Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2017-08-05/Featured content
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This Signpost "Featured content" report covers material promoted from 30 June through 29 July. Text may be adapted from the respective articles and lists; see their page histories for attribution.
Three electrolytically refined lead nodules and a 1 cm3 cube for comparison. While this picture was featured in 2010, its subject has been brought to the lead more recently.
Twenty-eight featured articles were promoted this month.
- SMS Weissenburg (nominated by Parsecboy) was one of the first ocean-going battleships of the Imperial German Navy. She was the third pre-dreadnought of the Brandenburg class. Weissenburg served with the I Division during the first decade of her service with the fleet. This period was generally limited to training exercises and goodwill visits to foreign ports. Weissenburg, along with her three sisters, saw only one major overseas deployment during this period, to China in 1900–1901, during the Boxer Rebellion. The ship underwent a major modernization in 1904–1905. In 1910, Weissenburg was sold to the Ottoman Empire and renamed Turgut Reis, after the famous 16th century Turkish admiral. The ship saw heavy service during the Balkan Wars. After the Ottoman Empire entered World War I, she supported the fortresses protecting the Dardanelles through mid-1915, and was decommissioned from August 1915 to the end of the war. She served as a training ship from 1924 to 1933, and a barracks ship until 1950, when she was broken up.
- The green rosella (nominated by Cas Liber) is a species of parrot native to Tasmania and Bass Strait islands. At 37 cm (14.5 in) long it is the largest species of the rosella genus, Platycercus. Two subspecies are recognised. The green rosella's underparts, neck and head are yellow, with a red band above the beak and violet-blue cheeks. The back is mostly black and green, and its long tail blue and green. The sexes have similar plumage, except the female has duller yellow plumage and more prominent red markings, as well as a smaller beak. Juvenile and immature birds have predominantly green plumage. Found in a wide range of habitats with some form of tree cover, the green rosella is predominantly herbivorous, consuming seeds, berries, nuts and fruit, as well as flowers, but may also eat insect larvae and insects such as psyllids. Nesting takes place in tree hollows. Common and widespread across Tasmania, the green rosella is rated as least concern on the IUCN Red List of Endangered species.
- Northern England (nominated by Smurrayinchester) is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area. It extends from the Scottish border in the north to near the River Trent in the south. The region has been controlled by many groups, from the Brigantes, the largest Brythonic kingdom of Great Britain, to the Romans, to Anglo-Saxons, Celts and Danes. A definite North–South divide remains both in the economy and culture of England. Centuries of migration, invasion and labour have shaped Northern culture, and the region retains distinctive dialects, music and cuisine.
- The Metallurgical Laboratory (nominated by Hawkeye7) or "Met Lab" was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element plutonium. It researched plutonium's chemistry and metallurgy, designed the world's first nuclear reactors to produce it, and developed chemical processes to separate it from other elements. The lab's chemical section was the first to chemically separate a weighable sample of plutonium, and the Met Lab produced the first controlled nuclear chain reaction, in the reactor Chicago Pile-1, which was constructed under the stands of the University's old football stadium, Stagg Field.
- M-1 (nominated by Imzadi 1979) is a north–south state trunkline highway in the Metro Detroit area of the US state of Michigan. The highway, called "Detroit's Main Street", runs from Detroit north-northwesterly to Pontiac. It is one of the five principal avenues of Detroit.
