Wildlife of Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Common North American beaver, official national symbol and one of the most iconic species of Canada's fauna.

The wildlife of Canada or biodiversity of Canada consist of over 80,000 classified species,[a] with an equal number thought yet to be recognized.[3] Known fauna and flora have been identified from five different kingdoms:[4] protozoa (approximately 1% of recorded species); chromist (approximately 4% of recorded species); fungis (approximately 16% of recorded species); plants (approximately 11% of recorded species); and animals (approximately 68% of recorded species).[2][1] Insects account for nearly 70 percent of recorded animal species in Canada.[2]

There are 20 major ecosystems -- ecozones -- in Canada: 15 terrestrial and 5 marine.[5] Canada's major biomes are the tundra, boreal forest, grassland, and temperate deciduous forest. Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions,[6] with approximately half of its land area covered by forests (roughly 8 percent of the world's forested land).[7]

Due to human activities, invasive species and environmental issues in the country, there are currently more than 800 species at risk of being lost.[8] About 65 percent of Canada’s resident species are considered "Secure".[4] Protected and conservation areas have been established to preserve and restore Canadian flora and fauna species. Approximately 5000 Canadian animal species and 30,000 Canadian plant species are restricted from export for international trade.[9]

Biodiversity[edit]

Habitat[edit]

Canada’s 15 terrestrial ecozones are further subdivided into 53 ecoprovinces, 194 ecoregions, and 1,027 ecodistricts.

Canada is divided into fifteen terrestrial and five marine ecozones,[10] such as the forests of British Columbia and Central Canada, the prairies of Western Canada, the tundra of Northern Canada, and the marine ecosystems of the Arctic, Atlantic Canada and Pacific coast. The largest marine ecozone is the Arctic Archipelago (which covers about 15 percent of Canada, or 1.5 million km2), whereas the largest terrestrial ecozone is the Boreal Shield (covering 20 percent of Canada, or 1.9 million km2).[11]

Canada's major biomes are the tundra, boreal forest, grassland, and temperate deciduous forest.[12] British Columbia has a multitude of smaller biomes, including: a subalpine forest which extends into Alberta, a temperate rainforest along the coast, a semi arid desert located in the Okanagan Valley and alpine tundra in the higher mountainous regions.[12]

Over half of Canada’s landscape is intact and relatively free of human development.[13] The boreal forest of Canada is considered to be the largest intact forest on earth, with around 300,000 square kilometres (120,000 sq mi) undisturbed by roads, cities or industry.[14] The Canadian Arctic tundra is the second-largest vegetation region in the country consisting of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses and lichens.[15] The Canadian Prairies a temperate grassland with shrubland and northern mixed grasslands are used for rearing livestock and cultivating crops.[16] Only seven percent of Canada’s land is suitable for large scale agricultural production.[17]

Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 greater than 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi)—which is more than any other country hosting a multitude of unique ecosystems.[18] Canada is home to about twenty five percent (134.6 million ha) of the world's wetlands that support a vast array of local ecosystems.[19] Canada's waterways have their own ecosystems; with the two longest rivers being the Mackenzie River, that begins at Great Slave Lake and ends in the Arctic Ocean, with its drainage basin covering a large part of northwestern Canada, and the Saint Lawrence River, which drains the Great Lakes into the Gulf of St. Lawrence ending in the Atlantic Ocean. The Mackenzie, including its tributaries is over 4,200 square kilometres (1,600 sq mi) in length and lies within the second largest drainage basin of North America, while the St. Lawrence 3,058 square kilometres (1,181 sq mi) in length, drains the world's largest system of freshwater lakes.[20]

Fauna[edit]

The Canada jay is found in the boreal forest north to the tree line, and in the Rocky Mountains subalpine zone.

