Willa Sibert Cather (//; born Wilella Sibert Cather; December 7, 1873[A] – April 24, 1947) was an American writer known for her novels of life on the Great Plains, including O Pioneers!, The Song of the Lark, and My Ántonia. In 1923 she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for One of Ours, a novel set during World War I.
Shortly after graduating from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Cather moved to and worked in Pittsburgh for ten years, supporting herself as a magazine editor and high school English teacher. At the age of 33, she moved again to New York City, her primary home for the rest of her life, though she also traveled widely and spent considerable time at her summer residence on Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick. She spent the last 39 years of her life with her domestic partner, Edith Lewis.
Cather achieved recognition as a novelist of the frontier and pioneer experience. She wrote of the tenacity and spirit of settlers, many of them European immigrants in the early to mid-nineteenth century. Common themes in her work include nostalgia and exile. A sense of place is an important element in Cather's fiction; sometimes harsh, often beautiful, physical landscapes and domestic spaces are for Cather dynamic presences against which the characters both struggle and express love.
Early life and education
Cather was born in 1873 on her maternal grandmother's farm in the Back Creek Valley near Winchester, Virginia. Her father was Charles Fectigue Cather. The Cather family originated in Wales, the name deriving from Cadair Idris, a mountain in Gwynedd.:3 Her mother was Mary Virginia Boak, a former school teacher. By the time Cather turned twelve months old, the family moved to Willow Shade, a Greek Revival-style home on 130 acres given to them by her paternal grandparents.
At the urging of Charles Cather's parents, the family moved to Nebraska in 1883 when Willa was nine years old. The farmland appealed to Charles' father, and the family wished to escape the tuberculosis outbreaks that were rampant in Virginia.:30 Willa's father tried his hand at farming for eighteen months; then he moved the family into the town of Red Cloud, where he opened a real estate and insurance business, and the children attended school for the first time.:43 Some of the earliest work produced by Cather was first published in the Red Cloud Chief, the city's local paper. Cather's time in Nebraska, still considered a frontier state, was a formative experience for her: She was moved by the dramatic environment and weather, the vastness of the prairie, and the various cultures of the immigrant and Native American families in the area.
Mary Cather had six more children after Willa: Roscoe, Douglass,[B] Jessica, James, John, and Elsie.:5–7 Cather was closer to her brothers than to her sisters whom, according to biographer Hermione Lee, she "seems not to have liked very much.":36 Cather read widely, having made friends with a Jewish couple, the Wieners, who offered her free access to their extensive library. She made house calls with the local physician and decided to become a surgeon. For a time in her adolescence, she signed her name as William, but quickly abandoned the name for Willa.
Cather moved to Lincoln, Nebraska in 1890 to enroll at the University of Nebraska. While there in her first year, her essay on Thomas Carlyle was published in the Nebraska State Journal without her knowledge. She thereafter published columns for $1 apiece, saying that seeing her words printed on the page had "a kind of hypnotic effect," pushing her to continue writing. Following this experience, she became a regular contributor to the Journal. In addition to her work with the local paper, Cather served as the main editor of The Hesperian, the university's student newspaper, and became a writer for the Lincoln Courier. While at the university, she learned mathematics from and was befriended by John J. Pershing, who later became General of the Armies and, like Cather, also earned a Pulitzer Prize. She changed her plans from studying science in order to become a physician, instead graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in English in 1894.
Life and career
In 1896, Cather was hired to write for a women's magazine, Home Monthly, moving in the process to Pittsburgh. There, she wrote journalistic pieces, as well as short stories and poetry. A year later, after the magazine was sold, she became a telegraph editor and critic for the Pittsburgh Leader and frequently contributed poetry and short fiction to The Library, another local publication. In Pittsburgh, she taught Latin, algebra, and English composition at Central High School for one year; she then taught English and Latin at Allegheny High School, where she came to head the English department.
Shortly after moving to Pittsburgh, Cather wrote short stories, including publishing "Tommy, the Unsentimental" in the Home Monthly, about a Nebraskan girl with a boy's name, who looks like a boy and saves her father's bank business. Janis P. Stout calls this story one of several Cather works that "demonstrate the speciousness of rigid gender roles and give favorable treatment to characters who undermine conventions." Her first book, a collection of poetry called April Twilights, was published in 1903.[C] Shortly thereafter, in 1905, Cather's first collection of short stories, The Troll Garden, was published. It contained some of her most famous stories, such as "A Wagner Matinee," "The Sculptor's Funeral," and "Paul's Case."
After Cather was offered an editorial position at McClure's Magazine in 1906, she moved to New York City. During her first year at McClure's, she ghostwrote a critical biography of the religious leader Mary Baker Eddy, crediting freelance researcher Georgine Milmine instead. While Milmine had performed copious amounts of research, she did not have the resources to produce a manuscript on her own, instead employing Cather. This biography was serialized in McClure's over the next eighteen months, and then published in book form. McClure's also serialized Cather's first novel, Alexander's Bridge (1912). While most reviews were favorable, such as The Atlantic calling the writing "deft and skillful", Cather herself soon saw the novel as weak and shallow.
Cather followed Alexander's Bridge with her three novels set on the prairie, which eventually became both popular and critical successes: O Pioneers! (1913), The Song of the Lark (1915), and My Ántonia (1918), which are—taken together—sometimes referred to as her "Prairie Trilogy". It is this succession of plains-based novels for which Cather was celebrated for her use of plainspoken language in relation to ordinary people. Sinclair Lewis, for example, praised her work for making Nebraska available to the wider world for the first time. After writing The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald lamented that in comparison to My Ántonia, it was a failure.
As late as 1920, Cather became dissatisfied with the performance of her publisher Houghton Mifflin—My Ántonia received an advertising budget of only $300, they refused to pay for all of the illustrations she commissioned for the book from Władysław T. Benda, and the physical quality of the books were poor. That year, she turned to the young publishing house, Alfred A. Knopf, which had a reputation for supporting its authors through advertising campaigns. She also liked the look of its books and had been impressed with its edition of Green Mansions by William Henry Hudson. In fact, she so enjoyed their style that all her Knopf books of the 1920s—save for one printing of her short story collection Youth and the Bright Medusa—matched in design on their second and subsequent printings.
By this time, Cather had been firmly established as a major American writer, receiving the Pulitzer Prize in 1923 for her World War One-based novel, One of Ours. She followed this up with the popular Death Comes for the Archbishop in 1927, selling 86,500 copies in just two years, and which has been included on the Modern Library 100 Best Novels of the twentieth century. Two of her three other novels of the decade—A Lost Lady and The Professor's House—elevated her literary status dramatically. She was invited to give several hundred lectures to the public, earned significant royalties, and sold off the movie rights to A Lost Lady. It was only for her other novel of the decade, the 1926 My Mortal Enemy, that she received no widespread acclaim for—and in fact, neither she nor her partner, Edith Lewis, made significant mention of it later in their lives.