- The British penny ( 1⁄240 of a pound sterling), a large, pre-decimal coin continuing the series of pennies that began about the year 700, was struck intermittently during the 20th century until its withdrawal after 1970. Concurrent with the reign of the House of Hanover, the History of the British penny (1714–1901) (nominated by Whewalt & Arwel Parry) saw its transformation from a little-used small silver coin to the bronze piece recognisable to modern-day Britons, by 1901 struck in the tens of millions each year. All bear the portrait of the monarch on the obverse; copper and bronze pennies have a depiction of Britannia on the reverse. During most of the 18th century, the penny was a small silver coin rarely seen in circulation, and that was principally struck to be used for Maundy money or other royal charity. Beginning in 1787, the chronic shortage of good money resulted in the wide circulation of private tokens, including large coppers valued at one penny. In 1797 industrialist Matthew Boulton gained a contract to produce official pennies at his Soho Mint in Birmingham; he struck millions of pennies over the next decade. After that, it was not until 1825 that pennies were struck again for circulation, and the copper penny continued to be issued until 1860. By the late 1850s, the state of the copper coinage was deemed unsatisfactory, with quantities of worn oversized pieces, some dating from Boulton's day, still circulating. They were replaced by lighter bronze coins beginning in 1860; the "Bun penny", named for the hairstyle of Queen Victoria on it, was issued from then until 1894. The final years of Victoria's reign saw the "Veiled head" or "Old head" pennies, which were coined from 1895 until her death in 1901. From 1901 to 1970 (nominated by Wehwalt), the obverse ("heads" side) of the bronze coin depicted the monarch who was reigning at the start of the year. No pennies were produced for commerce in 1933, as there were a sufficient number in circulation.
- Lead (nominated by R8R) is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials; it is soft, malleable, and melts at a relatively low temperature. When freshly cut, it has a bluish-white tint; it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air. Lead has the second-highest atomic number of the classically stable elements and lies at the end of three major decay chains of heavier elements. Lead has several properties that make it useful: high density, low melting point, ductility, and relative inertness to oxidation. In addition, lead is very common and inexpensive. However, due to its toxicity, lead is no longer in use in many fields of work.
- The Disneyland Railroad (nominated by Jackdude101) is a 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge heritage railroad and attraction located within the Disneyland theme park of the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California, in the United States. Its route is 1.2 miles (1.9 km) long and encircles the vast majority of the park, with four train stations in different areas. The rail line, which was built by WED Enterprises, is operated with two steam locomotives built by WED and three historic steam locomotives originally built by Baldwin Locomotive Works. The attraction originated as a concept created by Walt Disney, who drew inspiration from the ridable miniature Carolwood Pacific Railroad built in his backyard. Since 1955 when the Disneyland Railroad first opened to the public at the park's grand opening, it has been consistently billed as one of the top attractions. It is one of the world's most popular steam-powered railroads, with an estimated 6.6 million passengers served each year.
- The hooded pitohui (nominated by Sabine's Sunbird) is a species of bird in the genus Pitohui found in New Guinea. A medium-sized songbird with rich chestnut and black plumage, this species is one of the few known poisonous birds, containing a range of batrachotoxin compounds in its skin, feathers and other tissues. The hooded pitohui is found in forests from sea-level up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft), but is most common in hills and low mountains. A social bird, it lives in family groups and frequently joins and even leads mixed-species foraging flocks. The diet is made up of fruits, seeds and invertebrates.
- The T5 (nominated by Peacemaker67) was a sea-going torpedo boat that was operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941. Originally 87 F, a 250t-class torpedo boat of the Austro-Hungarian Navy built in 1914–1915, she was armed with two 66 mm (2.6 in) guns and four 450 mm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes, and could carry 10–12 naval mines. She saw active service during World War I. The ship was captured by the Italians during the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941. After her main armament was modernised, she served with the Royal Italian Navy under her Yugoslav designation. Following the Italian capitulation in September 1943, she was returned to the Royal Yugoslav Navy-in-exile and served as T5. At the end of the war she was transferred to the new Yugoslav Navy and was eventually broken up in 1962.
- Grevillea juniperina (nominated by Melburnian & Cas Liber) is a plant of the family Proteaceae native to eastern New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland in Australia. A small prickly leaved shrub between 0.2 and 3 m (8 in to 10 ft) high, G. juniperina grows generally on clay-based or alluvial soils in eucalypt woodland. The flower heads, known as inflorescences, appear from winter to early summer and are red, orange or yellow. Grevillea juniperina adapts readily to cultivation and has been important in horticulture as it is the parent of many popular garden hybrids.
