Sinking of the RMS Titanic (nom) by Prioryman. On the evening of 14 April 1912, the RMS Titanic—the largest ship in the world at the time—struck an iceberg and sank in the middle of the Atlantic ocean. Over a period of nearly three hours, spanning into the morning of 15 April, the ship slowly sank and eventually split in half. Despite measures taken to abandon ship, due to a lack of lifeboats over a thousand of her 2,223 passengers and crew remained on board when the Titanic finally slipped into the water. The sinking caused the deaths of 1,517 people, many from hypothermia; other passengers were rescued from the lifeboats by the RMS Carpathia. The sinking led to the establishment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea in 1914, which continues to govern sea safety.
James Tod (nom) by Sitush. Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod (1782–1835) was an English officer of the British East India Company and an Oriental scholar. He combined his official role and his amateur interests to create a series of works about the history and geography of India, in particular the area then known as Rajputana (the present day state of Rajasthan). He joined the East India Company as a military officer and travelled to India in 1799 as a cadet in the Bengal Army. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, he was appointed Political Agent for some areas of Rajputana. After returning to England, Tod published a number of academic works about Indian history and geography. His major works have been criticised as containing significant inaccuracies and bias, but he is highly regarded in some areas of India, particularly among those communities whose ancestors he praised. His accounts of India in general, especially of the Rajputs, had a significant impact on British views of the area for many years.
United States v. Wong Kim Ark (nom) by Richwales. United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that virtually everyone born in the United States is a US citizen. This decision established an important precedent in its interpretation of the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Wong Kim Ark, who was born in the United States to Chinese parents around 1871, had been denied re-entry to the US after a trip abroad, under a law restricting Chinese immigration and prohibiting immigrants from China from becoming naturalized US citizens. He challenged the government's refusal to recognize his citizenship, and the Supreme Court ruled in his favor, holding that the citizenship language in the Fourteenth Amendment encompassed essentially everyone born in the US—even the US-born children of foreigners—and could not be limited in its effect by an act of Congress.
Birth control movement in the United States (nom) by Noleander. The birth control movement in the United States was a social reform campaign from 1914 to around 1945 that aimed to increase the availability of contraception through education and legalization. In 1914 a group of political radicals in New York City, led by Emma Goldman, Mary Dennett, and Margaret Sanger, focused on the hardships that childbirth and self-induced abortions brought to low-income women. Information about contraception was considered obscene at the time, so activists targeted the Comstock laws, which prohibited distribution of any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" materials through the mail. Hoping to provoke a favorable legal decision, Sanger deliberately broke the law by distributing The Woman Rebel, a newsletter containing a discussion of contraception. In 1916, Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, but the clinic was immediately shut down by police, and Sanger was sentenced to 30 days in jail.
Elizabeth II (nom) by Rockhead126 and DrKiernan. Elizabeth II (born 1926) is the Queen of the United Kingdom, its territories and dependencies, and 15 other Commonwealth realms. She succeeded her father, George VI, as monarch and as Head of the Commonwealth 60 years ago in 1952; her Diamond Jubilee is being celebrated during 2012. In 1947 she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, with whom she has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward. In 1992, Charles and Andrew separated from their wives, and Anne divorced. Charles and his wife, Diana, Princess of Wales, divorced in 1996. The following year, Diana died in a Paris car crash, and the media criticised the royal family for remaining in seclusion in the days before her funeral. Elizabeth's personal popularity rebounded after she appeared in public and has subsequently remained high.
1907 Tiflis bank robbery (nom) by Remember. The 1907 Tiflis bank robbery was a robbery of a bank stagecoach on 26 June 1907 in the city of Tiflis (now Tbilisi). The robbers attacked the stagecoach and surrounding security using bombs and guns killing forty people and injuring fifty others. The robbers escaped with 341,000 rubles (equivalent to around US $3.4 million in 2008) but were unable to use most of the large bank notes obtained because their serial numbers were known to the police. The robbery was organized by a number of high-level Bolsheviks, including Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leonid Krasin, and executed by a gang of Georgian revolutionaries led by Stalin's early associate Kamo. Kamo, the only conspirator charged for the robbery, was caught shortly after the robbery in Germany, but he avoided his first prison sentence by feigning insanity for three years and had a later death sentence commuted.