Despite her success, she was the subject of much criticism, particularly surrounding One of Ours. Her close friend, Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant, saw the novel as a betrayal of the realities of war, not understanding how to "bridge the gap between [Cather's] idealized war vision ... and my own stark impressions of war as lived." Similarly, Ernest Hemingway took issue with her portrayal of war, writing in a 1923 letter: "Wasn’t [the novel’s] last scene in the lines wonderful? Do you know where it came from? The battle scene in Birth of a Nation. I identified episode after episode, Catherized. Poor woman, she had to get her war experience somewhere."
By the 1930s, an increasingly large share of critics began to dismiss her as a overly romantic and nostalgic, unable to grapple with contemporary issues: Granville Hicks, for instance, charged Cather with escaping into an idealized past to avoid confronting these matters. And it was particularly in the context of the hardships of the Great Depression in which her work was seen as lacking social relevance. Similarly, critics—and Cather herself—were disappointed when her novel A Lost Lady was made into a film; the film had little resemblance to the novel.
Cather's lifelong conservative politics,[D] appealing to critics such as Mencken, Randolph Bourne, and Carl Van Doren, soured her reputation with younger, often left-leaning critics like Hicks and Edmund Wilson. Despite this critical opposition to her work, Cather remained a popular writer whose novels and short story collections continued to sell well; in 1931 Shadows on the Rock was the most widely read novel in the United States, and Lucy Gayheart became a bestseller in 1935.
While Cather made her last trip to Red Cloud in 1931 for a family gathering following the death of her mother, she stayed in touch with her Red Cloud friends and sent money to Annie Pavelka and other families during the Depression years.:327 In 1932, Cather published Obscure Destinies, her final collection of short fiction, which contained "Neighbour Rosicky", one of her most highly regarded stories. That same summer, she moved into a new apartment on Park Avenue with Edith Lewis, and during a visit on Grand Manan, she probably began working on her next novel, Lucy Gayheart.[E] Cather suffered two devastating losses in 1938. In June, her favorite brother, Douglass, died of a heart attack. Cather was too grief-stricken to attend the funeral.:478 Four months later, Isabelle McClung died. Cather and McClung had lived together when Cather first arrived in Pittsburgh, and while McClung eventually married and moved with her husband to Toronto, the two women remained devoted friends.[F] Cather wrote friends that Isabelle was the person she wrote all of her books for.
During the summer of 1940, Cather and Lewis went to Grand Manan for the last time, and Cather finished her final novel, Sapphira and the Slave Girl, a novel much darker in tone and subject matter than her previous works.:483 Sapphira is understood by readers as lacking a moral sense and failing to evoke empathy. However, the novel was a great critical and commercial success, with an advance printing of 25,000 copies. It was then adopted by the Book of the Month Club, which bought more than 200,000 copies. Her final story, "The Best Years", intended as a gift for her brother, was retrospective. It contained images or "keepsakes" from each of her twelve published novels and the short stories in Obscure Destinies.
Although an inflamed tendon in her hand hampered her writing, Cather managed to finish a substantial part of a novel set in Avignon, France. Her remaining papers reveal that she had titled the unfinished manuscript Hard Punishments and set it in the 14th century during the papal reign of Antipope Benedict XIV.:371 She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1943. That same year, she executed a will that prohibited the publication of her letters and dramatization of her works. In 1944, Cather received the gold medal for fiction from the National Institute of Arts and Letters, a prestigious award given for an author's total accomplishments.
On April 24, 1947, Cather died of a cerebral hemorrhage, at the age of 73, in her home at 570 Park Avenue in Manhattan. On her death, Edith Lewis destroyed the manuscript of Hard Punishments, according to Cather's instructions.
Cather is buried at the southwest corner of the Old Burying Ground in Jaffrey, New Hampshire. She is buried with Edith Lewis. She had first visited Jaffrey in 1917 when she joined Isabelle McClung and her husband, violinist Jan Hambourg, staying at the Shattuck Inn, where she came late in life for the seclusion necessary for her writing. The inscription on her tombstone reads:
December 7, 1873–April 24, 1947
THE TRUTH AND CHARITY OF HER GREAT
SPIRIT WILL LIVE ON IN THE WORK
WHICH IS HER ENDURING GIFT TO HER
COUNTRY AND ALL ITS PEOPLE.
" ... that is happiness; to be dissolved
into something complete and great"
From My Ántonia
Scholars disagree about Cather's sexual identity. Some argue that it is impossible or anachronistic to determine whether she had same-sex attraction, while others disagree. Researcher Deborah Carlin suggests that denial of Cather being a lesbian is rooted in treating same-sex desire "as an insult to Cather and her reputation," rather than neutral in nature. Melissa Homestead has argued that Cather was attracted to Edith Lewis, asking, "What kind of evidence is needed to establish this as a lesbian relationship? Photographs of the two of them in bed together? She was an integral part of Cather’s life, creatively and personally." Beyond her own relationships with women, Cather's reliance on male characters has been used to support the idea of her same-sex attraction.[G]
In any event, throughout Cather's adult life, her closest relationships were with women. These included her college friend Louise Pound; the Pittsburgh socialite Isabelle McClung, with whom Cather traveled to Europe and at whose Toronto home she stayed for prolonged visits; the opera singer Olive Fremstad; and most notably, the editor Edith Lewis, with whom Cather lived the last 39 years of her life.
Cather's relationship with Lewis began in the early 1900s. They lived together in a series of apartments in New York City from 1908 until Cather's death in 1947. From 1913 to 1927, Cather and Lewis lived at No. 5 Bank Street in Greenwich Village. They moved when the apartment was scheduled for demolition during the construction of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue New York City Subway line (now the 1, 2, and 3 trains). While Lewis was selected as the literary trustee for Cather's estate, she was not merely a secretary for Cather's documents, but an integral part of Cather's creative process.
Beginning in 1922, Cather spent summers on Grand Manan Island, in New Brunswick, where she bought a cottage in Whale Cove, on the Bay of Fundy and where her penultimate short story, "Before Breakfast," is set. She valued the seclusion of the island, and did not mind that her cottage had neither indoor plumbing nor electricity. Anyone wishing to reach her could do so by telegraph or mail.:415 In 1940, she stopped going to Grand Manan Island following Canada's entrance to World War II, as travel was considerably more difficult; she also began a long recuperation from gallbladder surgery in 1942 that restricted travel.
A resolutely private person, Cather had destroyed many old drafts, personal papers, and letters, and asked others to do the same. While many complied, some did not. Her will restricted the ability of scholars to quote from the personal papers that remain. However, in April 2013, The Selected Letters of Willa Cather—a collection of 566 letters Cather wrote to friends, family, and literary acquaintances such as Thornton Wilder and F. Scott Fitzgerald—was published, two years after the death of Cather's nephew and second literary executor, Charles Cather. Willa Cather's correspondence revealed complexity of her character and inner world. The letters do not disclose any intimate details about Cather's personal life, but they do "make clear that [her] primary emotional attachments were to women." The Willa Cather Archive at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln works to digitize her complete body of writing, including private correspondence and published work. As of 2021, over 2,100 letters have been made freely available to the public, in addition to transcription of her own published writing.