- Banksia sceptrum (nominated by Cas Liber) occurs in Western Australia near the central west coast from Geraldton north through Kalbarri to Hamelin Pool. In nature, B. sceptrum grows in deep yellow or pale red sand in tall shrubland, commonly on dunes, being found as a shrub to 5 metres (16 ft) high, though often smaller in exposed areas. . B. sceptrum is one of the most striking yellow-flowered banksias of all. Its tall bright yellow spikes, known as inflorescences, are terminal and well displayed. Flowering is in summer, mainly December and January, though flowers are occasionally seen at other times.
- The Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele (nominated by Ceoil & Victoriaearle) is a large oil-on-oak panel painting completed around 1434–36 by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. It shows the painting's donor, Joris van der Paele, within an apparition of saints. The Virgin Mary is enthroned at the centre of the semicircular space, which most likely represents a church interior, with the Christ Child on her lap. St. Donatian stands to her right, Saint George—the donor's name saint—to her left. The panel was commissioned by van der Paele as an altarpiece. He was then a wealthy clergyman from Bruges, but elderly and gravely ill, and intended the work as his memorial. The van der Paele panel is widely considered one of van Eyck's most fully realised and ambitious works, and has been described as a "masterpiece of masterpieces".
- Macedonia (nominated by Pericles of Athens) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens, Sparta, and Thebes. During the reign of the Argead king Philip II (359–336 BC), Macedonia subdued mainland Greece and Thrace. Philip II's son Alexander the Great, leading a federation of Greek states, accomplished his father's objective of commanding the whole of Greece. During Alexander's subsequent campaign of conquest, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered territory that stretched as far as the Indus River. For a brief period, his Macedonian empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive Hellenistic state, inaugurating the transition to a new period of Ancient Greek civilization. Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in philosophy, engineering, and science spread throughout much of the ancient world. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the ensuing wars of the Diadochi, and the partitioning of Alexander's short-lived empire, Macedonia remained a Greek cultural and political center in the Mediterranean region along with Ptolemaic Egypt, the Seleucid Empire, and the Kingdom of Pergamon. New cities were founded, such as Thessalonica. Macedonia's decline began with the Macedonian Wars and the rise of Rome as the leading Mediterranean power. At the end of the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, the Macedonian monarchy was abolished and replaced by Roman client states. A short-lived revival of the monarchy during the Fourth Macedonian War in 150–148 BC ended with the establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia. The Macedonian kings, who wielded absolute power and commanded state resources facilitated mining operations to mint currency, finance their armies and, by the reign of Philip II, a Macedonian navy.
- Jacob Gens (nominated by Ealdgyth & :Renata3) was a Lithuanian Jewish head of the Vilnius Ghetto. He joined the Lithuanian Army, rising to the rank of captain. When Nazi Germany invaded Lithuania, Gens headed the Jewish hospital in Vilnius before the formation of the ghetto in September 1941. He was appointed chief of the ghetto police force and in July 1942 the Germans appointed him head of the ghetto Jewish government. He attempted to secure better conditions in the ghetto and believed that it was possible to save some Jews by working for the Germans. Gens and his policemen helped Germans in rounding up the Jews for deportation and execution in Ponary in October–December 1941 and in liquidating several smaller ghettos from late 1942 to early 1943. His policies, including the attempt to save some Jews by surrendering others for deportation or execution, continue to be a subject of debate and controversy. Gens was shot in September 1943, shortly before his own ghetto was liquidated.
- Istiodactylus (nominated by FunkMonk) is a genus of pterosaur that lived during the Early Cretaceous period, about 120 million years ago. Istiodactylus was a large pterosaur; estimates of its wingspan range from 4.3 to 5 metres (14 to 16 ft) long. Its skull was about 45 centimetres (18 in) long, and was relatively short and broad for a pterosaur. The front of the snout was low and blunt, and bore a semicircle of 48 teeth.