John Balmer (nom) by Ian Rose. John Raeburn Balmer, OBE, DFC (1910 – 1944) was a senior officer and bomber pilot in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Born in Bendigo, Victoria, he studied law before joining the RAAF as an air cadet in 1932. An instructor from 1935 to 1937, he achieved renown in Air Force circles when he reportedly parachuted from a training aircraft to motivate his pupil to land single-handedly. Posted to England in June 1943, Balmer took command of No. 467 Squadron RAAF, flying Avro Lancasters in the air war over Europe. He led his unit through the Battle of Berlin from November 1943 to March 1944. In April he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, and the following month promoted to temporary group captain. On the night of 11/12 May, the last scheduled operation of his tour as No. 467 Squadron's commanding officer, Balmer failed to return from a mission over Belgium. Initially posted as missing, his plane was later confirmed to have been shot down, and all of the crew killed.
Eleven featured lists were promoted this week:
List of India Twenty20 International cricketers (nom) by Vensatry. The Indian Twenty20 national cricket team—which plays a form of cricket which is played over 20 overs per side—is the fifth most successful such team since the variant was started in 2005. Having played since 2006, the team has seen 41 players, including three captains. Gautam Gambhir has scored the most runs, with 697.
List of LSU Tigers head football coaches (nom) by Patriarca12. The Louisiana State University American football team has had 32 coaches since being established in 1893, ten of whom have led the Tigers to postseason bowl games. Allen Jeardeau has the highest winning percentage of coaches who have coached more than one game, winning 87% of games coached. The longest serving was Charles McClendon, who coached for eighteen years from 1962 to 1979.
2000 Summer Paralympics medal table (nom) by 99of9. The 2000 summer Paralympics, held in Sydney, Australia, was the second largest sporting event in Australian history and set several new Paralympic records, including for attendance. Sixty-eight countries won 1,657 medals; 122 countries (or 123 delegations including independent athletes from Timor-Leste) participated. The strongest showing was by Australia, which won 149 medals (including 63 gold).
Mr. Basketball USA (nom) by TonyTheTiger. Mr. Basketball USA, formerly known as the EA SPORTS National Player of the Year, is an award established in 1996 that gives recognition to the United States boys' high school basketball national player of the year. Awarded by ESPN HS, the award has been retroactively given to former high school stars dating back to Wilt Chamberlain in 1955. The selection is made by a 10-member panel.
List of colleges and universities in North Dakota (nom) by Ruby 2010. Twenty one colleges and universities in the US state of North Dakota are listed under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, of which North Dakota State University is the largest. The oldest is Jamestown College, while the most recently founded is Rasmussen College. Three institutions of post-secondary education have been closed.
Jennifer Lopez filmography (nom) by Status. Jennifer Lopez (born 1969)—also known as J.Lo—is an American actress, businesswoman, dancer and recording artist who has appeared in many motion pictures, television shows and music videos. She is one of the highest paid actresses in Hollywood and is the highest paid actor of Latin descent. She received her first leading role in Selena in 1997, a critical and commercial success. The simultaneous release of The Wedding Planner and her second album J.Lo in 2001 made Lopez the first person in history to have a number one album and film in the same week. In 2011 she became a judge on the reality television singing competition American Idol.
List of Israel State Cup winners (nom) by Cliftonian and HonorTheKing. Since the Eretz Israel Football Association was founded in 1928, it has organised a nationwide knockout cup competition almost every football season. This cup was originally held in the British Mandate for Palestine and named the People's Cup, but when Israel became independent in 1948, the tournament was renamed the Israel State Cup. "Eretz" was dropped from the association's name at the same time. The present cup holders are the Israeli Premier League club Hapoel Tel Aviv, who beat Maccabi Haifa 1–0 in the 2011 final.
Eric B. & Rakim discography (nom) by Michael Jester. The discography of Eric B. & Rakim, an American hip hop duo, consists of four studio albums, five compilation albums, fifteen singles, and nine music videos. Their debut album Paid in Full was released in 1987 and charted in several countries. Subsequently they released Follow the Leader in 1988 and Let the Rhythm Hit in 1990, both of which RIAA certified gold. In 1992, after their fourth studio album Don't Sweat the Technique was released to less acclaim, Eric B. & Rakim disbanded. None of their compilation albums have charted.