Cather admired Henry James's use of language and characterization. While Cather enjoyed the novels of several women—including George Eliot, the Brontës, and Jane Austen—she regarded most women writers with disdain, judging them overly sentimental.:110 One contemporary exception was Sarah Orne Jewett, who became Cather's friend and mentor.[I] Jewett advised Cather of several things: to use female narrators in her fiction (even though Cather preferred using male perspectives), to write about her "own country" (O Pioneers! was dedicated in large part to Jewett), and to write fiction that explicitly represented romantic attraction between women.[J] Cather was also influenced by the work of Katherine Mansfield, praising in an essay Mansfield's ability "to throw a luminous streak out onto the shadowy realm of personal relationships."
Cather's high regard for the immigrant families forging lives and enduring hardships on the Nebraska plains shaped much of her fiction. As a child, she visited immigrant families in her area and returned home in "the most unreasonable state of excitement," feeling that she "had got inside another person's skin.":169-170 Following a trip to Red Cloud in 1916, Cather decided to write a novel based on the events in the life of her childhood friend Annie Sadilek Pavelka, a Bohemian girl who became the model for the title character in My Ántonia. Cather was likewise fascinated by the French-Canadian pioneers from Quebec who had settled in the Red Cloud area while she was a girl.
During a brief stopover in Quebec with Edith Lewis in 1927, Cather was inspired to write a novel set in that French-Canadian city. Lewis recalled: "From the first moment that she looked down from the windows of the [Chateau] Frontenac [Hotel] on the pointed roofs and Norman outlines of the town of Quebec, Willa Cather was not merely stirred and charmed—she was overwhelmed by the flood of memories, recognition, surmise it called up; by the sense of its extraordinary French character, isolated and kept intact through hundreds of years, as if by a miracle, on this great un-French continent.":414–15 Cather finished her novel Shadows on the Rock, a historical novel set in 17th-century Quebec, in 1931; it was later included in Life Magazine's list of the 100 outstanding books of 1924–1944. The French influence is found in many other Cather works, including Death Comes for the Archbishop (1927) and her final, unfinished novel set in Avignon, Hard Punishments.
Literary style and themes
Although Cather began her writing career as a journalist, she made a distinction between journalism, which she saw as being primarily informative, and literature, which she saw as an art form.:27 Cather's work is often marked by—and criticized for—its nostalgic tone and themes drawn from memories of her early years on the American plains. Consequently, notions of land, the frontier,[K] pioneering (and so, the nascent women's movement), and relationships with western landscapes are integral to her work. While Cather is said to have significantly altered her literary approach in each of her novels, this stance is not universal; some critics have charged Cather with being out of touch with her times and failing to use more experimental techniques in her writing, such as stream of consciousness,:36 as well as defining her literary genre as nothing but romantic. However, others have pointed out that Cather could follow no other literary path but her own:
She had formed and matured her ideas on art before she wrote a novel. She had no more reason to follow Gertrude Stein and James Joyce, whose work she respected, than they did to follow her. Her style solves the problems in which she was interested. She wanted to stand midway between the journalists whose omniscient objectivity accumulate more fact than any character could notice and the psychological novelist whose use of subjective point of view stories distorts objective reality. She developed her theory on a middle ground, selecting facts from experience on the basis of feeling and then presenting the experience in a lucid, objective style. Cather's style is not the accumulative cataloguing of the journalists, nor the fragmentary atomism of psychological associations.
In a 1920 essay on Willa Cather, H.L. Mencken apologized for having suggested that Cather was a talented but inconsequential imitator of Edith Wharton. He praised her for abandoning New England as a locale for the "Middle West of the great immigrations." Mencken describes My Ántonia as a sudden leap forward by Cather. "Here was a novel planned with the utmost skill, and executed in truly admirable fashion," he wrote. "Here, unless I err gravely, was the best piece of fiction ever done by a woman in America."
The English novelist A. S. Byatt observes that with each work Cather reinvented the novel form "to look at a new human world." Byatt identifies some of Cather's major themes as "the rising and setting of the sun, the brevity of life, the relation between dailiness and the rupture of dailiness, the moment when 'desire shall fail'." Particularly in her frontier novels, Cather wrote of "life's terrors ... and its beauties." Like the exiled characters of Henry James, an author who had a great influence on Cather, most of Cather's major characters live as exiled immigrants, "people trying to make their way in circumstances strange to them." Joseph Urgo in Willa Cather and the Myth of American Migration says Cather felt a connection between the immigrants' "sense of homelessness and exile" and her own feelings of exile when she lived on the frontier. Susan J. Rosowski wrote that Cather was "the first to give immigrants heroic stature in serious American literature."
- Sources are inconsistent on the date of Cather's birth, in large part because she fabricated—or as scholar Jean Schwind says, "chronically lied about"—the date. The 1873 date is confirmed by a birth certificate, an 1874 letter of her father's referring to her, university records, and scholarly consensus—modern and historical. At the direction of the staff of McClure's Magazine, Cather claimed to be born in 1875. After 1920, she claimed 1876 as her birth year; this date has since been replicated in several scholarly sources. That is the date carved into her gravestone at Jaffrey, New Hampshire.
- According to Elsie, Douglass's real name was Douglas, but Willa wanted him to spell it as Douglass, so he spelled it that way to please her.
- This collection of poetry, while described as unremarkable, was republished several times by Cather over her life, although with significant alterations. Eleven of these poems were never again published after 1903. This early experience with traditional, sentimental verse—without alteration from this scheme—was the basis for the rest of her literary career; she remarked that one's earliest writing is formative. While Cather's success was primarily in prose, her republishing of her earliest poetry suggests she wished to be taken as a poet as well. However, this is contradicted by Cather's own words, where in 1925, where she wrote, "I do not take myself seriously as a poet."
- Not all critics see her 1930s political views as conservative; Reynolds argues that while she was reactionary later in life, she subscribed to a form of rural populism and progressivism, built on the continuity of community, and Clasen views her as a progressive. Similarly, it has been suggested she was distinctly opaque, and that in terms of literary innovation, she was solidly progressive, even radical.
- Some sources indicate that Cather began writing Lucy Gayheart in 1933. Homestead argues instead that she truly began writing in the summer of 1932. Some sources agree with her. Others are imprecise or ambiguous. It appears that Cather began speaking about the story Blue Eyes on the Platte, her initial and intended name for Lucy Gayheart, as early as the 1890s (using the name Gayhardt instead of Gayheart, based on a woman she met at a party), and may have begun writing as early as 1926 or 1927. While she intended to name the novel Blue Eyes on the Platte early on, she changed the title and made Lucy's eyes brown. However, Stout suggests mention of Blue Eyes on the Platte may have been facetious, only beginning to write and think about Lucy Gayheart in 1933. This is contradicted by Edith Lewis insisting that not only did she begin working on Blue Eyes on the Platte "several years before" 1933, but that it was the precursor to Lucy Gayheart. Regardless of which of these details are true, it is known that Cather reused images from her 1911 short story, "The Joy of Nelly Deane", in Lucy Gayheart. "The Joy of Nelly Deane" may be best understood as an earlier version of Lucy Gayheart altogether.
- Cather wrote hundreds of letters to McClung over her life, and most of them were returned to Cather by McClung's husband. Almost all of these were destroyed.