- Naruto (nominated by 1989 & Mike Christie) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Masashi Kishimoto. It tells the story of Naruto Uzumaki, an adolescent ninja who searches for recognition and dreams of becoming the Hokage, the leader of his village. As of 2017, Naruto is the third best-selling manga series in history, selling more than 220 million copies worldwide in 35 countries outside Japan. It has become one of Viz Media's best-selling manga series; their English translations of the volumes have appeared on USA Today and The New York Times bestseller list several times, and the seventh volume won a Quill Award in 2006.
- The Fort Vancouver Centennial half dollar (nominated by Wehwalt) is a commemorativefifty-cent piece struck by the United States Bureau of the Mint in 1925. The coin was designed by Laura Gardin Fraser. Its obverse depicts John McLoughlin, who was in charge of Fort Vancouver (present-day Vancouver, Washington) from its construction in 1825 until 1846. From there, he effectively ruled the Oregon Country, on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company. The reverse shows an armed frontiersman standing in front of the fort. They sold badly; much of the issue was returned for redemption and melting, and the failure may have been a factor in one official's suicide. Due to the low number of surviving pieces, the coins are valuable today.
- Dungeon Siege (nominated by PresN) is an action role-playing game developed by Gas Powered Games and published by Microsoft Game Studios on April 5, 2002, for Microsoft Windows, and the following year for MacOS. Set in the pseudo-medieval kingdom of Ehb, the high fantasy game follows a young farmer and his companions as they journey to defeat an invading force. The game was highly rated by critics upon release; it is listed by review aggregator Metacritic as the third-highest rated computer role-playing game of 2002. Critics praised the graphics and seamless world, as well as the fun and accessible gameplay, but were dismissive of the plot. Dungeon Siege sold over 1.7 million copies, and has been subject to numerous sequels
- Steller's sea cow (nominated by Dunkleosteus77) is an extinct species of sirenian first discovered by Europeans in 1741. Steller's sea cow had a thick layer of blubber, a forked tail, and no teeth (as it fed mainly on kelp). The species is named for Georg Wilhelm Steller, who discovered it. Within 27 years of discovery by Europeans, the slow-moving and easily caught Steller's sea cow was hunted into extinction for its meat, fat, and hide. However, sightings have been claimed post-1768, the recorded year of its extinction.
- "Shine" (nominated by Aoba47) is a song recorded by American singer Gwen Stefani, featuring collaborative vocals by American entertainer Pharrell Williams. Critical response to "Shine" was mixed; some praised Stefani and Williams' chemistry, while others compared it negatively to their previous collaborations. Commentators frequently likened it to Williams' 2013 single "Happy" and Stefani's 2014 song "Spark the Fire".
- Starship Troopers (nominated by Vanamonde) is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1959. The first-person narrative is about a young soldier named Juan Rico and his exploits in the Mobile Infantry, a futuristic military unit equipped with powered armor. Rico's military career progresses from recruit to non-commissioned officer and finally to officer against the backdrop of an interstellar war between mankind and an insectoid species known as "The Bugs". Through Rico's eyes, Heinlein examines moral and philosophical aspects of capital punishment, juvenile delinquency, civic virtue, and necessity of war. Starship Troopers won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1960 and helped create a sub-genre of literature known as military science fiction. Starship Troopers has been adapted into several films and games, most famously the 1997 film by Paul Verhoeven. The novel has attracted controversy and criticism of its social and political themes, which some critics believe are militaristic.
- The Beograd-class (nominated by Peacemaker67) consisted of three destroyers built for the Royal Yugoslav Navy in the late 1930s, to a French design. During the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Zagreb was scuttled to prevent its capture, and the other two were captured by the Italians. The Royal Italian Navy operated the two captured ships as convoy escorts. One was lost in the Gulf of Tunis in April 1943; the other was seized by the Germans in September 1943 after the Italian surrender, and was lost in the final weeks of the war. In 1967, a French film was made about the scuttling of Zagreb. In 1973, Josip Broz Tito posthumously awarded the two officers who scuttled Zagreb with the Order of the People's Hero.
