Wilhelm Bittrich

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Wilhelm Bittrich
Bundesarchiv Bild Wilhelm Bittrich.jpg
Born (1894-02-26)26 February 1894
Wernigerode, German Empire
Died 19 April 1979(1979-04-19) (aged 85)
Wolfratshausen, West Germany
Allegiance  German Empire
 Weimar Republic
 Nazi Germany
Service/branch
Years of service 1914–45
Rank SS-Obergruppenführer
Service number NSDAP #829,700
SS #39,177
Commands held SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer
Battles/wars
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords

Wilhelm Bittrich (26 February 1894 – 19 April 1979) was a high-ranking Waffen-SS commander of Nazi Germany. Between August 1942 and February 1943, Bittrich commanded the SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer, in rear security operations (Bandenbekämpfung, literally: "bandit fighting") in the Soviet Union.

After his arrest in May 1945, Bittrich was extradited to France on charges of having ordered the execution of 17 members of the French Resistance. He was tried, convicted and sentenced to five years in prison. Following his release from prison, Bittrich became active in HIAG, a revisionist organization and a lobby group of former Waffen-SS members and served as chairman during the 1970s.

World War I and inter-war career[edit]

Born in 1894 into a family of a traveling salesman, Bittrich volunteered for military service after the outbreak of World War I.[1] He served on the Western and Italian Front and was awarded both classes of the Iron Cross.[1] In 1916, Bittrich transferred to the Luftstreitkräfte and trained as a pilot.[2] He served with several units, including the 37th Fighter Squadron.[3]

From March to July 1919, Bittrich was a member in the paramilitary Freikorps under the General Bernhard von Hülsen during the German Revolution of 1918–19. In 1923, Bittrich was accepted into the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic.[2] In December 1931 or early 1932, Bittrich joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP) (Nr. 829,700).[4] From March until June 1932, he served in the Sturmabteilung (SA). On 1 July 1932, Bittrich joined the SS (Nr. 39,177) and served in various SS units in leadership positions, reaching the rank of Hauptsturmführer by June 1934.[5]

From August 1934, Bittrich was a commander of the Politische Bereitschaft (Political Readiness Detachment) in Hamburg.[2] This unit later became part of the SS-Standarte "Germania" in the SS-Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT).[1] By January 1938, Bittrich was promoted to Obersturmbannführer.[6] He was given command of a battalion in the SS-Regiment "Deutschland".[3] With this unit he participated in the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938.[1] In May 1939, Bittrich was posted to the headquarters unit of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH) and was promoted to Standartenführer in June 1939.[3]

World War II[edit]

Bittrich (far right) at the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp during tour with Heinrich Himmler (center), June 1941.

He took part in the invasion of Poland (1939), assigned as LSSAH Chief of Staff to Sepp Dietrich.[7] In January 1940 through October 1941, he was commander of the Regiment "Deutschland" and fought in the battle of France.[7] From the summer of 1942 through February 1943, Bittrich commanded SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer,[8] that was tasked with rear-security operations (Bandenbekämpfung, literally "bandit-fighting") in the Soviet Union. On 9 July 1942 Bittrich attended a conference called to convey the principles of the Bandenbekämpfung to senior police and security leaders. Organized by Heinrich Himmler, the conference included Kurt Daluege, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Odilo Globocnik, Bruno Streckenbach and others. The policies included collective punishment against villages suspected of supporting partisans, automatic death penalty for immediate families of suspected partisans, deportation (to labor and death camps) of women and children, and confiscation of property for the state.[9]

He assumed temporary command of the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich from 14 October 1941 through 12 December 1941, after Paul Hausser had been wounded. He then was given command over the 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen effective February 1943 until 1 July 1944.[10] On 1 July 1944, he was appointed commander of the 2nd SS Panzer Corps. The 2nd Panzer Corps fought in Normandy, at Arnhem and later in Hungary.[11] Bittrich was listed as a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords by the Association of Knight's Cross Holders, although no record of the award could be found in the German archives due to the irregular nature of its presentation.[12]

Conviction for war crimes[edit]

After his arrest on 8 May 1945 he was extradited to France on charges of having ordered the execution of 17 members of the Resistance in Nîmes. The trial revealed that Bittrich had not given such an order and had even opened procedures against the responsible officers. As the commander in charge of the troops who committed the execution, he was held responsible for their misconduct and sentenced to five years in prison. The sentence was considered as served after a long pretrial detention. He was put on trial for a second time in 1953 and sentenced to five years in prison for countenancing hangings, pillage and arson,[13] but was acquitted by the French court in Bordeaux again and released in 1954.[11] He was never brought to trial for any actions and war crimes of the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer in the Soviet Union.

