|Born||26 February 1894|
Wernigerode, German Empire
|Died||19 April 1979 (aged 85)|
Wolfratshausen, West Germany
|Allegiance|| German Empire|
|Years of service||1914–45|
|Service number||NSDAP #829,700|
|Commands held||SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords|
Wilhelm Bittrich (26 February 1894 – 19 April 1979) was a high-ranking Waffen-SS commander of Nazi Germany. Between August 1942 and February 1943, Bittrich commanded the SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer, in rear security operations (Bandenbekämpfung, literally: "bandit fighting") in the Soviet Union. From July 1944 until the end of the war Bittrich commanded the 2nd SS Panzer Corps in Normandy, during Market Garden and in Hungary.
After his arrest in May 1945, Bittrich was extradited to France on charges of having ordered the execution of 17 members of the French Resistance. He was tried, convicted and sentenced to five years in prison. Following his release from prison, Bittrich became active in HIAG, a revisionist organization and a lobby group of former Waffen-SS members and served as chairman during the 1970s.
World War I
Born in 1894 into a family of a traveling salesmen, Bittrich volunteered for military service after the outbreak of World War I. He served on the Western and Italian Front and was awarded both classes of the Iron Cross. In 1916, Bittrich transferred to the Luftstreitkräfte and trained as a pilot. He served with several units, including the 37th Fighter Squadron.
From March to July 1919, Bittrich was a member in the paramilitary Freikorps under the General Bernhard von Hülsen during the German Revolution of 1918–19. From 1921 he was for a short time gymnastics and sports teacher and employee of a brokerage firm. In 1922 he married theatre actress and director Käte Sonntag-Blume.
In 1923, Bittrich was accepted into the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic. In December 1931 or early 1932, Bittrich joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP) (Nr. 829,700). From March until June 1932, he served in the Sturmabteilung (SA). On 1 July 1932, Bittrich joined the SS (Nr. 39,177) and served in various SS units in leadership positions, reaching the rank of Hauptsturmführer by June 1934.
From August 1934, Bittrich was a commander of the Politische Bereitschaft (Political Readiness Detachment) in Hamburg. This unit later became part of the SS-Standarte "Germania" in the SS-Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT). By January 1938, Bittrich was promoted to Obersturmbannführer. He was given command of a battalion in the SS-Regiment "Deutschland". With this unit he participated in the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938. In May 1939, Bittrich was posted to the headquarters unit of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH) and was promoted to Standartenführer in June 1939.
World War II
Bittrich took part in the invasion of Poland (1939), assigned as LSSAH Chief of Staff to Sepp Dietrich. In January 1940 through October 1941, he was commander of the Regiment "Deutschland" and fought in the battle of France.
In January 1942, Bittrich was relocated to SS headquarters and instructed to set up the SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer,, with whom he fought until the beginning of 1943 in the middle section of the Eastern Front, tasked with rear-security operations (Bandenbekämpfung, literally "bandit-fighting") in the Soviet Union. On 9 July 1942 Bittrich attended a conference called to convey the principles of the Bandenbekämpfung to senior police and security leaders. Organized by Heinrich Himmler, the conference included Kurt Daluege, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Odilo Globocnik, Bruno Streckenbach and others. The policies included collective punishment against villages suspected of supporting partisans, automatic death penalty for immediate families of suspected partisans, deportation (to labor and death camps) of women and children, and confiscation of property for the state.
From February 1943 he set as commander of the 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen. On 1 May 1943 he was promoted to SS-Gruppenführer and Lieutenant-General of the Waffen-SS. His division remained initially in Belgium and France, where it was converted in October 1943 to a tank division. From March 1944 he fought in the framework of 2nd SS Panzer Corps in the Tarnopol area in Ukraine.
After the Allied landings in Normandy in June 1944, the II SS Panzer Corps was relocated to France, where on 1 August 1944 Bittrich became the successor of Paul Hausser's SS Obergruppenfuhrer and commanding general of the unit. Under his leadership, the corps, now consisting of the 9th SS Panzer Division, the 3rd Paratroopers Division and parts of the 21st Panzer Division, initially fought on the invasion front, including in the Caen area. On 20/21 August, the unit broke the Falaise gap with heavy losses, freeing parts of the enclosed 7th Army and 5th Panzer Army. For his leadership in this operation, Bittrich received on 28 August 1944 Oak Leaves Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.
With the Western Front defences now under the command of Walter Model, the II. SS Panzer Corps was relocated to the Arnhem area at the beginning of September 1944 to refresh its units. On 17 September 1944, the Allies began Operation Market Garden with the deployment of British paratroopers right in the staging areas of the SS unit. Bittrich's corps managed to encircle the 1st Airborne Division and bring heavy casualties. At the request of the British Divisional Medical Officer, Bittrich ordered a three-hour cease-fire on 24 September 1944, to remove more than 2,000 wounded British from the resultant Arnhem pocket, and place them in the infirmary of his divisions.
From 16 December 1944, the II. SS Panzer Corps took part in the Battle of the Bulge in the 6th Panzer Army under Sepp Dietrich. Bittrich was subordinate to the operation next to the 9th SS Panzer Division "Hohenstaufen" and the 2nd SS Panzer Division "The Reich" and the "Leader Companion Brigade". After minor initial successes, the core of the corps were stuck and suffered heavy losses due to constant Allied air attacks.
