Wilderness medical emergency
A wilderness medical emergency is a medical emergency that takes place in a wilderness or remote setting at least 60 minutes away from definitive care (hospital, clinic, etc.). Such an emergency can require specialized skills, treatment techniques, and knowledge in order to manage the patient for an extended period of time before and during evacuation.
- 1 Types
- 2 Mass-casualty incidents
- 3 Response
- 4 Responder Certifications
- 5 Training and certification organizations
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Injury and illnesses
- Arthropod bites and stings
- Appendicitis (leading to peritonitis folkloric "what if" for long distance sailing)
- Ballistic trauma (gunshot wound when hunting)
- Eye injuries (such as from branches)
- Flail chest associated with ice climbing and snowclimbing falls
- Hyperthermia (heat stroke or sunstroke)
- Severe burn (forest fire)
- Spreading wound infection
- Suspected spinal injury from falls, falling rock, ice
- Traumatic brain injury from falls, falling rock, ice
- Lyme disease infection
- Malaria infection associated with expeditions
- Necrotizing Fasciitis
- Rabies infection
- Salmonella poisoning associated with expeditions
- Subdural hematoma, associated with rockfall, icefall, falls while climbing, glissade crashes with rocks, mountain bike crashes
- Altitude sickness
- Smoke inhalation (related to Forest fire)
- Pulmonary edema associated with high altitude (HAPE)
- Respiratory Arrest associated with neurotoxic bites
- Anaphylaxis associated with stings
- Hypovolemic shock (due to hemorrhage) associated with climbing falls, kayak crashes, etc.
- Electric shock
A mass casualty incident (MCI) is a situation in which the number or severity of casualties overwhelms the available medical resources and service providers. Wilderness MCIs may include blizzards, earthquakes, avalanches, landslides, floods and forest fire, but they need not be natural disasters. Mass casualties have also been caused by human error in parties of climbers or explorers, with or without complications from inclement weather. In mass casualty incidents, emergency service providers must prioritize their patients using a process called triage in order to make the most of their limited resources.
Extrication and evacuation
Transporting an injured person out of the wilderness on a stretcher can be a difficult exercise requiring considerable manpower. It is advised that at least one person stay with an injured party and that no one attempt to seek help by travelling alone over inhospitable terrain.
In emergency medicine, some advocates assert that there is a golden hour which refers to a time period lasting from a few minutes to several hours following traumatic injury being sustained by a casualty, during which there is the highest likelihood that prompt medical treatment will prevent death. While most medical professionals agree that delays in definitive care are undesirable, recent peer reviewed literature casts doubt on the validity of the 'golden hour' as it appears to lack a scientific basis. Dr. Bryan Bledsoe, an outspoken critic of the golden hour and other EMS "myths" like critical incident stress management, has indicated that the peer reviewed medical literature does not demonstrate any "magical time" for saving critical patients.
Wilderness first aid (WFA) is the specific discipline of first aid which relates to care in remote areas, where emergency medical services will be difficult to obtain or will take a long time to arrive.
Locating the victim precedes assessment and intervention and in the case of wilderness response is often a difficult matter. Specialists in white water rescue, mountain rescue, mine disaster response and other fields are often employed. In some cases, emergency extrication procedures at incidents such as automobile accidents are required before assessment is possible. Only once the location of the victim has been determined, a trained responder has been dispatched and successfully reached the victim, can the ordinary first aid process begin. Assessment is then enabled and it follows carefully specified protocols which have been refined through a long process of evaluation.
Wilderness First Aid is a relatively new field compared to regular or 'urban' first aid. For this reason, there are a number of boards and societies which have been formed in recent years to attempt to establish normalized standards for wilderness first aid certification and wilderness medicine in general. Currently, there are no national standards for wilderness medicine, however one of the most popularly followed curricula is the "National Practice Guidelines for Wilderness Emergency Care" published by the Wilderness Medical Society in 2010.
The American Red Cross Wilderness & Remote First Aid (r.2010) certification is valid for 2 years.
In Canada the first WFA courses were taught in the mid 1980s and the first organization to adopt standards was the Wilderness First Aid and Safety Association of BC (defunct since 1998).