There are approximately 200 mammal species, over 460 bird species, over 40 amphibian species, over 40 reptile species, and over 1,200 fish species in Canada.[3] Invertebrates present include 55,000 species of insects and 11,000 species of mites and spiders.[21]

The Great Lakes region is home to the black bear, Virginia opossum, red squirrels, North American beaver, and striped skunks; birds include eastern bluebird, red-winged blackbird, robin, wood thrush, woodpecker, oriole, bobolink, crow, hawk, bittern, heron, black duck, and loon. The boreal forest region contains moose, caribou, Canadian lynx, timber wolf, marten, porcupine, snowshoe rabbit, and chipmunk. The Rocky Mountain region fauna included the grizzly bear, mountain goat, bighorn sheep, elk, cougar, and flying squirrel.[22]

The Pacific ecozone is home to the Cascade mountain goat, mountain beaver, a vast variety of mice, and puget striped skunk; birds include northern pigmy-owl, band-tailed pigeon, black swift, northern flicker, crow, rufous-sided towhee, and black brant. Residence species of the Great Plains ecoregion includes the desert cottontail, deer mouse gophers, plains bison, and several types of prairie dogs (black-tailed, white-tailed, and gunnison's), alongside many prairie birds. The Arctic expanse includes fauna such as the musk ox and reindeer, polar bear, white and blue fox, arctic hare, and lemming; with birds such as the snowy owl, willow ptarmigan, snow bunting and arctic tern.[22]

Walrus, dolphins, seals, sea turtles, whales and sharks inhabit Canada's coastal waters.[22] Seal species include harbor seal, harp seal, hooded seal, grey seal, bearded seal, Northern fur seal, Northern elephant seal, ringed seal, Steller sea lion, and California sea lion among others. Salt-water fish including the Atlantic cod, Pacific salmon, hake, haddock and halibut; alongside crustaceans such as lobster, snow crab and shrimp are the primary commercial species.[23] Walleye (AKA pickerel), northern pike, rainbow trout, largemouth bass and the black crappie are common fresh-water fish species found throughout the country.[24] Canada hosts many amphibian, including salamanders as well as frogs and toads and many species of reptile, including turtles, lizards, and snakes.[22]

Many of North America’s migratory birds, including songbirds, waterfowl and shorebirds, take up residence in Canada during the spring and summer.[25] In addition to native and migratory mammals, many Eurasian mammals were introduced to Canada either intentionally or accidentally. Among them are domestic mammals, such as the horse, pig, sheep, dog, cat, and cattle, and wild mammals, such as the brown rat and the house mouse.[22]

Flora[edit]

The Canadian bunchberry is found in montane ecosystems and boreal forests, where it grows along the margins of moist woods.

According to Environment and Climate Change Canada, the nation hosts approximately 17,000 identified species of trees, flowers, herbs, ferns, mosses and other flora.[26] Approximately 95 percent of the vascular plants in Canada are of the flowering variety.[27] Roughly half of Canada is covered by forest, totaling around 2.4 millionkm2 (0.93 millionsq mi).[28] Over 90% of Canada's forests are owned by the public (Crown land, and the majority being Provincial forests).[29] About half of the forests are allocated for logging.[30]

The great Lakes region flora includes white pine, hemlock and red maples, yellow birch, and beech trees. The Maritime region is dominated by the red spruce, while the black spruce is prevalent in the eastern Laurentian, with spruce in the western Laurentian. The balsam fir, white cedar tamarack, white birch, and aspen and jack pine are also found in the eastern portion of the country. The tundra is home to the aspen, bur oak, balm of Gilead, cottonwood and balsam poplar.[31]

The west coast has the western hemlock, red cedar, douglas fir, sitka spruce, and western white pine being dominate. The Rocky Mountain region consistent of alpine fir, engelmann spruce, lodgepole pine and mountain hemlock.[32] Other native plants seen across Canada include; American Ginseng, trillium cernuum, red bearberry, bog Labrador tea, purple prairie clover, sand cherry, pallas' wallflower, little evening primrose, showy orchis and common eelgrass.[31]

Species at risk[edit]

The black-footed ferret is listed as '"endangered" primarily as a result of decreases in prairie dog populations and sylvatic plague.