Activities within HIAG[edit]

Following his release from prison, Bittrich became active in HIAG, a revisionist organization of former Waffen-SS members. In the 1970s, he served as the organization's chairman.[14] Bittrich died in Wolfratshausen, Bavaria on 19 April 1979.[6]

Summary of SS career[edit]

Decorations
Promotions
19 October 1941: SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS[5]
1 May 1943: SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS[5]
1 August 1944: SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ No evidence of the award can be found in the German Federal Archives. The award was unlawfully presented by SS-Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich.[15] The date is taken from the announcement made by the 6. SS-Panzerarmee. The sequential number "153" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Bittrich was member of the AKCR.[12]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Stockert 2012, p. 227.
  2. ^ a b c Miller 2006, p. 128.
  3. ^ a b c Thomas & Wegmann 1992, p. 85.
  4. ^ Westemeier 2013, p. 137.
  5. ^ a b c d Thomas & Wegmann 1992, p. 87.
  6. ^ a b Miller 2006, p. 127.
  7. ^ a b Miller 2006, p. 129.
  8. ^ Miller 2006, p. 130.
  9. ^ Blood 2006, p. 75.
  10. ^ Miller 2006, pp. 130, 131.
  11. ^ a b Miller 2006, p. 132.
  12. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 121.
  13. ^ New York Times, June 24, 1953:6:6
  14. ^ Chairoff 1977, p. 460.
  15. ^ a b Miller 2006, p. 133.
  16. ^ Thomas 1997, p. 47.
  17. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 224.
  18. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 44.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Blood, Phillip W. (2006). Hitler's Bandit Hunters: The SS and the Nazi Occupation of Europe. Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1-59797-021-1. 
  • Chairoff, Patrice (1977). Dossier Néo-nazisme (in French). Ramsay. ISBN 978-2-85956-030-0. 
  • Miller, Michael (2006). Leaders of the SS and German Police, Vol. 1. San Jose, CA: R. James Bender. ISBN 978-93-297-0037-2. 
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Stockert, Peter (2012). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 6 [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 6] (in German) (3rd ed.). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. OCLC 76072662. 
  • Thomas, Franz; Wegmann, Günter (1992). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Deutschen Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Teil III: Infanterie Band 2: Bi–Bo [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the German Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Part III: Infantry Volume 2: Bi–Bo] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-1734-3. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6. 
  • Westemeier, Jens (2013). Himmlers Krieger: Joachim Peiper und die Waffen-SS in Krieg und Nachkriegszeit [Himmler's Warriors: Joachim Peiper and the Waffen-SS during the War and Post-War Period]. Paderborn, Germany: Ferdinand Schöningh. ISBN 978-3-506-77241-1. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kershaw, Robert J. (1994): It never snows in September. Ian Allen Ltd. ISBN 0-7818-0287-3.
  • Mühleisen, Horst (2000). Wilhelm Bittrich. Paderborn: Ronald Smelser / Enrico Syring (Hrsg.): Die SS, Elite unter dem Totenkopf. ISBN 3-506-78562-1

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
SS-Oberstgruppenführer Paul Hausser
Commander of 2. SS-Panzer Division Das Reich
15 October 1941 – 31 December 1941
Succeeded by
SS-Obergruppenführer Matthias Kleinheisterkamp
Preceded by
SS-Gruppenführer Hermann Fegelein
Commander of 8. SS-Kavallerie-Division Florian Geyer
August 1942 – 15 February 1943
Succeeded by
SS-Brigadeführer Fritz Freitag
Preceded by
none
Commander of 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen
15 February 1943 – 29 June 1944
Succeeded by
SS-Standartenführer Thomas Müller
Preceded by
SS-Oberstgruppenführer Paul Hausser
Commander of II. SS-Panzer Corps
29 June 1944 – 8 May 1945
Succeeded by
dissolved on 8 May 1945