- Some scholars also use this male-centered narrative approach to read Cather as transmasculine or just masculine.
- She appears to have been atheist, or at least skeptical of religion, while in college and shortly thereafter.
- Some sources describe the relationship using stronger language: as Cather being Jewett's protégé. Either way, Jewett's remarkable influence on Cather is evidenced not only by her commitment to regionalism, but also by Cather's (perhaps overstated) role in editing The Country of the Pointed Firs.
- Jewett wrote in a letter to Cather, "with what deep happiness and recognition I have read the “McClure” story,—night before last I found it with surprise and delight. It made me feel very near to the writer’s young and loving heart. You have drawn your two figures of the wife and her husband with unerring touches and wonderful tenderness for her. It makes me the more sure that you are far on your road toward a fine and long story of very high class. The lover is as well done as he could be when a woman writes in the man’s character,—it must always, I believe, be something of a masquerade. I think it is safer to write about him as you did about the others, and not try to be he! And you could almost have done it as yourself—a woman could love her in that same protecting way—a woman could even care enough to wish to take her away from such a life, by some means or other. But oh, how close—how tender—how true the feeling is!"
- Between 1891 and Cather's publication of The Song of the Lark, there was a paucity of novels dealing with farm life. By the 1920s, however, literary interest in rural life and the frontier became exceedingly common.
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- Daugherty, Greg. "General Pershing's Run for President Was a Sure Thing—Until His Troops Spoke Up". HISTORY. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
- Pershing, John J. "Transcription of Pershing Speech | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu.
- Lowry, Patricia (December 8, 2008). "Places: In search of Willa Cather's East End haunts". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
- McBride, Mary Ellen (July 18, 1973). "Willa Cather's Prose Captured Pittsburgh". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 31.
- And Death Comes for Willa Cather, Famous Author Archived December 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph, April 25, 1947
- Duryea, Polly P. (1993). Paintings and Drawings in Willa Cather's Prose: A Catalogue Raisonné. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. p. 13.
- "Author Snubs City's Mills, Praises Poet". The Pittsburgh Press. June 23, 1934. p. 44.
- "Willa Cather, Author, Dies". The Pittsburgh Press. April 25, 1947. p. 2.
- "Week's Outing to Cincinnati". The Pittsburgh Press. July 26, 1896. p. 4.
- Stout, Janis P. Willa Cather: The Writer and Her World. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000, p. 90.
- Ryder, Mary R. (1985). "Prosodic Variations in Willa Gather's Prairie Poems". Western American Literature. 20 (3): 223–237. doi:10.1353/wal.1985.0028. S2CID 165164839.
- THACKER, ROBERT (2013). ""AS THE RESULT OF MANY SOLICITATIONS": FERRIS GREENSLET, HOUGHTON MIFFLIN, AND CATHER'S CAREER". Studies in the Novel. 45 (3): 369–386. ISSN 0039-3827. JSTOR 23594848.
- Slote, Bernice (1981). "Willa Cather and Her First Book". Prairie Schooner. 55 (1/2): 109–113. ISSN 0032-6682. JSTOR 40630730.
- Woodress, James (1992). "Whitman and Cather". Études Anglaises. 45 (3): 325.
- Fullbrook, Kate; Ostwalt, Conrad E. (1992). "Review of April Twilights, , ; Willa Cather's Modernism: A Study of Style and Technique, ; After Eden: The Secularization of American Space in the Fiction of Willa Cather and Theodore Dreiser, Conrad E. Ostwalt Jr.; Bergson and American Culture: The Worlds of Willa Cather and Wallace Stevens, ; Cather Studies". Journal of American Studies. 26 (1): 120–122. doi:10.1017/S0021875800030498. ISSN 0021-8758. JSTOR 27555618.
- VAN GASTEL, ADA L. (1984). "An Unpublished Poem by Willa Cather". Resources for American Literary Study. 14 (1/2): 153–159. ISSN 0048-7384. JSTOR 26366417.
- Stout, Janis P. (2003). "Willa Cather's Poetry and the Object(s) of Art". American Literary Realism. 35 (2): 159–174. ISSN 1540-3084. JSTOR 27747093.
- "1925: LONDON | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- Madigan, Mark J. "Willa Cather and Dorothy Canfield Fisher". Cather Studies. 1.
- Browne, Anita, ed. (1933). The one hundred best books by American women during the past hundred years, 1833-1933, as chosen for the National council of women. Chicago: Associated authors service. p. 53.
- SQUIRES, ASHLEY (2013). "The Standard Oil Treatment: Willa Cather, "The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy", and Early Twentieth Century Collaborative Authorship". Studies in the Novel. 45 (3): 328–348. ISSN 0039-3827. JSTOR 23594846.
- Castor, Laura (2008). "Willa Cather, Alexander's Bridge Historical essay and explanatory notes by Tom Quirk, textual essay and editing by Frederick M. Link". American Studies in Scandinavia. 40 (1–2): 167–170. doi:10.22439/asca.v40i1-2.4688.
- Morris, Lloyd (1924). "Willa Cather". The North American Review. 219 (822): 641–652. ISSN 0029-2397. JSTOR 25113302.
- The Atlantic. November 1912, p. 683.
- Bloom, Edward A.; Bloom, Lillian D. (1962). Willa Cather's gift of sympathy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 9.
- Kitch, Carolyn (July 1997). "The Work That Came Before the Art: Willa Cather as Journalist, 1893-1912". American Journalism. 14 (3–4): 425–440. doi:10.1080/08821127.1997.10731934. ISSN 0882-1127.
- Garvelink, Lisa Bouma (2013). "The Nature of the Life of the Artist in Willa Cather's "The Song of the Lark"". CEA Critic. 75 (3): 270–277. ISSN 0007-8069. JSTOR 44378518.
- O'BRIEN, SHARON (2013). "Possession and Publication: Willa Cather's Struggle to Save "My Ántonia"". Studies in the Novel. 45 (3): 460–475. ISSN 0039-3827. JSTOR 23594852.
- Old, James Paul (September 2018). "Wandering over Boundless Fields: The Fiction of Willa Cather and the Reformation of Communal Memory". American Political Thought. 7 (4): 565–587. doi:10.1086/699908.
- Eggan, Taylor A. (May 19, 2018). "Landscape Metaphysics: Narrative Architecture and the Focalisation of the Environment". English Studies. 99 (4): 398–411. doi:10.1080/0013838X.2018.1475594. ISSN 0013-838X.
- "Ranks Miss Cather 1st Woman Novelist". Hastings Daily Tribune. March 15, 1919. p. 5.
- "The Greatness of Willa Cather". The Times Dispatch (Richmond, VA). Norfolk Virginian-Pilot. April 29, 1947. p. 8.
- Omaha World-Herald, April 9, 1921.
- Kundu, Gautam (1998). "Inadvertent Echoes or 'An Instance of Apparent Plagiarism'? Cather's "My Ántonia, A Lost Lady" and Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby"". Études Anglaises. 51 (3): 326.
- Claridge, Laura (2016). The lady with the Borzoi : Blanche Knopf, literary tastemaker extraordinaire (First ed.). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 63–65. ISBN 9780374114251. OCLC 908176194.