Canada's Species at Risk Act (SARA) is the federal government legislation to prevent wildlife species from becoming extinct.[33] The goal of the Act is to protect endangered or threatened organisms and their habitats.[34] Provinces, territories and large municipalities also have their own species and habitat conservation regulations.[35]

Although Canada has a low percentage of endemic species compared to other countries; pollution, loss of biodiversity, over-exploitation of commercial species, invasive species and habitat loss have threatened many species.[36] More than 800 species are listed as being at risk of extinction, including 363 classified as endangered species, —190 threatened species, —235 special concern, and 22 extirpated (no longer found in the wild).[8][37] Species at risk include the Canada lynx, polar bear, sea otter, wolverine, black-footed ferret, northern fur seal, steller sea lion, hooded seal, North Atlantic right whale, sei whale and whooping crane.[8]

In addition to the extirpated species, at least 19 have become completely extinct,[37] meaning more than 30 species of plants and animals have disappeared from Canada since the arrival of European settlers in the 16th century.[38] These include the dawson's caribou, sea mink, great auk, Labrador duck, passenger pigeon, deepwater cisco, longjaw cisco, Banff longnose dace, and blue walleye.[39]

Invasive species[edit]

Zebra mussels were first detected in the Great Lakes Basin in 1988, in Lake St. Clair.

Over 1400 invasive species of fish, plants, insects and invertebrates have been introduced to Canada through intentional and unintentional means.[40] Over 450 invasive flora and over 400 invasive insects have been identified.[41] The Great Lakes region (Laurentia bioregion) is home to nearly 200 invasive species, making it one of Canada’s most heavily affected ecosystems.[42] Freshwater ecosystems are disproportionately more imperilled compared to terrestrial ecosystems.[43]

Invasive species such as the sea lamprey, zebra mussels, European green crab, the mountain pine beetle, round goby, Asian long-horned beetle, emerald ash borer, didymo, gypsy moth, and Asian carp have altered local habitats and caused essential ecosystems to decline or fail,[44] driving native species towards extinction.[45]

The most invasive flora species are the purple loosestrife, yellow iris, dog-strangling vine, knapweed, and leafy spurge.[44] The fungi causing Dutch elm disease is another notable invasive.[44] These species can spread aggressively, outcompete native wild vegetation and overwhelm agricultural crops.[44]

Invasive species cost billions of dollars each year from the loss of economic value of crops, forests and fisheries. According to Environment and Climate Change Canada, in 2004 the estimated annual lost revenue caused by the top 16 invasive species was between $13 to $35 billion.[46] The economic cost to agricultural crops and forestry alone is estimated at $7.5 billion.[46]

Conservation[edit]

Approximately 12.1 percent of the nation’s landmass and freshwater are considered conservation areas, including 11.4 percent designated as protected areas.[47] Approximately 13.8 percent of Canada's territorial waters are conserved, including 8.9 percent designated as protected areas.[47] Terrestrial areas conserved have increased by 65 percent in the 21st century, while marine areas conserved have increased by more than 3,800 percent.[47] Conservation and protected areas have different mandates depending on the organization which manages them, with some areas having a greater focus on ecological integrity, historical preservation, public usage, scientific research, or a combination of usages.[48] Some regions within Canada's largest conserved areas are heavily commercialized featuring grand buildings such as the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise.

Canada established the world's first national park management agency the Dominion Parks Branch now Parks Canada in 1911.[49] In 1916, Canada and the United States signed the Migratory Birds Convention, which regulates the hunting of transcontinental migratory birds under the Migratory Birds Convention Act.[50] The Canada Wildlife Act of 1973 goal is research on wildlife with a focus on larger species.[51] The 1985 Fisheries Act regulates fishing, including the conservation and protection of fish and their spawning grounds.[52] The National Marine Conservation Areas Act established a system of national marine conservation areas in 2002.[53]

The primary focus of the Canadian national parks system is to preserve ecological integrity.[54] National Marine Conservation Areas, while also under federal control, do not afford the same level of protection.[55] The Canadian Wildlife Service, a division of Environment and Climate Change Canada, manages the National Wildlife Areas, Marine Wildlife Areas, and Migratory Bird Sanctuaries for the protection of wildlife.[56][57] Provincial and territorial governments also protect areas within their boundaries.[58] Urban parks in Canada are operated by municipal governments for public recreation and foliage preservation in cities.[59] Some areas such as the Polar Bear Pass, are co-managed and overseen by government and local indigenous agencies.[60]

