Wikipedia:WikiProject Women in Red/Research

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This page documents published peer-reviewed research on gender gaps within Wikipedia, Wikidata, and Wikimedia Commons. Most of the research is related to English Wikipedia's content gender gap, but not all.

WMF research-related information[edit]

Community research[edit]

Research department[edit]

Research grants[edit]

Peer-reviewed research[edit]


  1. Arnaout, Hiba; Razniewski, Simon; Pan, Jeff Z. (2 June 2023). "Wiki-based Communities of Interest: Demographics and Outliers". Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. 17. Retrieved 18 September 2023.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Conroy, Melanie (11 May 2023). "Quantifying the Gap: The Gender Gap in French Writers' Wikidata". Journal of Cultural Analytics. 8 (2). Retrieved 22 May 2023.
  3. Lemieux, Mackenzie Emily; Zhang, Rebecca; Tripodi, Francesca (29 March 2023). ""Too Soon" to count? How gender and race cloud notability considerations on Wikipedia". Big Data & Society. doi:10.1177/20539517231165490. Retrieved 2 April 2023.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Jiajing; Yan, Erjia; Ni, Chaoqun (February 2023). "Gender and country biases in Wikipedia citations to scholarly publications". JASIST. 74 (2). doi:10.1002/asi.24723.
  5. Venus, Nicole (14 August 2023). "The Representation of Female Economists on Wikipedia". SSRN 4540744.


  1. Meyer, Christine (May 2022). "'If You Want to Change the World, Edit Wikipedia': Mitigating the Gender Gap and Systemic Bias on Wikipedia". University of Idaho. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  2. Fan, Angela; Gardent, Claire (30 March 2022). "Generating Full Length Wikipedia Biographies: The Impact of Gender Bias on the Retrieval-Based Generation of Women Biographies" (PDF). ACL. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  3. Oldach, Laurel (8 March 2022). "What's with Wikipedia and women?". ASBMBTODAY. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  4. Langrock, Isabelle; González-Bailón, Sandra (June 2022). "The Gender Divide in Wikipedia: Quantifying and Assessing the Impact of Two Feminist Interventions". Journal of Communication. 72 (3): 297–321. doi:10.1093/joc/jqac004.
  5. Beytía, Pablo; Wagner, Claudia (22 March 2022). "Visibility layers: a framework for systematising the gender gap in Wikipedia content". Internet Policy Review. 11 (1). doi:10.14763/2022.1.1621.
  6. Gupta, Sneh; Trehan, Kulveen (2022). "Twitter reacts to absence of women on Wikipedia: a mixed-methods analysis of #VisibleWikiWomen campaign". Media Asia. 49 (2): 130–154. doi:10.1080/01296612.2021.2003100.
  7. Chakraborty, Anwesha; Hussain, Netha (7 March 2022). "Documenting the gender gap in Indian Wikipedia communities: Findings from a qualitative pilot study". First Monday. 27 (3). doi:10.5210/fm.v27i3.11443.


  1. Beytía, Pablo; Agarwal, Pushkal; Redi, Miriam; Singh, Vivek K. (December 2021). "Visual Gender Biases in Wikipedia: A Systematic Evaluation across the Ten Most Spoken Languages" (Preprint). SocArXiv. doi:10.31235/ S2CID 244806764. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  2. Zhang, Charles Chuankai; Terveen, Loren (15 October 2021). "Quantifying the Gap: A Case Study of Wikidata Gender Disparities". ACM Digital Library. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  3. Ferran-Ferrer, Núria; Castellanos-Pineda, Patricia; Minguillón, Julià; Meneses, Julio (September 6, 2021). "The gender gap on the Spanish Wikipedia: Listening to the voices of women editors". El Profesional de la Información. 30 (5). doi:10.3145/epi.2021.sep.16. S2CID 241442991. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  4. Tripodi, Francesca (27 June 2021). "Ms. Categorized: Gender, notability, and inequality on Wikipedia". New Media & Society. doi:10.1177/14614448211023772. S2CID 237883867.
  5. Berson, Amber; Sengul-Jones, Monika; Tamani, Melissa (June 2021). "Unreliable Guidelines: Reliable Sources and Marginalized Communities in French, English and Spanish Wikipedias" (PDF). Art+Feminism.
  6. Klein, Maximilian (15 March 2021). "Humaniki March Update: Public Launch of Alpha Release". Wikimedia. Retrieved 26 March 2021. Humaniki provides a wide variety of gender gap statistics based on Wikidata.
  7. Minguillón, Julià; Mesneses, Julio; Aibar, Eduard; Ferran-Ferrer, Núria (23 February 2021). "Exploring the gender gap in the Spanish Wikipedia: Differences in engagement and editing practices". PLOS One. 16 (2): e0246702. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1646702M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0246702. PMC 7901774. PMID 33621229.
  8. Sun, Jiao; Peng, Nanyun (2021). Men Are Elected, Women Are Married: Events Gender Bias on Wikipedia (PDF). ACL. arXiv:2106.01601. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
  9. Lir, Shlomit Aharoni (2021). "Strangers in a seemingly open-to-all website: the gender bias in Wikipedia". Equality, Diversity and Inclusion. 40 (7): 801–818. doi:10.1108/EDI-10-2018-0198.
  10. Falenska, Agnieszka; Çetinoglu, Özlem (2021). Assessing Gender Bias in Wikipedia: Inequalities in Article Titles (PDF). ACL. pp. 75–85. Retrieved 4 September 2023.


