Taubert studied under Ludwig Berger (piano) and Bernhard Klein (composition). In 1831 he became assistant conductor and accompanist for Berlin court concerts. Between 1845 and 1848 he was music director of the Berlin Royal Opera, and was also court conductor in Berlin from 1845 to 1869. From 1865, he taught music at the Royal Academy of the Arts; Theodor Kullak was one of his pupils.
His compositions include six operas, incidental music, four symphonies, concertos for piano and cello, four string quartets, other orchestral, choral, and piano works, and more than 300 songs. His early compositions were praised by the composer Felix Mendelssohn, who had also studied piano with Berger.
His grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof I der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde (Cemetery No. I of the congregations of Jerusalem's Church and New Church) in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor.
- Die Kirmes, komische Oper, libretto by Eduard Devrient, 23 January 1832, Berlin, Königliches Theater
- Die Zigeuner, libretto by Eduard Devrient, 14 September 1834, Berlin, Königliches Theater
- Marquis und Dieb, komische Oper, libretto by L Schneider, 15 February 1842, Berlin, Königliches Theater
- Joggeli, libretto by H Kloster, 9 October 1953, Berlin, Königliches Theater
- Macbeth, libretto by F H Eggers, 16 November 1857, Berlin, Königliches Theater
- Caesario, oder Was ihr wollt, komische Oper, libretto by E Taubert, 13 November 1874, Berlin, Königliches Theater
- Stanley Sadie ed. (1992), 'Taubert, Wilhelm' in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, (London) ISBN 0-333-73432-7