- On the Mindless Menace of Violence (nominated by Indy beetle) was a speech given by United States Senator and presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy. He delivered it in front of the City Club of Cleveland at the Sheraton-Cleveland Hotel on April 5, 1968, the day after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. He sought to counter the riots and disorder emerging in the United States' cities, and address the growing problem of violence in American society. Doing away with his prepared remarks, Kennedy's speechwriters worked early into the morning of April 5 creating a full response to the assassination. Speaking in a tragic mode for only ten minutes before 2,200 people, Kennedy outlined his view on violence in American society. Kennedy's speech received much less attention than his (now famous) remarks in Indianapolis and was largely forgotten by the news media. Regardless, several of his aides considered it to be among his finest orations. Journalist Jack Newfield was of the opinion that the address was a suitable epitaph for the senator, who was himself assassinated two months later.
- The 6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia (nominated by Historical Perspective 2) was a peacetime infantry regiment that was activated for federal service in the Union army for three separate terms during the American Civil War. The regiment gained notoriety as the first unit in the Union army to suffer casualties in action during the Civil War in the Baltimore Riot and the first militia unit to arrive in Washington D.C.. The regiment first enlisted for a "90-day" term of service which lasted from April 16 to August 2, 1861. Their second term of service lasted nine months from August 1862 to June 1863, and their third lasted 100 days from July to October 1864. The regiment participated in the Siege of Suffolk and the Battle of Carrsville.
- Qatna (nominated by Attar-Aram syria) is an ancient city located in Homs Governorate, Syria. Its remains constitute a tell situated about 18 km (11 mi) northeast of Homs near the village of al-Mishrifeh. The city was an important center throughout most of the second millennium BC and in the first half of the first millennium BC. It contained one of the largest royal palaces of Bronze Age Syria and an intact royal tomb that provided a great amount of data on the funerary habits of that period.
- Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) (nominated by Homeostasis07) is the fourth studio album by American rock band Marilyn Manson. It was released on November 11, 2000 by Nothing and Interscope Records. A rock opera concept album, it is the final installment of a triptych which also included Antichrist Superstar (1996), and marked a return to the industrial metal style of the band's earlier work, after the glam rock-influenced production of Mechanical Animals (1998). After its release, the band's eponymous vocalist said that the overarching story within the trilogy is presented in reverse chronological order: Holy Wood, therefore, begins the narrative.
Eight featured lists were promoted this month.
- Moonlight is a 2016 American drama film directed by Barry Jenkins. It grossed a worldwide total of over $65 million at the box office on a production budget of $1.5 million. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator surveyed 286 reviews and judged 98% to be positive. Moonlight garnered awards and nominations (nominated by Cowlibob) in a variety of categories with particular praise for its direction and the performances of Ali and Harris. Moonlight has won 127 total awards. At the 74th Golden Globe Awards, Moonlight received six nominations. The film won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama Moonlight received four nominations at the 70th British Academy Film Awards. Moonlight received eight nominations at the 89th Academy Awards, the second highest of all nominees, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor (for Ali), Best Supporting Actress (for Harris) and Best Adapted Screenplay. The film won three awards: for Best Picture, Best Supporting Actor and Best Adapted Screenplay. Nat Sanders and Joi McMillon were nominated for Best Film Editing, making McMillon the first black woman to earn an Academy Award nomination in film editing.It is also the first LGBT film to win Best Picture at the Academy Awards.
- American singer Madonna has written a total of thirty-three books, (nominated by IndianBio) composed of eleven coffee table books as well as three articles in different publications. She has also ventured into children's books, writing seven picture books and twelve chapter books.
- Trisha is an Indian actress and model, active primarily in Tamil and Telugu films. Trisha has appeared in over 50 films and one music video. (nominated by Kailash29792) She was first seen in 1999 in an uncredited role in Jodi, then in the music video of Falguni Pathak's song "Meri Chunar Udd Udd Jaye". The first project she accepted as a lead actress was Priyadarshan's Lesa Lesa, but a delay in the film's release meant that her first appearance in a lead role was in Ameer's directorial debut Mounam Pesiyadhe in 2002, which was a commercial success. Her most recent roles in 2016, she appeared in the comedy horror films Aranmanai 2 and the Tamil-Telugu bilingual Nayaki (spelt Nayagi in Tamil), followed by the political thriller Kodi, which earned her the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress – Tamil.