  1. Johnson, Isaac; Lemmerich, Florian; Sáez-Trumper, Diego; Strohmaier, Markus; West, Robert; Zia, Leila (20 July 2020). "Global gender differences in Wikipedia readership". arXiv:2007.10403.
  2. Gerlach, Martin (June 2020). "Metrics for quantifying the gender content gap". Wikimedia. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  3. Schmahl, Katja Geertruida; Viering, Tom Julian; Makrodimitris1, Stavros; Naseri Jahfari, Arman; Tax, David M. J.; Loog, Marco (2020). Is Wikipedia succeeding in reducing gender bias? Assessing changes in gender bias in Wikipedia using word embeddings (PDF). ALC. doi:10.18653/v1/2020.nlpcss-1.11. S2CID 226283827. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
  4. Young, Amber G; Wigdor, Ariel D.; Kane, Gerald C. (2020). "The Gender Bias Tug-of-War in a Co-creation Community: Core-Periphery Tension on Wikipedia". Journal of Management Information Systems. 37 (4): 1047=1072. doi:10.1080/07421222.2020.1831773.
  5. Bolón Brun, Natalie; Kypraiou, Sofia; Gullón Altés, Natalia; Petlacalco Barrios, Irene (April 2020). Wikigender: A Machine Learning Model to Detect Gender Bias in Wikipedia (PDF). Wiki Workshop 2020. arXiv:2211.07520. Retrieved 4 September 2023.


  1. Schellekens, Menno; Holstege, Floris; Yasseri, Taha (12 April 2019). "Female scholars need to achieve more for equal public recognition". arXiv:1904.06310.
  2. Menking, Amanda; Erickson, Ingrid; Pratt, Wanda (9 May 2019). "People Who Can Take It: How Women Wikipedians Negotiate and Navigate Safety in Proceedings of CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Proceedings (CHI 2019)". ACM, New York. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  3. Adams, Julia; Bruckner, Hannah; Naslund, Cambria (2019). "Who Counts as a Notable Sociologist on Wikipedia? Gender, Race, and the "Professor Test"". Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World. 5: 1–14. doi:10.1177/2378023118823946.


  1. Cabrera, Benjamin; Ross, Björn; Dado, Marielle; Heisel, Maritta (15 June 2018). "The Gender Gap in Wikipedia Talk Pages". Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. 12 (1). doi:10.1609/icwsm.v12i1.15053. ISSN 2334-0770. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  2. Björn Ross, Marielle Dado, Maritta Heisel, Benjamin Cabrera, Gender Markers in Wikipedia Usernames, Wiki Workshop, April 2018, Lyon, France
  3. Luo, Wei; Adams, Julia; Brueckner, Hannah (2018). "The Ladies Vanish? American Sociology and the Genealogy of its Missing Women on Wikipedia". Comparative Sociology. 17 (5): 519–556. doi:10.1163/15691330-12341471.


  1. Vitulli, Marie A. (20 October 2017). "Writing Women in Mathematics into Wikipedia". arXiv:1710.11103v3.
  2. Hube, Christoph (3 April 2017). "Bias in Wikipedia" (PDF). Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion - WWW '17 Companion. Semantic Scholar. pp. 717–721. doi:10.1145/3041021.3053375. ISBN 9781450349147. S2CID 10472970. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  3. Ford, Heather; Wajcman, Judy (1 August 2017). "'Anyone can edit' not everyone does: Wikipedia and the gender gap". Social Studies of Science : SSS : An International Review of Research in the Social Dimensions of Science and Technology. Social Studies of Science (via LSE). 47 (4). ISSN 0306-3127. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  4. Hinnosaar, Marit (May 2015). "Gender Inequality in New Media: Evidence from Wikipedia". Carlo Alberto Notebooks. EconPapers. ISSN 2279-9362. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  5. Zagovora, Olga; Flöck, Fabian; Wagner, Claudia. ""(Weitergeleitet von Journalistin)": The Gendered Presentation of Professions on Wikipedia". arXiv:1706.03848.


