Lyinington and Manchester; published Decapolis 1840, and other religious works, as well asRudiments of Music 1829, and several books of psalm and hymn tunes.
  464. ^ Edward Ford (fl. 1647), ballad and verse writer; four of his ballads found in the Roxburghe Collection and another in Halli well's Norfolk Anthology
  465. ^ Sir Edward Ford (1605–1670), royalist soldier and inventor; educated at Trinity College, Oxford; knighted, 1643; surrendered Arundel Castle after seventeen dayssiege, 164-1; imprisoned and incapacitated; escaped to the continent; returned to negotiate with the army, 1647; again imprisoned; devised an engine for raising the Thames water into the higher streets of London, 1656; with Thomas Toogood constructed other water-engines; died in Ireland, where he had a patent for coining farthings by a new process.
  466. ^ Edward Ford (1746–1809), surgeon to the Westminster Dispensary, 1780-1801; F.S.A., 1792; published 'Observations on the Disease of the Hip Joint 1794, reissued by his nephew, Thomas Copeland, 1810-18.
  467. ^ Emanuel Ford (fl. 1607), romance writer; author ofParismusorParismenos(1598-9), frequently reprinted till 1704, and two similar works reissued as chap-books.
  468. ^ Sir Francis Clare Ford (1828–1899), diplomatist; son of Richard Ford; entered diplomatic service, 1851, and was secretary of embassy at St. Petersburg, 1871, and Vienna, 1872; British agent on commission on United States fishery rights, Halifax, 1877; C.B. and O.M.G., 1878; British minister in Argentine Republic, 1878, Brazil, 1879, Athens, 1881, Madrid, 1884; ambassador at Madrid, 1887, Constantinople, 1892, and Rome, 1893-8; G.C.M.G., 1886; privy councillor, 1888; G.C.B., 1889.
  469. ^ Sir Henry Ford (1619?–1684), Irish secretary ; M.P. for Tiverton, 1664-81; secretary to Lord Robartes, viceroy of Ireland, 1669-70, and to the Earl of Essex, 1672, when he was knighted; F.R.S., 1663.
  470. ^ James Ford (1779–1850), antiquary; fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, 1807; M.A., 1804; B.D., 1812; vicar of Navestock, 1830-50; left bequests to Trinity College "and Oxford University; made collections "for u new edition of Morant's Essex (at Trinity), and collection for a history of bishops (in British Museum).
  471. ^ John Ford (fl. 1639), dramatist ; admitted at the Middle Temple, 1602; probably spent his last years in Devonshire; his chief plays, the Lovers Melancholy 1629, "Tis Pity Shee's a Whore 1633,The Broken Heart 1633, theChronicle Historic of Perkin Warbeck 1634, andThe Ladies Triall 1638; collaborated with Dekker and Rowley in theWitch of Edmonton (1624). Four unpublished pieces were destroyed by Bishop Warburton's cook. The best edition of his collected works is Dyce's reissue of Gifford's edition (1869).
  472. ^ Michael Ford (d. 1758?), mezzotint engraver; probably drowned in the Dublin Trader between Parkgate and Dublin; his engraved portraits, including Kneller's William III and Hudson's George II, and some from his own paintings (William III and Schomberg), are rare.
  473. ^ Richard Ford (1796–1858), critic and author; educated at Winchester and Trinity College, Oxford; M.A., 1822; spent several years making riding tours in Spain: contributed from 1837 to the Quarterly, Edinburgh and Westminster reviews; publishedH;uilbook for Travellers in Spain 1845, Gatherings from Spain 1846, and other works; his articles first brought Velasquez into notice in England.
  474. ^ Roger of Ford (fl. 1170?), Cistercian monk.
  475. ^ Simon Ford (1619?–1699), divine; of Magdalen College, Oxford, from which he was expelled for puritanism; restored by parliamentary visitors; made delegate, and created B.D., 160; afterwards vicar of St. Lawrence, Reading, All Saints, Northampton, and St. Mary Aldermanbury: vicar of Old Swinford, 1676-91; published, with other works, three Latin poems on the fire of London.
  476. ^ Stephen Ford (d. 1694), nonconformist divine; ejected from Chipping Norton vicarage, 1662; minister for thirty years in Miles Lane, Cannon Street; subscribed John Faldo's Quakerism no Christianity 1675; published theological tracts.
  477. ^ Thomas Ford (d. 1648), composer; musician to Henry, prince of Wales; published Musicke of Sundrie Kindes (Book I of songs, Book II of instrumental pieces), 1607, and contributed anthems and canons to Leighton's and Hilton's compilations.
  478. ^ Thomas Ford (1598–1674), nonconformist divine; M.A. Magdalen Hall. Oxford, 1627; expelled the university for a puritan sermon, 1631; sometime minister at Hamburg; minister of Aldwinkle All Saints, Northamptonshire, 1637, of St. Faith's, London, and afterwards at Exeter; member of the Westminster Assembly, 1644; published theological works.
  479. ^ William Ford or Foord (fl. 1616), divine; fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1581; M.A., 1582; B.D., 1591; chaplain to the Levant Company at Constantinople; returned, 1614.
  480. ^ William Ford (1771–1832), bookseller and bibliographer; successively of Manchester and Liverpool; the original edition of Venus and Adonis contained in his first catalogue, 1805; others issued, 1807, 1810-11; contributed to Bibliographiana(Manchester, 1817) and the Retrospective Review.