Canada's 18 UNESCO Biosphere Reserves covers a total area of 235,000 square kilometres (91,000 sq mi).[61] Canada's first National Park, Banff National Park established in 1885, spans 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi)[62] of mountainous terrain, with many glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes.[63] Canada's oldest provincial park, Algonquin Provincial Park established in 1893, covers an area of 7,653.45 square kilometres (2,955.01 sq mi) is dominated by old-growth forest with over 2,400 lakes and 1,200 kilometers of streams and rivers.[64] Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area is the world's largest freshwater protected area spanning roughly 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi) of lakebed, its overlaying freshwater, and associated shoreline on 60 square kilometres (23 sq mi) of islands and mainland's.[65] Canada's largest national wildlife region is the Scott Islands Marine National Wildlife Area, which spans 11,570.65 square kilometres (4,467.45 sq mi),[66] protects critical breeding and nesting habitat for over 40 percent of British Columbia's seabirds.[67]

National wildlife symbols[edit]

Canada does not have a floral emblem or bird emblem at the national level.[68][69]

Symbol Image Notes
Maple leaf FMIB 41782 Hard maple.jpeg
Maple leaf
Perhaps the most prominent symbol of Canada has been a de facto symbol since the 1700s[70]
National flag Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Official symbol as of February 15, 1965 features a stylized, red, 11-pointed maple leaf charged in the centre.[71]
National tree Bi-colored Maple Tree.jpg
Maple
Official symbol since 1996.[71]
National animals Castor canadensis.jpg
Beaver
Official symbol since 1975.[71]
Cheval canadien au trot 3351.jpg
Canadian horse
Official symbol since 2002.[71]

Provincial and territorial wildlife symbols[edit]

Canadian provinces and territories have a variety of official fauna, flora and organic matter based on the biodiversity of the area.[72]

Flower Area Plant (flower) Tree Mammal Bird Fish Other
Rosa acicularis.jpg Alberta[73] Rosa acicularis (Prickly wild rose) Lodgepole pine Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep Great horned owl Bull trout Rough fescue (Grass)
Cornus nuttallii 08549.JPG British Columbia[74] The Pacific dogwood, Cornus nuttallii Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) Spirit bear (also known as the kermode bear, Ursus americanus kermodei) Steller's jay (Cyanacitta dtelleri) Pacific salmon
Pulsatilla patens in New Mexico2.jpg Manitoba[75] Prairie crocus (Pulsatilla patens) White spruce (Picea glauca) American bison (Bison bison) Great gray owl (Strix nebulosa) Walleye Big bluestem (Grass)
Sarraceniaceae - Sarracenia purpurea (8303625575).jpg Newfoundland and Labrador[76] Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) Black spruce Newfoundland dog Atlantic puffin
Trailing arbutus 2006.jpg Nova Scotia[77] Mayflower (Epigaea repens) Red spruce (Picea rubens) Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever dog


Provincial horse: Sable Island horse

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) Wild Blueberry
Viola cucullata.jpg New Brunswick[78] Purple violet Balsam fir Black-capped chickadee Holmesville Soil
Trillium grandiflorum at Backus Woods.jpg Ontario[79] Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus linnaeus) Common loon (Gavia immer)
Cypripedium acaule - Sasata edit1.jpg Prince Edward Island[80] Lady’s slipper (Cypripedium acaule) Red oak (Quercus rubra) Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) Charlottetown soil
Blue Flag, Ottawa.jpg Quebec[81] Blue flag iris Yellow birch Snowy owl
Lilium philadelphicum var. philadelphicum.jpg Saskatchewan[82] Western red lily White birch White-tailed deer Sharp-tailed grouse Walleye Needle-and-thread grass

Saskatoon Berry

Dryas octopetala LC0327.jpg Northwest Territories[83] Mountain avens Tamarack (Larix laricina), Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus)
Purpsaxifrage2.jpg Nunavut[84] Purple saxifrage Canadian Inuit Dog Rock ptarmigan
Fireweed Epilobium angustifolium one flower close.jpg Yukon[85] Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) Raven (Corvus corax)

See also[edit]