  1. Klein, Maximilian; et al. (2016). "Monitoring the Gender Gap with Wikidata Human Gender Indicators" (PDF). Berlin: OpenSym. Retrieved 1 September 2023 – via Internet Archive.
  2. Wagner, Claudia; Graells-Garrido, Eduardo; Garcia, David; Menczer, Filippo (1 March 2016). "Women through the glass ceiling: gender asymmetries in Wikipedia". EPJ Data Science. 5. arXiv:1601.04890. doi:10.1140/epjds/s13688-016-0066-4. S2CID 1769950.
  3. Young, Amber; Wigdor, Ari; Kane, Gerald C. (December 2016). "It's Not What You Think: Gender Bias in Information about Fortune 1000 CEOs on Wikipedia". International Conference for Information Systems, Dublin. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  4. Nicolaes, Feli (2016). "Gender Bias on Wikipedia. An analysis of the affiliation network". Scripties - Bibliotheek - Universiteit van Amsterdam. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  5. Jemielniak, Dariusz (2016). "breaking the glass ceiling on Wikipedia". Feminist Review. 113: 103–108. JSTOR 44987268.


  1. Klein, Maximilian (2 December 2015). "Wikipedia Gender Indicators (WIGI)". WMF labs. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  2. Graells-Garrido, Eduardo; Lalmas, Mounia; Menczer, Filippo (2 June 2015). "First Women, Second Sex: Gender Bias in Wikipedia". Proceedings of the 26th ACM Conference on Hypertext & Social Media. p. 165. arXiv:1502.02341. doi:10.1145/2700171.2791036. ISBN 978-1-4503-3395-5. S2CID 1082360. (Important finding: an analysis of the DBPedia Wikipedia subset shows that 15% of biographies are of women.)
  3. Klein, Maximilian; Konieczny, Piotr (2015). "Gender Gap Through Time and Space: A Journey Through Wikipedia Biographies and the "WIGI" Index". arXiv:1502.03086 [cs.CY]. (Interesting study, currently under peer review)
  4. Wagner, Claudia; Garcia, David; Jadidi, Mohsen; Strohmaier, Markus (23 March 2015). "It's a Man's Wikipedia? Assessing Gender Inequality in an Online Encyclopedia". arXiv:1501.06307 [cs.CY].
  5. Wilson, Jason (10 February 2015). "Are misogynists running Wikipedia?". Overland.
  6. Helgeson, Björn (2015). The Swedish Wikipedia Gender Gap (PDF) (MSc). KTH. Retrieved 4 September 2023.


  1. Bourdeloie, Hélène; Vicente, Michaël (2014). "Contributing to Wikipedia: A Question of Gender". In Fichman, Pnina; Hara, Noriko (eds.). Global Wikipedia: International and Cross-Cultural Issues in Online Collaboration. Lanham: Rowman et Littlefield.
  2. Hargittai, Eszter; Shaw, Aaron (4 November 2014). "Mind the skills gap: the role of Internet know-how and gender in differentiated contributions to Wikipedia". Information, Communication & Society. Informa UK: Information, Communication & Society, Vol 18. 18 (4): 424–442. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2014.957711. S2CID 143468397.
  3. Massa, Paolo; Zelenkauskaite, Asta (2014). "Gender Gap in Wikipedia Editing: A Cross Language Comparison" (PDF). In Fichman, Pnina; Hara, Noriko (eds.). Global Wikipedia: International and Cross-Cultural Issues in Online Collaboration. Lanham: Rowman et Littlefield. pp. 85–96.


  1. Hill, Benjamin Mako; Shaw, Aaron (26 June 2013). "The Wikipedia Gender Gap Revisited: Characterizing Survey Response Bias with Propensity Score Estimation". PLOS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065782.
  2. Ridge, Mia (2013). "New Challenges in Digital History: Sharing Women's History on Wikipedia". Women's History in the Digital World. Retrieved 4 September 2023.


  1. Reagle, Joseph; Rhue, Lauren (2011). "Gender Bias in Wikipedia and Britannica". International Journal of Communication. Joseph Reagle & Lauren Rhue. 5: 1138–1158. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2014.

See also[edit]