William B. Caldwell
|William B. Caldwell IV|
Caldwell in 2012
January 24, 1954 |
Columbus, Georgia, U.S.
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1976–2013|
|Commands held||CSC, 1st Battalion, 505th PIR, 82nd Airborne Division
B Company, 1st Battalion, 46th Infantry, 1st Armored Division
4th Battalion, 27th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division (Light)
1st Brigade, 10th Mountain Division (Light)
82nd Airborne Division
U.S. Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
Commander, NATO Training Mission – Afghanistan and Commander, Combined Security Transition Command – Afghanistan
United States Army North
|Awards||Distinguished Service Medal
Defense Superior Service Medal
Legion of Merit
|Spouse(s)||Rev. Stephanie Hudson Caldwell|
|Other work||President, Georgia Military College|
Caldwell's final active-duty military assignment was as the Commanding General of United States Army North, also known as the Fifth Army, a position that his father held from 1978 to 1980. In his role as the commander of U.S. Army North, Caldwell also served as the senior U.S. Army commander of Fort Sam Houston, which is part of Joint Base San Antonio in Texas.
Prior to his assignment at Fort Sam Houston, Caldwell served as the Commander of NATO Training Mission – Afghanistan, and simultaneously as the Commander of Combined Security Transition Command – Afghanistan. Other command assignments Caldwell held include the United States Army Combined Arms Center and the 82nd Airborne Division.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Awards and decorations
- 5 Bibliography
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 External links
Early life and education
Originally from Columbus, Georgia, Caldwell's family moved frequently. His father, William B. Caldwell, III was a serving officer in the US Army, eventually retiring as the Commander of Fifth Army. During Caldwell's early childhood, his father was stationed at the United States Military Academy. Growing up there gave him a chance to interact with West Point cadets, who helped teach some youth sports teams, which deeply influenced him:
"I found that I just really had a great respect and admiration for the cadets at the academy. I thought, 'Boy, I'd love to do something like that one day.' Then with time, I thought I'd like to serve in the armed forces, and so that led me to apply for the military academy. "
Caldwell attended the SHAPE American High School at SHAPE, Belgium followed by Hargrave Military Academy, a private military boarding school in Chatham, Virginia. From there, he was accepted to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. After graduation from West Point in 1976, Caldwell served in posts throughout the country and overseas. He continued his education with a master's degree in systems technology from the Naval Postgraduate School and then a master of military arts and sciences from the School for Advanced Military Studies which is part of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Caldwell has also attended the John F. Kennedy School of Government and Harvard University as a Senior Service College Fellow.
Caldwell learned early on that the military required him to be flexible and ready for new challenges. One month prior to leaving his battalion command position in the 25th Infantry Division in Hawaii, for example, his commanding general sent him to Haiti to work as his political-military liaison in the U.S. Embassy during Operation Uphold Democracy in the mid-1990s.
Caldwell took his communications, intelligence and operations cells and worked in the embassy for six months. "I gave up command, formed this organization and took off to go work in an American embassy, which I'd never done in my life", he recalled. "In fact, I'm not even sure I'd ever been in an American embassy overseas in my life. I literally started from scratch."
After his tour in Haiti, he commanded the 1st Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, at Fort Drum, New York. He worked in the Office of the Director for Strategic Plans and Policy on the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon, and later served as the executive assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Caldwell's duties once again tested his readiness and flexibility after the September 11 attacks in 2001. During this time Caldwell was serving as deputy director for operations, U.S. Pacific Command, Hawaii. The command's focus shifted from regional war plans to the Global War on Terrorism.
The headquarters changed to a 24-7 operations center, Caldwell said. "So, instead of having a cell of about six or eight people that worked 24-7, we now had a cell of about 50 people that worked 24-7. "
The operation required reserve component personnel to play a crucial role, the general noted. "They were indispensable in the execution of our operations in the Pacific, absolutely indispensable", he said. "They brought a wealth of knowledge that a lot of our folks who had just come in for the first time in the command did not have. So they proved their weight in gold."