  481. ^ Francis Forde (d. 1770), conqueror of Masulipatam; second in command to Clive in Bengal, 1758; took Masulipatam with a small force and drove the French from the Deccan, 1769; defeated the Dutch at Chinsurah; one of the supervisors sent out in 1769 by the East India Company, who disappeared,
  482. ^ Samuel Forde (1805–1828), painter ; master in the Cork MechanicsInstitute; friend of Maclise; painted 'Vision of Tragedyand a crucifixion for Skibbereen chapel.
  483. ^ Thomas Forde (d. 1582), Roman catholic divine; fellow of Trinity College, Oxford; M.A. Trinity College, Oxford, 1567; B.D. of Doiiay, 1576; executed on charge of conspiracy; beatified, 1886.
  484. ^ Thomas Forde (fl. 1660), author: his 'Times Anatomized (1647) wrongly attributed to Fuller; published alsoLusus Fortunse 1649, and Virtus Rediviva 1660.
  485. ^ George Fordham (1837–1887), jockey; won the Cambridgeshire on Little David, 1853; headed the list of winning jockeys, 1855-62, scoring 165 wins in the last year; won the Oaks five times, the Cambridgeshire (Sabinus), 1871, and the Derby (Sir Bevys), 1879; gained the Grand Prix de Paris four times, the French Derby twice, and the French Oaks once.
  486. ^ John Fordun (d. 1384?), part author of the 'Scotichronicon'; probably a chantry priest at Aberdeen; said to have collected materials in England and Ireland, as well as Scotland, 1363-84; compiled also 'Gesta Aunalia in continuation of the Scotichronicon
  487. ^ Alexander Fordyce (d. 1789), banker; son of the provost of Aberdeen: partner in London firm of Neale, James, Fordyce & Down; absconded, 1772, after which the bank stopped payment, causing a great panic.
  488. ^ David Fordyce (1711–1751), professor at Aberdeen; brother of Alexander Fordyce; M.A. Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1728; professor of moral philosophy, 1742-51; perished in a storm off the coast of Holland: published hisDialogues concerning Education (1746-8, anon.) andElements of Moral Philosophy (1754), besides posthumous works.
  489. ^ George Fordyce (1736–1802), physician ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1758; lectured in London on chemistry, materia medica, and practical physic; physician at St. Thomas's Hospital, 1770-1802; F.R.S., 1776; F.R.C.P., speciali gratia, 1787; published of Physic (1768-70), Treatise on Digestion 1791, and five important dissertations on fever, besides chemical works.
  490. ^ James Fordyce (1720–1796), presbyterian divine : uncle of George Fordyce; M.A. Aberdeen, 1763; D.D. Glasgow; minister of Brechin, 1745, Alloa, 1753, and Monkwell Street, London, 1760-82; friend of Dr. Johnson, whose religious character he described in his Addresses to the Deity 1786.
  491. ^ Sir William Fordyce (1724–1792) physician: brother of David, James, and Alexander Fordyce; an army surgeon in war of 1742-8: began to practise in London, 1750; M.D. Cambridge, 1770; knighted, 1787; lord rector of Aberdeen (Marischal College) at death. Some of his works were translated into German.
  492. ^ John Forest (1474?–1538), martyr ; member of Franciscan houses at Greenwich and Watergate, Oxford; as confessor of Catherine of Arragon displeased Henry VIII and was removed, 1533; subsequently imprisoned; burnt at Smithfield for his book against the king's assumption of the headship of the church, Bishop Latimer being present.
  493. ^ James Forester (fl. 1611), theological and medical writer; M.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1583; indicted for writing against the queen's prerogative in church matters, 1593; publishedThe Pearle of Practise 1594, and Marrow and Juice of 260 Scriptures 1611.
  494. ^ Earls Op Forfar . See DOUGLAS, ARCHIBALD, first EARL, 1653-1712; DOUGLAS, ARCHIBALD, second EARL, 1693-1715.
  495. ^ Dallan Forgaill (fl. 600). See Dallan.
  496. ^ Lord Forglen (d. 1727). See Alexander Ogilvy.
  497. ^ Andrew Forman (d. 1522), archbishop of St. Andrews; as protonotary attended Perkin Warbeck in Scotland, 1495-6; one of the ambassadors to Henry VII, 1498; negotiated marriage of James IV and Margaret Tudor, 1501; bishop of Moray, 1502; ambassador in England, 1509: negotiated alliance between Louis XII and Pope Julius II; archbishop of Bourges, 1513-15; archbishop of St. Andrews after much opposition, 1516; author ofContra LutherumDe Stoica Philosophia andCollectanea Decretalium; documents relating to him printed in Robertson's notes to Scotias Concilia
  498. ^ Simon Forman (1552–1611), astrologer and quack doctor; left destitute by his father; entered Magdalen College, Oxford, as a poor scholar 1573; claimed miraculous powers, c. 1579; began to practise as a quack in London, 1580; finally set up in London as an astrologer, 1583; obtained a large disreputable practice, chiefly among court ladies; frequently imprisoned at the instance of medical and other authorities; began to practise necromancy, 1588; granted a license to practise medicine by Cambridge University, 1603; his philtres referred to in Ben Jonson'sEpicene publishedThe G rounds of the Longitude 1591. Among his manuscripts which came into possession of Ashmole, The Bocke of Plaies contains the earliest account of the performances of Macbeth (1610), the Winter's Tale (1611), and Cymbeline