As of 2014, all official BSA high adventure programs (such as Philmont) will require that at least two people (either an adviser or a youth participant) in each crew be currently certified in Wilderness First Aid or the equivalent and Adult CPR/AED from the American Red Cross, American Heart Association, Emergency Care and Safety Institute (ECSI), or American Safety & Health Institute (ASHI). At least one person must be certified in both WFA and CPR for all backpacking and camping activities where a Tour Plan must be filed. The preferred course is the American Red Cross Wilderness and Remote First Aid, which is a sixteen-hour course designed to help in situations where help is not readily available. Several hours may be required for high adventure staff to reach a remote backcountry location after a message is delivered to the nearest staffed camp. First aid and CPR training will result in proper and prompt attention being given to injuries and illnesses. Participants must present current certification cards upon check in to verify this requirement.[full citation needed]
A Wilderness First Responder (72- to 80-hour course) certification is both a higher certification than a Wilderness First Aid or (16- to 20-hour course) certification, and may also be used to upgrade an Emergency Medical Technician to a Wilderness Emergency Medical Technician. Outdoor Emergency Care is a National Ski Patrol certification, but it doesn't fully meet the requirements for a WFR certification.
Training and certification organizations
A number of fellowships are available for emergency medicine graduates including prehospital medicine (emergency medical services), hospice and palliative care, research, undersea and hyperbaric medicine, sports medicine, ultrasound, pediatric emergency medicine, disaster medicine, wilderness medicine, toxicology, and Critical Care Medicine.
- Wilderness Medicine Institute (WMI) of NOLS
- Wilderness Medicine Outfitters (WMO)
- Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO)
- True North Wilderness Survival School - http://www.ExploreTrueNorth.com
- The Center for Wilderness Safety (CWS)
- American Red Cross - http://www.redcross.org/
- American Safety & Health Institute (ASHI)- http://www.hsi.com/ashi
- Longleaf Wilderness Medicine - http://www.longleafmedical.com/ (LWM)
- Survival Training School of California- http://www.californiasurvivaltraining.com
- "Wilderness Medicine". Farlex. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- http://www.thecityedition.com/2012/First_Aid.html#mass[full citation needed]
- Wilkerson, James (2001). "Evacuation". Medicine for mountaineering & other wilderness activities. pp. 25–7. ISBN 978-0-89886-799-2.
- Keller, William (2001). "Transporting the Injured". Keller's Outdoor Survival Guide: How to Prevail When Lost, Stranded, or Injured in the Wilderness. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-57223-266-2.
- American College of Surgeons (2008). Atls, Advanced Trauma Life Support Program for Doctors. Amer College of Surgeons. ISBN 978-1-880696-31-6.[page needed]
- Bledsoe, BE (2002). "The Golden Hour: fact or fiction?". Emergency Medical Services. 31 (6): 105. PMID 12078402.
- McIntosh, SE; Opacic, M; Freer, L; et. al. (2014). "Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite: 2014 update". Wilderness Environ Med. Elsevier Inc. 25 (4): 43–54. doi:10.1016/j.wem.2014.09.001. PMID 25498262.
- "Wilderness and Sports". Red Cross. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
-  St. John Ambulance provides a Wilderness First Aid course[not in citation given] Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine.
- Hawkins, Seth C. (2012). "The Relationship Between Ski Patrols and Emergency Medical Services Systems". Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 23 (2): 106–11. doi:10.1016/j.wem.2012.03.008. PMID 22656654.
- "Subspecialty Certification". ABEM. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Where There is No Doctor covers the whole range of medicine, and is targeted to developing countries.
- Wilderness & Environmental Medicine (WEM) journal is published by Elsevier Publishing. Manuscripts should be uploaded to our Elsevier web address http://ees.elsevier.com/wemj.
- Cymerman, A; Rock, PB. Medical Problems in High Mountain Environments. A Handbook for Medical Officers. USARIEM-TN94-2. US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report. Retrieved 2009-03-05.
- Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide.". US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report (USARIEM-TN-04-05). Retrieved 2009-03-05.
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