- HARRIS, RICHARD C. (2013). ""Dear Alfred"/"Dear Miss Cather": Willa Cather and Alfred Knopf, 1920—1947". Studies in the Novel. 45 (3): 387–407. ISSN 0039-3827. JSTOR 23594849.
- RONNING, KARI A. (2013). "SPEAKING VOLUMES: EMBODYING CATHER'S WORKS". Studies in the Novel. 45 (3): 519–537. ISSN 0039-3827.
- JAILLANT, LISE (2013). "CANONICAL IN THE 1930s: WILLA CATHER'S "DEATH COMES FOR THE ARCHBISHOP" IN THE MODERN LIBRARY SERIES". Studies in the Novel. 45 (3): 476–499. ISSN 0039-3827.
- Vanderlaan, Kim (2011). "Sacred Spaces, Profane "Manufactories": Willa Cather's Split Artist in The Professor's House and My Mortal Enemy". Western American Literature. 46 (1): 4–24. doi:10.1353/wal.2011.0035.
- Garvelink, Lisa Bouma (October 2004). "Willa Cather's Voyage Perilous: A Case for One of Ours". Women's Studies. 33 (7): 907–931. doi:10.1080/00497870490503851.
- Onion, Rebecca (October 21, 2019). "On the Sexist Reception of Willa Cather's World War I Novel". Literary Hub.
- Clere, Sarah E. (2011). Troubling Bodies in the Fiction of Willa Cather. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. p. 5.
- O'Brien, Sharon. "Being Noncanonical: The Case Against Willa Cather." Cathy N. Davidson (ed.), Reading in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989, p. 246.
- Old, James Paul (January 2, 2021). "Making Good Americans: The Politics of Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop". Perspectives on Political Science. 50 (1): 52–61. doi:10.1080/10457097.2020.1830673.
- Urgo, Joseph (2005). "Review of Willa Cather and Material Culture: Real-World Writing, Writing the Real World". South Atlantic Review. 70 (2): 182–186. ISSN 0277-335X.
Nonetheless, Cather's experience was not positive, not only due to cinematically diminished aesthetic qualities, but because "the rise in book sales was short-lived" while the film ran, and she was beset by "the fan letters she received from messy and illiterate people" (116).
- Melcher, E. de S. (November 17, 1934). "Willa Cather Novel Loses Much in the Screen Story". Evening Star (Washington, D.C.). p. 21.
- C., E.N. (September 5, 1934). "Literary Topics". Hartford Courant. p. 8.
- Frus, Phyllis; Corkin, Stanley (1997). "Cather Criticism and the American Canon". College English. 59 (2): 206–217. doi:10.2307/378552. ISSN 0010-0994. JSTOR 378552.
- Reynolds, Guy J. (June 9, 2005). "Willa Cather as progressive". The Cambridge Companion to Willa Cather: 19–34. doi:10.1017/CCOL052182110X.002. ISBN 9780521821100.
- Clasen, Kelly (2013). "Feminists of the Middle Border: Willa Cather, Hamlin Garland, and the Female Land Ethic". CEA Critic. 75 (2): 93–108. ISSN 0007-8069. JSTOR 44378769.
- Arnold, Marilyn (1989). "Willa Cather's Artistic "Radicalism"". CEA Critic. 51 (4): 2–10. ISSN 0007-8069. JSTOR 44377562.
- Goldberg, Jonathan (1998). "Photographic Relations: Laura Gilpin, Willa Cather". American Literature. 70 (1): 63–95. doi:10.2307/2902456. ISSN 0002-9831. JSTOR 2902456.
- Decker, James M. (April 2003). "Willa Cather and the Politics of Criticism". Modern Language Review. doi:10.2307/3737843. JSTOR 3737843.
- Nealon, Christopher (1997). "Affect-Genealogy: Feeling and Affiliation in Willa Cather". American Literature. 69 (1): 5–37. doi:10.2307/2928167. ISSN 0002-9831. JSTOR 2928167.
- Homestead, Melissa (2017). "Yet More Cather-Knopf Correspondence". Willa Cather Review. 59 (2): 3.
- Giannone, Richard (2005). "Music, Silence, and the Spirituality of Willa Gather". Renascence. 57 (2): 123–149. doi:10.5840/renascence20055723.
Cather began the novel in 1933 when personal losses made her acutely aware of life's sad limits.
- Baker, Deena Michelle (2006). "What now?": Willa Cather's successful male professionals at middle age. p. 41.
Cather began writing Lucy Gayheart in the Spring of 1933,after the loss of both parents and the sale of her childhood Red Cloud home (Rosowski 223).
- Lindemann, Marilee (2005). The Cambridge companion to Willa Cather (1st ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. xx. ISBN 9780521527934.
- Porter, David (2017). "From The Song of the Lark to Lucy Gayheart, and Die Walküre to Die Winterreise". Cather Studies. 11. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1qv5psc.12. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
November 1932, just as Cather was starting to write Lucy Gayheart: “after one is 45 it simply rains death, all about one, and after you’ve passed ﬁfty, the storm grows ﬁercer” (474).
- Porter, David (2015). "Following the Lieder: Cather, Schubert, and Lucy Gayheart". Cather Studies. 10. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1d98c6j.19. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
By the time she wrote Lucy Gayheart in the mid-1930s, however, Cather was, like Lucy and Harry in Books II and III, deep into her own winter journey, a time of remembering friends and family she had lost, of feeling immobilized by her own incapacities, and of pondering the ultimate and unanswerable mystery of human suffering, which she had in her 1932 essay "Escapism" described as "the seeming original injustice[,] that creatures so splendidly aspiring should be inexorably doomed to fail" (On Writing 22).
- Harvey, Sally Elizabeth Peltier (1992). Willa Cather : redefining the American dream. Davis, Calif. p. 298.
- Johnston, William Winfred (1953). MUSIC IN THE FICTION OF WILLA CATHER (PDF). p. 176.
- Randall, John Herman (1960). The landscape and the looking glass; Willa Cather's search for value. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 353.
- Edel, Leon (1960). Willa Cather, the paradox of success; a lecture delivered under the auspices of the Gertrude Clarke Whittall Poetry and Literature Fund in the Coolidge Auditorium. Library of Congress. p. 13.
Of all the frontier stories available to Willa Cather, why, we can ask, did she particularly cling to this one rather than that; why did a night of talk with a blue-eyed girl at some party in the 1890's, a girl whose name was Gayhardt, end in a novel almost half a century later titled Lucy Gayheart; why had it long been dreamed of as a story to be called "Blue Eyes on the Platte?"
- Stout, Janis P. (2019). Cather among the moderns. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780817320140.
- Cather, Willa (1926). "Louise Guerber (October 15 ) | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
I'm flirting a little with as a story that's been knocking round in my head for sometime. Title "Blue Eyes on the Platte"—PLAtte, not plate.
- Porter, David (2013). "1926: Blue Eyes on the Platte Enters Gayheartedly". Willa Cather Newsletter & Review. 56 (2): 32.