Overlapping ecosystems

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "80,000 known species in Canada, excluding viruses and bacteria"[1][2]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c "Wild Species 2015: The General Status of Species in Canada" (PDF). National General Status Working Group: 1. Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council. 2016. p. 2.
  3. ^ a b "Canada Animals | Canadian Animals | Canada Wildlife | AZ Animals". A-Z Animals.
  4. ^ a b "Wild Species 2000: The General Status of Species in Canada". Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada. Conservation Council (CESCC). 2001.
  5. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2018-01-10). "Introduction to the Ecological Land Classification (ELC) 2017". www.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  6. ^ National Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. 2005. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7705-1198-2.
  7. ^ Luckert, Martin K.; Haley, David; Hoberg, George (2012). Policies for Sustainably Managing Canada's Forests: Tenure, Stumpage Fees, and Forest Practices. UBC Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7748-2069-1.
  8. ^ a b c "COSEWIC Annual Report". Species at Risk Public Registry. 2019.
  9. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (May 19, 2017). "Endangered species list". aem.
  10. ^ "Introduction to the Ecological Land Classification (ELC) 2017". Statistics Canada. January 10, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  11. ^ Wiken, Ed. "Casting the bottom line on the blue planet". Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
  12. ^ a b Arthur C. Benke; Colbert E. Cushing (2011). Rivers of North America. Elsevier. pp. 6–9. ISBN 978-0-08-045418-4.
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  14. ^ Peter H. Raven; Linda R. Berg; David M. Hassenzahl (2012). Environment. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-470-94570-4.
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  16. ^ Quiring, S. M; Papakryiakou, T. N. (2003). "An evaluation of agricultural drought indices for the Canadian prairies". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 118 (1–2): 49–62. Bibcode:2003AgFM..118...49Q. doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00072-8.
  17. ^ Hein, Treena (2020). "Agriculture in Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  18. ^ Status and Trends of Biodiversity of Inland Water Ecosystems. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2003. ISBN 92-807-2398-7.
  19. ^ Living in the Environment, Canadian Edition, 4th ed. Nelson Education. 16 May 2016. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-17-675682-6.
  20. ^ "Rivers: Longest rivers in Canada". Environment Canada. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  21. ^ "Canada's Insect Fauna". Biological Survey of Canada. 2019.
  22. ^ a b c d e George A. Feldhamer; Bruce C. Thompson; Joseph A. Chapman (2003). Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation. JHU Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8018-7416-1.
  23. ^ Michael Chalupovitsch, Daniele Lafrance, Thai Nguyen. (2019). "Statistics For Canada's 2018 Commercial Fisheries". Library of Parliament.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  24. ^ "Freshwater fish of Canada". Mongabay.com.
  25. ^ Daniel J. Lebbin; Michael J. Parr; George H. Fenwick (2010). The American Bird Conservancy Guide to Bird Conservation. University of Chicago Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-226-64729-6.
  26. ^ "Environment Canada - Nature - Flora". Government of Canada. 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  27. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (February 24, 2017). "Wild species 2010: chapter 8". aem.
  28. ^ "Total forest coverage by country". the Guardian. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  29. ^ Canada, Natural Resources (May 25, 2015). "Forest land ownership". www.nrcan.gc.ca.
  30. ^ Graham Duggan (2018). "The World's Biggest Forest Is In Our Own Backyard And We Need To Protect It". The Nature of Things (CBC).
  31. ^ a b "Native Plant Encyclopedia". cwf-fcf.org.
  32. ^ "Canada's Boreal Forest, Forest Products Association of Canada, map, inside front cover.
  33. ^ Nelson Education (16 May 2016). Living in the Environment, Canadian Edition, 4th ed. Nelson Education. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-17-675682-6.
  34. ^ Dorey, Katherine; Walker, Tony R. (1 January 2018). "Limitations of threatened species lists in Canada: A federal and provincial perspective". Biological Conservation. 217: 259–268. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.11.018. ISSN 0006-3207. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  35. ^ Max Foran (2018). The Subjugation of Canadian Wildlife: Failures of Principle and Policy. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 137–140. ISBN 978-0-7735-5428-3.
  36. ^ Oscar Venter, Nathalie N. Brodeur, Leah Nemiroff, Brenna Belland, Ivan J. Dolinsek, James W. A. Grant. (2006), Threats to Endangered Species in Canada, BioScience, Volume 56, Issue 11.
  37. ^ a b "COSEWIC Annual Report" (PDF). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2020-09-02. p. 5. Retrieved 2021-01-01.
  38. ^ "Species at Risk in Canada". Hinterland Who's Who. 2010. at least 13 of our plant and animal species have disappeared entirely from the Earth and at least 20 others are no longer found in Canada.