- The Pokémon franchise revolves around 802 eponymous fictional species (nominated by Cyclonebiskit) of collectible monsters, each having unique designs and skills. Conceived by Satoshi Tajiri in the early 1990s, Pokémon are creatures that inhabit the fictional Pokémon World. The vast array of creatures is commonly divided into "Generations", with each division encompassing new titles in the main video game series and often a change of handheld platform. Each Generation is also marked by the addition of new Pokémon: 151 in Generation I, 100 in Generation II, 135 in Generation III, 107 in Generation IV, 156 in Generation V, 72 in Generation VI, and 81 in Generation VII.
- Drug overdose and intoxication are significant causes of accidental death, and can also be used as a form of suicide. Death can occur from overdosing on a single or multiple drugs, or from combined drug intoxication (CDI) due to poly drug use. Drug use and overdoses increased significantly in the 1800s due to the commercialization and availability of certain drugs. Drug use and addiction also increased significantly following the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853, with overdose being a leading cause of death among intravenous drug users. Efforts to prohibit various drugs began to be enacted in the early 20th century, though the effectiveness of such policies is debated. Deaths from drug overdoses are increasing. Between 2000 and 2014, fatal overdoses rose 137% in the United States, causing nearly half a million deaths (nominated by Freikorp) in that period, and have also been continually increasing in Australia,Scotland, England, and Wales.
- Cate Blanchett is an Australian actress who has extensively appeared in film and stage. (nominated by Krish) She has appeared in over 45 films, and 20 plays. She made her stage debut in 1992 by playing Electra in the National Institute of Dramatic Art production of the same name. Blanchett's first leading role on television came with Heartland (1994) and she followed it with the minseries Bordertown (1995). Blanchett made her Broadway debut in 2017 with The Present, receiving her first Tony Award nomination for the Best Actress in a Play.
- The Frank Worrell Trophy (nominated by The Rambling Man) is awarded to the winner of the West Indies–Australia Test match series in cricket. The trophy is named after Frank Worrell who was the first black captain of the West Indies. Australia leads in overall wins, winning 14 of the 24 series, while the West Indies have won 8, the remaining 2 ending in draws (with the trophy being retained by the incumbents).
- Drive is a 2011 American neo-noir crime film directed by Danish filmmaker Nicolas Winding Refn and written by Hossein Amini, based on the eponymous 2005 novel by James Sallis. Drive earned a worldwide total of $76.1 million on a production budget of $15 million. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, surveyed 238 reviews and judged 92% to be positive. Drive earned various awards and nominations (nominated by Bluesphere) with particular praise for its direction, sound design, and score. The Sound editors earned a nomination for Best Sound Editing at the 84th Academy Awards, and production designer Beth Mickle for Excellence in Production Design for a Contemporary Film at the 16th Art Directors Guild Awards. It won all three nominations awarded by the Austin Film Critics Association, and placed second in their Top 10 Films of the year. The film earned four nominations at the 65th British Academy Film Awards, and won a single category out of its eight nominations at the 17th Critics' Choice Awards—Best Action Movie. Refn garnered the Best Director Award during the film's run at Cannes. The cast also received numerous acting accolades, with Albert Brooks garnering the most nominations from critics' organizations. Brooks won Best Supporting Actor awarded by the Florida Film Critics Circle, and was nominated in the same category at the 69th Golden Globe Awards. Carey Mulligan won the Supporting Actress Award at the Hollywood Film Awards. The film won four of its eight nominations at the 16th Satellite Awards. Cliff Martinez's film score garnered two nominations at the 12th World Soundtrack Academy. The National Board of Review selected Drive as one of their Top Ten Films of the year.
Four featured pictures were promoted this month.