Wiley Manuel

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Wiley William Manuel
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California
In office
March 1977 – January 1981
Appointed by Governor Jerry Brown
Preceded by Raymond L. Sullivan
Succeeded by Otto M. Kaus
Personal details
Born (1927-08-28)August 28, 1927
Oakland, California, U.S.
Died January 5, 1981(1981-01-05) (aged 53)
Oakland, California, U.S.
Spouse(s) Eleanor M. Williams (m. 1948)
Alma mater University of California, Berkeley (B.A.)
Hastings College of Law (LL.B.)

Wiley William Manuel (August 28, 1927–January 5, 1981)[1] was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of California from 1977 to 1981 and the first African American to serve on the high court.

Biography[edit]

Manuel was born in Oakland, California, grew up near Ward and Dohr Streets in South Berkeley, and was educated in the public schools.[2][3] After graduating in 1945 from Berkeley High School he studied at the University of California, Berkeley.[4][5] Then he attended Hastings College of Law and in 1953 received his LL.B. degree with Order of the Coif honors.[6][5][7] He also served as Editor-in-Chief of the Hastings Law Journal.[8][9][10]

Following law school, Manuel worked for 23 years in the California Attorney General's office, rising to chief assistant attorney general in the San Francisco office.[3][11] In March 1956, then-Deputy Attorney General Manuel announced that municipalities adding fluoride to public drinking water cannot be charged with practicing dentistry.[12]

In February 1976, Governor Jerry Brown appointed Manuel to the post of judge of the Alameda County Superior Court.[13]

On February 12, 1977, Governor Brown elevated Manuel to the Supreme Court. On March 8, 1977, he was approved by the Judicial Qualifications Commission, he was sworn in March 24, 1977, and took his seat on April 5, 1977.[14][15][16][17] He was the first African American justice of the Supreme Court.[18][15] Also in 1977, he delivered the keynote address at the first meeting of the California Association of Black Lawyers.[19] Among his notable cases is the criminal prosecution against William and Emily Harris of the Symbionese Liberation Army on charges of kidnapping Patricia Hearst in 1974.[20] In August 1977, Manuel wrote the 6 – 1 majority opinion that the trial court abused its discretion in denying the defendants' request for state-appointed counsel of their choosing.[21] Manuel served for only four years before he succumbed to stomach cancer.[3][9]

Honors and legacy[edit]

In honor of Manuel, there is a non-profit scholarship foundation in Northern California.[22][7] Manuel, who was known for his dedication to pro bono work, has a pro bono award named after him awarded by the State Bar of California each year.[23][24][25] The Wiley Manuel Courthouse, part of the Alameda County Superior Court, was named after him.[7]

Personal life[edit]

In 1948, he married Eleanor M. Williams, and she currently resides in Oakland, California.[7] He died on January 5, 1981.[7] He was survived by his wife and their two children, Yvonne and Gary Manuel.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "In Loving Memory of my Husband Hon. Wiley W. Manuel 30th Anniversary Aug. 28, 1927 - Jan. 5, 1981". East Bay Times. Legacy.com. January 5, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2017. 
  2. ^ Lipsitz, George (2010). Midnight at the Barrelhouse: The Johnny Otis Story. Bloomington, MN: U of Minnesota Press. p. 6. ISBN 0816666784. Retrieved August 19, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c Turner, Wallace (January 6, 1981). "Wiley Manuel, 53, Dead in California". New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  4. ^ "6 to join Berkeley High Hall of Fame". Berkeley Daily Planet. April 17, 2000. Retrieved August 19, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Endicott, William (January 6, 1981). "From the Archives: Wiley Manuel, First Black on State High Court, Dies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  6. ^ "Hastings Community". Hastings Alumni Publications. San Francisco, CA: Hastings College of the Law Alumni Association. 81: 23. Fall 1992. Retrieved August 23, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "The History of the Wiley Manuel Bar Association of Sacramento County". The Wiley Manuel Bar Association of Sacramento County. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  8. ^ Wiley W. Manuel Papers, Online Archive of California. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  9. ^ a b "In memoriam: Wiley Manuel" (PDF). California Supreme Court. 1982. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  10. ^ "The Wiley W. Manuel Scholarship". Hastings Community, Hastings Alumni Publications. 71: 6. Summer 1987. 
  11. ^ "Press release: Attorney General Kamala D. Harris issues Statement Honoring Black History Month". Attorney General of California. February 6, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  12. ^ "Press Stoppers". Desert Sun (118). California Digital Newspaper Collection. 3 March 1956. p. 1. Retrieved July 31, 2017. 
  13. ^ "Appointment Stirs Criticism, Woman Named To Head Court". Desert Sun. California Digital Newspaper Collection. 14 February 1977. p. A3. Retrieved July 31, 2017. 
  14. ^ "Manuel OKd For Court Post". Desert Sun. California Digital Newspaper Collection. UPI. 8 March 1977. p. A3. Retrieved July 31, 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "Rose Bird Now Chief Justice". Desert Sun. California Digital Newspaper Collection. 26 March 1977. p. A1. Retrieved July 31, 2017. 
  16. ^ "New Justices Seated". Desert Sun. California Digital Newspaper Collection. UPI. 5 April 1977. p. A2. Retrieved July 31, 2017. 
  17. ^ "African-American justices honored for 50 years of service". East Bay Times. April 24, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2017. 
  18. ^ "And Justice For All". LA Downtown News. California Digital Newspaper Collection. 5 March 2012. p. 14. Retrieved July 31, 2017. 
  19. ^ "CA Association of Black Lawyers Honors UC Hastings Alumni". UC Hastings School of Law. April 14, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2017. 
  20. ^ Harris v. Superior Court (1977), 19 Cal. 3d 788.
  21. ^ "Harrises' Request OK'd". Desert Sun. California Digital Newspaper Collection. 25 August 1977. p. A2. Retrieved July 31, 2017. 
  22. ^ "Justice Wiley W. Manuel Scholarship". UC Hastings College of Law. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  23. ^ "Taylor gets award". Coronado Eagle and Journal (25). California Digital Newspaper Collection. 27 June 1991. p. 27. Retrieved July 31, 2017. Coronado resident Timothy Taylor of the law firm Sheppard, Mullin, Richter and Hampton was honored as a 1991 Wiley W. Manuel Pro Bono Award winner by the State Bar of California. 
  24. ^ "Coronadan honored with pro bono award for community service". Coronado Eagle and Journal (10). California Digital Newspaper Collection. 5 March 1992. p. 26. Retrieved July 31, 2017. The State Bar of California has honored Coronado resident Timothy W. O'Brien with the 1991 Wiley W, Manuel Pro Bono Award. This award is named in recognition of retired California Supreme Court Judge Wiley W. Manuel for his important contributions in minority rights issues. 
  25. ^ "Coronado Attorney Recognized for Pro Bono Work". Coronado Eagle (18). California Digital Newspaper Collection. 4 May 1994. p. 7. Retrieved July 31, 2017. The Wiley W. Manuel Award was created in 1989 by the State Bar of California to recognize lawyers, law students, secretaries, and paralegals in the state who provide 50 or more pro bono hours of service a year to low-income clients. 
  26. ^ Payton, Brenda (May 16, 2005). "Mothers keep meeting even after 52 years". East Bay Times. Retrieved June 18, 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Legal offices
Preceded by
Raymond L. Sullivan
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California
1977–1981
Succeeded by
Otto M. Kaus