List of members of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the 1960s (nom) by Trust Is All You Need. Members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union came from the nomenklatura, the country's de facto ruling class. Nikita Khrushchev chaired the Politburo from 1955 to 1964. When a Western journalist asked Khrushchev in 1963 who would succeed him, Khrushchev responded bluntly "Brezhnev". After a prolonged power struggle, Khrushchev was ousted from power in 1964, and Leonid Brezhnev succeeded him, chairing the Politburo until 1982.
1992 Major League Baseball expansion draft (nom) by Muboshgu. On November 17, 1992, Major League Baseball (MLB) held an expansion draft in New York City to allow the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies to build their rosters before debuting in the National League (NL) East and the NL West divisions, respectively, in the 1993 MLB season. The Marlins and Rockies employed different strategies to build their teams. The Rockies, with a smaller operating budget than the Marlins, targeted prospects with low salaries; the Marlins selected older players hoping for more immediate impact.
List of culinary nuts (nom) by Waitak. Culinary nuts are dry, edible fruits or seeds, usually but not always, with a high fat content. Nuts have a variety of uses in food, including in baking, as snacks (either roasted or raw), and as flavoring. In addition to botanical nuts, fruits and seeds having a similar appearance and culinary role are also considered to be culinary nuts.
Ten featured pictures were promoted this week:
Floury Baker cicada (nom; related article) by 99of9. Abricta curvicosta, better known as the floury baker, is a type of cicada that is common in Australia. Measuring 9–10 cm (4 in) in length, the species is named for its appearance which makes it look like it has been covered in flour.
Hadji Ali (nom; related article), created by unknown photographer and restored by Crisco 1492. The photograph is of famed vaudeville performer Hadji Ali demonstrating his skills of controlled regurgitation in public at the Egyptian Legation, March 27, 1926. White and black spots, dust, scratches, and other imperfections on the original picture have been cleaned up.
Franz Josef Glacier (nom; related article) Created by Jörg Hempel and nominated by Elekhh. The Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand is part of the Westland Tai Poutini National Park. The glacier exhibits a cyclic pattern of advance and retreat. By mid-2010 its latest cycle of advance had ended and is currently in a state of retreat.
G.D. Kennedy (nom; related article), created by Allan C. Green (1878-1954) and nominated by Mmxx. The ship shown in the featured picture, known as the G.D. Kennedy at the time the photograph was taken, changed its name to the af Chapman in 1923. The full-rigged steel ship, once used to circumnavigate the globe, is currently used as a youth hostel in central Stockholm, Sweden.
Australian House of Representatives (nom; related article) by JJ Harrison. The Australian House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the Australian parliament. The meeting chamber, depicted in the new featured picture, contains seating for the 150 members of the house and more seating for visitors. Photography while meetings are in session is prohibited.
Australian Senate (nom; related article) by JJ Harrison. The Australian Senate is the upper chamber of the Australian parliament. The meeting chamber, depicted in the new featured picture, contains seating for the 76 members of the senate and more seating for visitors. Both this picture and the one of the house of representatives were taken from the lower level, which is generally off-limits.
Washington Dulles International Airport at Dusk (nom; related article), created by Jovianeye and nominated by Ottojula. This new featured picture depicts the main terminal of the Washington Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia, designed in 1958 by Finnish American Eero Saarinen and recognized by the American Institute of Architects in 1966 for its design concept, including a hanging catenary roof. A discussion over an edited version that corrected for a perceived "tilt in the tower" ended with support for the original version, with the tilt deemed to be an optical illusion.
Jan Jacob Rochussen (nom; related article), created by Nicolaas Pieneman and nominated by Crisco 1492. Jan Jacob Rochussen (1797–1871) served several positions in the Dutch government, including as prime minister from 18 March 1858 to 23 February 1860. The new featured painting depicts him in 1845, soon after being chosen as governor general of the Dutch East Indies.
Lady with an Ermine by Leonardo da Vinci (nom; related article), created by Leonardo da Vinci and nominated with some restoration by Brandmeister. Lady with an Ermine, a c. 1489 oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts Cecilia Gallerani holding an ermine, a symbol of purity. At the time of the portrait Gallerani was aged 16 and is thought to have been the mistress of the Duke of Milan, da Vinci's benefactor. The painting has undergone several conservation efforts and now includes elements which were not there originally, including a signature reading "LEONARDO DAWINCI".
One featured portal was promoted:
Animation (nom) by Northamerica1000 and Jj98. Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D artwork or model positions to create an illusion of movement. The portal contains an extensive presentation of content, including articles, biographies, pictures, lists, topics and other material relating to animation.