- Chown, Linda (1993). ""It Came Closer than That": Willa Cather's Lucy Gayheart". Cather Studies. 2. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
- "Daughter of the Prairies". Nebraskaland. Lincoln, Nebraska: Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. 44: 56. 1966.
- BENNETT, MILDRED R. (1982). "Willa Cather's Bodies for Ghosts". Western American Literature. 17 (1): 45. ISSN 0043-3462. JSTOR 43020206.
- Cather, Willa (August 2015). Porter, David H. (ed.). Lucy Gayheart (Willa Cather Scholarly ed.). Lincoln. p. 288. ISBN 9780803276871.
- Rosowski, Susan J. (December 1984). "Willa Cather's female landscapes: The song of the lark and Lucy Gayheart". Women's Studies. 11 (3): 233–246. doi:10.1080/00497878.1984.9978614.
- Baker, Deena Michelle (2006). "What now?": Willa Cather's successful male professionals at middle age middle age. California State University, San Bernardino. p. 6.
- Cather, Willa (March 5, 1939). "Dorothy Canfield Fisher (March 5 ) | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu.
- Cather, Willa (October 12, 1938). "Ferris Greenslet (October 12 ) | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu.
They were the two people dearest to me.
- Cather, Willa (May 6, 1941). "Mary Willard (May 6, 1941) | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu.
I have waited for some days to turn to you, because I seemed unable to utter anything but a cry of grief and bitter disappointment. Only Isabelle's death and the death of my brother Douglass have cut me so deep. The feeling I have, all the time, is that so much of my life has been cut away.
- Gatenby, Greg (1993). The Wild is Always There: Canada through the eyes of foreign writers. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada. p. 215. ISBN 0-394-28023-7.
- STOUCK, DAVID (1982). "Marriage and Friendship in "My Ántonia"". Great Plains Quarterly. 2 (4): 224–231. ISSN 0275-7664. JSTOR 24467939.
- Mason, Julian (1986). "An Interesting Willa Cather Letter". American Literature. 58 (1): 109–111. doi:10.2307/2925947. ISSN 0002-9831. JSTOR 2925947.
- PRITCHARD, WILLIAM H. (2013). "Epistolary Cather". The Hudson Review. 66 (2): 387–394. ISSN 0018-702X. JSTOR 43488733.
- JEWELL, ANDREW (2017). "Why Obscure the Record? The Psychological Context of Willa Cather's Ban on Letter Publication". Biography. 40 (3): 399–424. ISSN 0162-4962. JSTOR 26405083.
- Thomas, Susie (1990). Willa Cather. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education. p. 13. ISBN 0333423607.
- Walton, David (March 4, 1990). "Putting Cather into Perspective". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. 3-J.
- "Sensational Autobiography Chosen". The Times Dispatch (Richmond, Virginia). December 8, 1940. p. 76.
- JAAP, JAMES A. (2009). "Breaking Fresh Ground: New Releases from the Willa Cather Edition". Resources for American Literary Study. 34: 215–222. doi:10.7756/rals.034.009.215-222. ISSN 0048-7384. JSTOR 26367245.
- Cather, Willa (2009). Youth and the Bright Medusa: The Willa Cather Scholarly Edition. University of Nebraska Press.
- Burgess, Cheryll (1990). "Cather's Homecomings". Willa Cather : family, community, and history (the BYU symposium). Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Humanities Publications Center. p. 52. ISBN 0842522999.
- Skaggs, Merrill Maguire (2007). "Icons and Willa Cather". Cather Studies. 7. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1djmfsp.23.
- Cather, Willa. "Women's History Month". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- "MISS CATHER WINS INSTITUTE AWARD". New York Times. January 28, 1944. p. 13.
- "Author of Lost Lady Won the Pulitzer Prize in 1922 for Writing One of Ours". The New York Times. April 25, 1947. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
Willa Sibert Cather, noted American novelist, died at 4:30 P.M. yesterday in her home at 570 Park Avenue. After Miss Cather's death a secretary, who was with her at the time, was too upset to talk about it. It was reported that death was due to a cerebral hemorrhage. The author was 70 years old in December.
- Mulligan, Hugh A. (February 13, 1980). "Visiting Willa Cather: Sabbatical of the Heart". The Shreveport Journal. Associated Press. p. 52.
- Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 7776). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
- Swanson, Stevenson (July 13, 2003). "Scholars ponder why writer of Plains chose burial in East". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- Homestead, Melissa J.; Kaufman, Anne L. (2008). "Nebraska, New England, New York: Mapping the Foreground of Willa Cather and Edith Lewis's Creative Partnership". Western American Literature. 43 (1): 46. doi:10.1353/wal.2008.0050. S2CID 160102859.
- "Willa Cather and Isabelle McClung". The Norfolk Library Book Group. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- "Jaffrey: Willa Cather's Last Page". September 9, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Bean, Margaret C. (2005). "Willa Cather in Jaffrey". Studies in Jaffrey History. 1: 5.
- Sharistanian, Janet. Introduction to My Ántonia, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. xiii.
- Acocella, Joan (April 9, 2013). "What's in Cather's Letters". The New Yorker.
- Lindemann, Marilee. Willa Cather: Queering America. NY:Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 25.
- Flannigan, John F. "Issues of Gender and Lesbian Love: Goblins in "The Garden Lodge"". Cather Studies. 2.
- Ammons, Elizabeth. "Cather and the New Canon: "The Old Beauty" and the Issue of Empire". Cather Studies. 3.
Despite her sympathetic portraits of northern and eastern European gentile immigrants and her own status as a closeted lesbian writer in an increasingly homophobic era, Willa Cather was in key ways reactionary and racist.
- Carlin, Deborah (January 1, 2001). "Review of Willa Cather's Sexual Aesthetics and the Male Homosexual Literary TraditionBy John P. Anders & Willa Cather and the Politics of Criticism By Joan Acocella". Great Plains Quarterly. 21 (1).
- O'Brien, Sharon (1987). Willa Cather : the emerging voice. New York. pp. 215–216. ISBN 0195041321.
- Hammer, K. Allison (February 1, 2020). "Epic Stone Butch". TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly. 7 (1): 77–98. doi:10.1215/23289252-7914528.
- Pernal, Mary (2002). Explorations in contemporary feminist literature : the battle against oppression for writers of color, lesbian and transgender communities. New York: P. Lang. p. 18. ISBN 0820456624.
- Butler, Judith (1993). ""Dangerous Crossing": Willa Cather's Masculine Names". Bodies that matter : on the discursive limits of "sex". New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415903661.
- Gatenby, Greg (1993). The Wild is Always There: Canada through the eyes of foreign writers. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada. p. 214. ISBN 0-394-28023-7.
- BOUTRY, KATHERINE (2000). "Between Registers: Coming In and Out Through Musical Performance in Willa Cather's The Song of the Lark". Legacy. 17 (2): 187–198. doi:10.1353/leg.2000.0003. ISSN 0748-4321. JSTOR 25679337. S2CID 161309296.
- Griswold, Wendy; Michelson, Anna (September 2020). "The Outsider's Edge: Geography, Gender, and Sexuality in the Local Color Movement". Sociological Forum. 35 (3): 628–647. doi:10.1111/socf.12622.