  39. ^ "Hinterland Who's Who - Biodiversity". Canadian Wildlife Federation.
  40. ^ "Invasive Species in Canada: Animals | The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca.
  41. ^ Tomás Schlichter; Leopoldo Montes (2011). Forests in Development: A Vital Balance. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 34. ISBN 978-94-007-2576-8.
  42. ^ Inc, Pelmorex Weather Networks. "The invasive species threatening Canada's biodiversity you may not know about". www.theweathernetwork.com. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  43. ^ AJ Dextrase, NE Mandrak (2006). Impacts of alien invasive species on freshwater fauna at risk in Canada. Springer
  44. ^ a b c d Michelle Lee; Canadian Wildlife Service (2004). Invasive Alien Species in Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service. ISBN 978-0-662-34262-5.
  45. ^ Dextrase, Alan; Mandrak, Nicholas (2006-01-01). "Impacts of Alien Invasive Species on Freshwater Fauna at Risk in Canada". Biological Invasions. Springer Netherlands. 8 (1): 13–24. doi:10.1007/s10530-005-0232-2. ISSN 1387-3547. S2CID 9422553.
  46. ^ a b "Invasive species". Canadian Council on Invasive Species. 2017.
  47. ^ a b c "Canada's conserved areas". Environment and Climate Canada. 2020.
  48. ^ "Protected Areas". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2014.
  49. ^ Irish, Paul (May 13, 2011). "Parks Canada celebrates a century of discovery". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
  50. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (February 27, 2015). "Canada-US convention protecting migratory birds". aem.
  51. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (December 12, 2017). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Canada Wildlife Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca.
  52. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (August 28, 2019). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Fisheries Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca.
  53. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (August 28, 2019). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca.
  54. ^ Canada. Parliament. House of Commons (November 2004). House of Commons Debates. p. 1830.
  55. ^ "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act". Legislative Services. Government of Canada. August 28, 2019.
  56. ^ J. Alexander Burnett (2011). A Passion for Wildlife: The History of the Canadian Wildlife Service. UBC Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7748-4252-5.
  57. ^ "Environment Canada's Protected Areas Network". Hinterland Who's Who. Canadian Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
  58. ^ "Canadian Provinces/Territories By Percentage Of Protected Terrestrial Area". WorldAtlas. 25 April 2017.
  59. ^ "City parks". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2017.
  60. ^ Karen Beazley; Robert Baldwin (2019). Biodiversity and Protected Areas. MDPI. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-03897-732-2.
  61. ^ "UNESCO Biosphere Reserves of Canada". e CanadianBiosphere Reserves Association and the Canadian Commission for UNESCO. 2018. PDF
  62. ^ "The Mountain Guide – Banff National Park" (PDF). Parks Canada. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2006.
  63. ^ Martin F. Price (2013). Mountain Area Research and Management: Integrated Approaches. Earthscan. pp. 217–218. ISBN 978-1-84977-201-3.
  64. ^ "Algonquin Provincial Park Management Plan". Queen’s Printer for Ontario. 1998.
  65. ^ Government of Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (December 13, 2017). "Spotlight on Marine Protected Areas in Canada". www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca.
  66. ^ "Scott Islands Marine National Wildlife Area". Protected Planet. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  67. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (February 7, 2013). "Proposed Scott Islands Marine National Wildlife Area: regulatory strategy". aem.
  68. ^ "Floral Emblems of Canada – A Bouquet". Canadian Heritage. 21 March 2009. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
  69. ^ "Official Canadian Provincial Birds". The Spruce.
  70. ^ "Unofficial symbols of Canada". The Department of Canadian Heritage. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  71. ^ a b c d "Official symbols of Canada". Government of Canada. 2017.
  72. ^ "Provincial and Territorial Emblems". Government of Canada. 15 August 2017.
  73. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Alberta". aem.
  74. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "British Columbia". aem.
  75. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Manitoba". aem.
  76. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Newfoundland and Labrador". aem.
  77. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Nova Scotia". aem.
  78. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "New Brunswick". aem.
  79. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Ontario". aem.
  80. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Prince Edward Island". aem.
  81. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Quebec". aem.
  82. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Saskatchewan". aem.
  83. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Northwest Territories". aem.
  84. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Nunavut". aem.
  85. ^ Heritage, Canadian (August 15, 2017). "Yukon". aem.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]