After the final failure of the Battle of the Bulge and the impending Soviet offensive in the south of the Eastern Front, the 6th Panzer Army with Bittrich II SS Panzer Corps was relocated to Hungary in February 1945 (Balaton offensive), but could not prevent the breakthrough of the Red Army. The II SS Panzer Corps was then charged with the defence of Vienna. After the attack on the city began on 2 April 1945, Bittrich was ordered by the High Command of the Wehrmacht (OKW) on 9 April 1945 to hold Vienna "to the last breath". That same day, however, he withdrew his corps from Vienna and moved them behind the Danube Canal, to avoid a pointless destruction of the old town of Vienna and a bleeding out of his divisions - the 2nd SS Panzer Division, 9th SS Panzer Division, 44 Infantry Division and the 6th Panzer Division. A renewed order came from the OKW to recapture Vienna, to which Bittrich made no reaction or plans. Fighting a defensive withdrawal action, Bittrich withdrew westward with his corps, and on 8 May 1945 with the remains of his corps, negotiated a peaceful surrender near Steyr (Upper Austria) into US Army captivity.
Bittrich was listed as a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords by the Association of Knight's Cross Holders, although no record of the award could be found in the German archives due to the irregular nature of its presentation.
Conviction for war crimes
After his arrest on 8 May 1945 he was extradited to France on charges of having ordered the execution of 17 members of the Resistance in Nîmes. The trial revealed that Bittrich had not given such an order and had even opened procedures against the responsible officers. As the commander in charge of the troops who committed the execution, he was held responsible for their misconduct and sentenced to five years in prison. The sentence was considered as served after a long pretrial detention. He was put on trial for a second time in 1953 and sentenced to five years in prison for countenancing hangings, pillage and arson, but was acquitted by the French court in Bordeaux again and released in 1954. He was never brought to trial for any actions and war crimes of the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer in the Soviet Union.
Activities within HIAG
Following his release from prison, Bittrich became active in HIAG, a revisionist organization of former Waffen-SS members. In the 1970s, he served as the organization's chairman. Bittrich died in Wolfratshausen, Bavaria on 19 April 1979.
Summary of SS career
- Iron Cross of 1914, Second and First Class
- Honour Cross of the World War 1914/1918 (1934)
- Clasp to the Iron Cross (1939) 2nd Class (25 September 1939) & 1st Class (7 June 1940)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
- Knight's Cross on 14 December 1941 as SS-Oberführer and commander of SS-Infanterie-Regiment "Deutschland" of the SS-Division "Reich" (in 1942 "Das Reich")
- Oak Leaves on 28 August 1944 as SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS, and commanding general of the II. SS-Panzerkorps
- Swords on 6 May 1945 as SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS, and commanding general of the II. SS-Panzerkorps[Note 1]
- German Cross in Gold on 6 March 1943 as SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Reserves in the 8. SS-Kavallerie-Division "Florian Geyer"
|19 October 1941:||SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS|
|1 May 1943:||SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS|
|1 August 1944:||SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS|
- No evidence of the award can be found in the German Federal Archives. The award was unlawfully presented by SS-Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich. The date is taken from the announcement made by the 6. SS-Panzerarmee. The sequential number "153" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Bittrich was member of the AKCR.
- Stockert 2012, p. 227.
- Miller 2006, p. 128.
- Thomas & Wegmann 1992, p. 85.
- Westemeier 2013, p. 137.
- Thomas & Wegmann 1992, p. 87.
- Miller 2006, p. 127.
- Miller 2006, p. 129.
- Miller 2006, p. 130.
- Blood 2006, p. 75.
- Miller 2006, pp. 130, 131.
- Miller 2006, p. 132.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 121.
- New York Times, June 24, 1953:6:6
- Chairoff 1977, p. 460.
- Miller 2006, p. 133.
- Thomas 1997, p. 47.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 224.
- Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 44.
- Blood, Phillip W. (2006). Hitler's Bandit Hunters: The SS and the Nazi Occupation of Europe. Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1-59797-021-1.
- Chairoff, Patrice (1977). Dossier Néo-nazisme (in French). Ramsay. ISBN 978-2-85956-030-0.
- Miller, Michael (2006). Leaders of the SS and German Police, Vol. 1. San Jose, CA: R. James Bender. ISBN 978-93-297-0037-2.
- Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Stockert, Peter (2012). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 6 [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 6] (in German) (3rd ed.). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. OCLC 76072662.
- Thomas, Franz; Wegmann, Günter (1992). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Deutschen Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Teil III: Infanterie Band 2: Bi–Bo [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the German Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Part III: Infantry Volume 2: Bi–Bo] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-1734-3.
- Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6.
- Westemeier, Jens (2013). Himmlers Krieger: Joachim Peiper und die Waffen-SS in Krieg und Nachkriegszeit [Himmler's Warriors: Joachim Peiper and the Waffen-SS during the War and Post-War Period]. Paderborn, Germany: Ferdinand Schöningh. ISBN 978-3-506-77241-1.
SS-Oberstgruppenführer Paul Hausser
| Commander of 2. SS-Panzer Division Das Reich
15 October 1941 – 31 December 1941
SS-Obergruppenführer Matthias Kleinheisterkamp
SS-Gruppenführer Hermann Fegelein
| Commander of 8. SS-Kavallerie-Division Florian Geyer
August 1942 – 15 February 1943
SS-Brigadeführer Fritz Freitag
| Commander of 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen
15 February 1943 – 29 June 1944
SS-Standartenführer Thomas Müller
SS-Oberstgruppenführer Paul Hausser
| Commander of II. SS-Panzer Corps
29 June 1944 – 8 May 1945
dissolved on 8 May 1945