- Jewell, Andrew (2004). "Willa Cather's Greenwich Village: New Contexts for "Coming, Aphrodite!"". Studies in American Fiction. 32 (1): 59–80. doi:10.1353/saf.2004.0009. S2CID 162380556.
- Bunyan, Patrick. All Around the Town: Amazing Manhattan Facts and Curiosities, p. 66. New York: Fordham University Press, 1999
- Stout, Janis P. (1991). "Autobiography as Journey in The Professor's House". Studies in American Fiction. 19 (2): 203–215. doi:10.1353/saf.1991.0019. S2CID 161087364.
- HOMESTEAD, MELISSA J. (2013). "WILLA CATHER, EDITH LEWIS, AND COLLABORATION: THE SOUTHWESTERN NOVELS OF THE 1920s AND BEYOND". Studies in the Novel. 45 (3): 408–441. ISSN 0039-3827. JSTOR 23594850.
- Shively, Steven B. (2017). "The Compatibility of Art and Religion for Willa Cather: From the Beginning". Cather Studies. 11. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1qv5psc.6.
- Fisher-Wirth, Ann W. (1990). "Dispossession and Redemption in the Novels of Willa Cather". Cather Studies. 1. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- BOHLKE, L. BRENT (1984). "Willa Cather's Nebraska Priests and "Death Comes for the Archbishop"". Great Plains Quarterly. 4 (4): 264–269. ISSN 0275-7664. JSTOR 23530595.
- Cox, Stephen (2014). "The Cather Correspondence". American Literary History. 26 (2): 418–429. doi:10.1093/alh/aju021. ISSN 0896-7148. JSTOR 43817645.
- Carter, Christopher (1991). "Springing From The Same Root: Religion And Art In The Fiction Of Willa Cather". William and Mary: 4. doi:10.21220/s2-gntc-w662. Cite journal requires
- Thacker, Robert (1992). "Alice Munro's Willa Cather". Canadian Literature. 134 (Autumn 1992): 43–57.
- Harbison, Sherrill (2000). "Willa Cather and Sigrid Undset: The Correspondence in Oslo". Resources for American Literary Study. 26 (2): 240. doi:10.1353/rals.2000.0024. S2CID 162396411.
- Homestead, Melissa J. (2021). The only wonderful things : the creative partnership of Willa Cather and Edith Lewis (First ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 266–268. ISBN 978-0190652876.
- Simmons, Thomas E. (2018). "A Will for Willa Cather". Missouri Law Review. 83 (3).
- STOUT, JANIS P. (2009). "Between Candor and Concealment: Willa Cather and (Auto)Biography". Biography. 32 (3): 467–492. ISSN 0162-4962. JSTOR 23540820.
- Christopher Benfey. Willa Cather's Correspondence Reveals Something New: The rage of a great American novelist, The New Republic, October 12, 2013.
- Schuessler, Jennifer. "O Revelations! Letters, Once Banned, Flesh Out Willa Cather." The New York Times. March 22, 2013, A1.
- "About | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
- "The Complete Letters | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- Curtin, William M., ed. The World and the Parish: Willa Cather's Articles and Reviews, 1893–1902. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1970, p. 248.
- LAIRD, DAVID (1992). "Willa Cather's Women: Gender, Place, and Narrativity in "O Pioneers!" and "My Ántonia"". Great Plains Quarterly. 12 (4): 242–253. ISSN 0275-7664. JSTOR 23531660.
- Rosenberg, Liz (May 16, 1993). "SARAH ORNE JEWETT: A 'NATURALLY AMERICAN' WRITER". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
- Shannon, Laurie (1999). ""The Country of Our Friendship": Jewett's Intimist Art". American Literature. 71 (2): 227–262. ISSN 0002-9831. JSTOR 2902810.
- REYNOLDS, GUY (2013). "The Transatlantic Virtual Salon: Cather and the British". Studies in the Novel. 45 (3): 349–368. ISSN 0039-3827. JSTOR 23594847.
- Homestead, Melissa (2016). "Willa Cather Editing Sarah Orne Jewett". American Literary Realism. 49 (1): 63–89. doi:10.5406/amerlitereal.49.1.0063. ISSN 1540-3084. JSTOR 10.5406/amerlitereal.49.1.0063. S2CID 164607316.
- Rose, Phyllis (September 11, 1983). "THE POINT OF VIEW WAS MASCULINE". New York Times. p. 92.
- Carlin, Deborah (2015). "Cather's Jewett: Relationship, Influence, and Representation". Cather Studies. 10. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1d98c6j.12.
- Cary, Richard (1973). "The Sculptor and the Spinster: Jewett's "Influence"on Cather". Colby Quarterly. 10 (3): 168–178.
- Smith, Eleanor M. (1956). "The Literary Relationship of Sarah Orne Jewett and Willa Sibert Cather". The New England Quarterly. 29 (4): 472–492. doi:10.2307/362140. ISSN 0028-4866. JSTOR 362140.
- Thorberg, Raymond (1962). "Willa Cather: From Alexander's Bridge to My Antonia". Twentieth Century Literature. 7 (4): 147–158. doi:10.2307/440922. ISSN 0041-462X. JSTOR 440922.
- Homestead, Melissa J. (2015). "Willa Cather, Sarah Orne Jewett, and the Historiography of Lesbian Sexuality". Cather Studies. 10. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1d98c6j.5. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
- Donovan, Josephine (1979). "The Unpublished Love Poems of Sarah Orne Jewett". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. 4 (3): 26–31. doi:10.2307/3346145. ISSN 0160-9009. JSTOR 3346145.
In fact, Jewett was quite aware of the temptation to fictionally disguise female-female relationships as heterosexual love stories, and consciously rejected it. One of her most pointed critical comments to the young Willa Cather was to advise her against doing this kind of "masquerading" in her future work.
- Pryse, Marjorie (1998). "Sex, Class, and "Category Crisis": Reading Jewett's Transitivity". American Literature. 70 (3): 517–549. doi:10.2307/2902708. ISSN 0002-9831. JSTOR 2902708.
- Jewett, Sarah Orne (1911). Fields, Annie (ed.). Letters of Sarah Orne Jewett. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin company. pp. 246–7.
- Cather, Willa. Not Under Forty. New York: Knopf, 1936, p. 135.
- Harris, Richard C. (1989). "First Loves: Willa Cather's Niel Herbert and Ivan Turgenev's Vladimir Petrovich". Studies in American Fiction. 17 (1): 81. doi:10.1353/saf.1989.0007. S2CID 161309570.
- MURPHY, DAVID (1994). "Jejich Antonie: Czechs, the Land, Cather, and the Pavelka Farmstead". Great Plains Quarterly. 14 (2): 85–106. ISSN 0275-7664. JSTOR 23531597.
- Danker, Kathleen (Winter 2000). "The Influence of Willa Cather's French-Canadian Neighbors in Nebraska in Death Comes for the Archbishop and Shadows on the Rock." Great Plains Quarterly. p. 34.
- Carr, Thomas M. (2016). "A French Canadian Community Becomes "French Country": The 1912 Funeral at the Center of Cather's O Pioneers!" (PDF). Willa Cather Newsletter & Review. 59 (1): 21–26. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- Canby, Henry Seidel. "The 100 Outstanding Books of 1924–1944." Life Magazine, August 14, 1944. Chosen in collaboration with the magazine's editors.
- Middleton, Jo Ann (1990). Willa Cather's Modernism: A Study of Style and Technique. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
- Ozieblo, Barbara (2002). "Love and Disappointment: Gamel Woolsey's unpublished novel Patterns on the Sand". Powys Notes. 14 (1–2): 5–12.
Nostalgia for the past is not offset in Woolsey’s writing by even an ambivalent acceptance of a new order, as it definitely is in Willa Cather’s or Edith Wharton’s novels.
- Morgenstern, Naomi E. (1996). ""Love Is Home-Sickness": Nostalgia and Lesbian Desire in "Sapphira and the Slave Girl"". NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction. 29 (2): 184–205. doi:10.2307/1345858. ISSN 0029-5132. JSTOR 1345858.
- Morley, Catherine (July 1, 2009). "Crossing the water: Willa Cather and the transatlantic imaginary". European Journal of American Culture. 28 (2): 125–140. doi:10.1386/ejac.28.2.125_1.
- Rosowski, Susan J. (1995). "Willa Cather's Ecology of Place". Western American Literature. 30 (1): 37–51. doi:10.1353/wal.1995.0050. S2CID 165923896.
- FISCHER, MIKE (1990). "Pastoralism and its Discontents: Willa Cather and the Burden of Imperialism". Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature. 23 (1): 31–44. ISSN 0027-1276. JSTOR 24780573.
- Ramirez, Karen E. (Spring 2010). "Narrative Mappings of the Land as Space and Place in Willa Cather's O Pioneers!". Great Plains Quarterly. 30 (2).
- Dennis, Ryan (December 17, 2020). "Naming Fields: The Loss of Narrative in Farming". New England Review. 41 (4): 126–134. doi:10.1353/ner.2020.0123. ISSN 2161-9131. S2CID 229355389.
- WERDEN, DOUGLAS W. (2002). ""She Had Never Humbled Herself": Alexandra Bergson and Marie Shabata as the "Real" Pioneers of "O Pioneers!"". Great Plains Quarterly. 22 (3): 199–215. ISSN 0275-7664. JSTOR 23533035.
- Keller, Julia (September 7, 2002). "The town Willa Cather couldn't leave behind". The Anniston Star. Chicago Tribune. p. 10.
- Walker, Don D. (1966). "The Western Humanism of Willa Cather". Western American Literature. 1 (2): 75–90. doi:10.1353/wal.1966.0004. ISSN 1948-7142. S2CID 165885366.
- Brown, E. K. (1936). "Willa Cather and the West". University of Toronto Quarterly. 5 (4): 544–566. doi:10.3138/utq.5.4.544. ISSN 1712-5278. S2CID 161220902.
- Stouck, David (1972). "Hagiographical Style in Death Comes for the Archbishop". University of Toronto Quarterly. 41 (4): 293–307. doi:10.3138/utq.41.4.293. ISSN 1712-5278. S2CID 162317290.
- Curtin, William M. (1968). "Willa Cather: Individualism and Style". Colby Quarterly. 8 (2): 35–55.
- Homestead, Melissa; Reynolds, Guy (October 1, 2011). Rosowski, Susan J. (ed.). "Introduction". Cather Studies. 9: x. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1df4gfg.4.
- SKAGGS, MERRILL MAGUIRE (1981). "Willa Cather's Experimental Southern Novel". The Mississippi Quarterly. 35 (1): 3–14. ISSN 0026-637X. JSTOR 26474933.
Because Willa Cather avoided in her fiction the bravura effects that critics can admire from so many angles and at such length, contemporary readers have sometimes found themselves at a loss to explain why they like her work, critics at a loss for a critical language capable of communicating their reasons for admiring it.
- Gingrich, Brian (September 17, 2020). "Willa Cather's Naivete". Twentieth-Century Literature. 66 (3): 305–332. doi:10.1215/0041462X-8646863. ISSN 2325-8101.
- Curtin, William M. "Willa Cather: Individualism and Style." Colby Library Quarterly. June 1968, No. 2, p. 52.
- Mencken, H. L. "Willa Cather". The Borzoi 1920: Being a sort of record of five years' publishing. Alfred Knopf. 1920. pp. 28–31. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- Byatt, A. S. (December 8, 2006). "American pastoral". The Guardian. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Acocella, Joan. Willa Cather and the Politics of Criticism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000, pp. 5-6
- Reynolds, Guy (June 2003). Willa Cather as Equivocal Icon. p. 5.
- Urgo, Joseph R. Willa Cather and the Myth of American Migration. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995, p. 17
- Rosowski, Susan. The Voyage Perilous: Willa Cather's Romanticism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press (1986), p. 45
- Barclay, Donald A. (1994). "Willa Cather: Overview." Gay & Lesbian Literature. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale. ISBN 978-1-4144-3734-7.
- Birns, Nicholas, ed (2012). Critical Insights: Willa Cather. Hackensack, NJ: Salem Press. ISBN 978-1587658266.
- Daiches, David. (1971). Willa Cather: A Critical Introduction. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0837152110.
- Durrans, Stéphanie. (2007). The Influence of French Culture on Willa Cather: Intertextual References and Resonances. Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773452398.
- Meltzer, Milton (2007). Willa Cather: A Biography. Buffalo, NY: Twenty-First Century Press. ISBN 978-0822576044.
- Skaggs, Merrill Maguire (2007). Axes: Willa Cather and William Faulkner. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803211230.
- Cather, Willa, Andrew Jewell, and Janis Stout (2013). The Selected Letters of Willa Cather. NY: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-95930-0.
- Cather, Willa, and L. Brent Bohlke (1990). Willa Cather in Person: Interviews, Speeches, and Letters. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0803263260.
- Cather, Willa (2009). The Collected Works of Willa Cather Unexpurgated Edition excerpt and text search
- Willa Cather collection (27 linear feet) are housed at the University of Nebraska
- Willa Sibert Cather Papers, 1875–1955 (0.5 cubic feet) are housed at the Nebraska State Historical Society
- Papers of Willa Cather 1899–1949 (circa 290 items) are housed at the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia.
- Willa Cather Collection (32 linear feet) housed at Drew University
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- Western American Literature Journal: Willa Cather
- Willa Cather Pioneer Memorial and Educational Foundation in Red Cloud, Nebraska
- "Writings of Willa Cather" from C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey Through History
- Radio piece on Cather's letters on NPR
- Willa Cather at IMDb
- Willa Cather Archive at University of Nebraska-Lincoln
- Willa Cather papers at Nebraska State Historical Society
- Willa Cather Collection at Drew University
- Willa Cather poems and biography at Academy of American Poets
- Inventory of the Willa Cather--Irene Miner Weisz Papers at Newberry Library
- Inventory of the Benjamin D. Hitz- Willa Cather Papers at Newberry Library
- Ann Safford Mandel collection of Willa Cather papers at the Mortimer Rare Book Collection, Smith College Special Collections