In July 2002 Caldwell was assigned as senior military assistant to the deputy secretary of defense, Paul Wolfowitz. In this position he served his boss during the preparation, execution, and follow on for the Iraq War's Operation Iraqi Freedom and other aspects of the Global War on Terrorism.
From May 2004 until June 2006 Caldwell served as the Commanding General of the 82nd Airborne Division. As the division commander, Caldwell oversaw deployments by the units under his command to both Afghanistan and Iraq.
The 82nd Airborne's 3rd Brigade and Division Artillery along with supporting units deployed to support search-and-rescue and security operations in New Orleans, Louisiana after the city was flooded by Hurricane Katrina in September 2005. In all, 3,600 paratroopers commanded by Caldwell operated out of New Orleans International Airport under Task Force All-American. The division helped evacuate 6,000 residents, treat 1,352 people, and cleared 185 city blocks of debris.
Multi-National Force - Iraq spokesman
Following his command of the 82nd, Caldwell was assigned as Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Effects and spokesperson for the Multi-National Force – Iraq, a position he held for 13 months.
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Caldwell was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general in June 2007 and served as the Commanding General of the Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. As the Commanding General for the Combined Arms Center, he has responsibility for the Command and General Staff College and 17 other schools, centers, and training programs throughout the United States.
The Combined Arms Center is also responsible for the development of the U.S. Army’s doctrinal manuals, training of the Army’s commissioned and non-commissioned officers, oversight of major collective training exercises, integration of battle command systems and concepts, and supervision of the Army’s Center for the collection and dissemination of lessons learned.
NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan/Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan
Caldwell assumed command of the NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan (NTM-A)/Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A) on November 21, 2009. Prior to the activation of NTM-A at that time, CSTC-A was a two-star command headed by then Major General Richard Formica. Elevating the Afghan training mission to a three-star command reflected the increased priority placed on training the Afghan National Security Force (ANSF) as part of President Barack Obama’s Afghan “Surge.” It also ensured unity of effort and purpose while helping secure and disperse funding for building all levels of the ANSF.
After securing additional trainers and funding, the reorganization efforts at NTM-A began showing results. Less than a year after Caldwell took command, NTM-A trained an additional 68,000 soldiers for the Afghan National Army and 35,000 for the Afghan National Police. These additions increased the size of the army to more than 144,000 and the police 115,000 by early November 2010. By early 2011, the ANSF totaled nearly 300,000—just short of the level authorized by the Afghan Government and the United States Congress of 305,000. Despite its success, NTM-A still faces a trainer shortfall, particularly regarding specialized trainers such as helicopter mechanics, medical personnel and intelligence specialists, among others. According to a Washington Post article, Caldwell was optimistic about Canada’s plans to contribute more trainers but maintained more were needed to staff new police training centers, air mentor teams, and medical trainers.
In 2010, while NTM-A ensured the continued increase in the quantity of the ANSF, increasing the quality of training and the soldiers and police fielded was of particular concentration. In 2011, the priorities changed to building sustainability and professionalism into the ANSF while continuing to add overall numbers. As part of this effort, NTM-A is embarking on a screening process for all ANSF personnel to ensure Taliban and criminal elements have not infiltrated the force. Comprehensive screening will augment other recruiting vetting processes that began in 2009. Caldwell's efforts in Afghanistan received praise from figures in the military and government, including Senator Carl Levin, United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, and Admiral Mike Mullen.
During this assignment Caldwell was investigated after a subordinate claimed Caldwell directed him to use psychological operations in order to influence U.S. political leaders to support the military effort in Afghanistan. Doing so would be a violation of the Smith–Mundt Act. However, a thorough investigation lasting five months cleared Caldwell of any wrongdoing.
Dawood Military Hospital
Three U.S. military officers testified that Caldwell tried to prevent the U.S. Department of Defense from investigating sub-standard conditions at an American-funded Afghan military hospital in Kabul. Caldwell's reasoning, according to Colonel Mark Fassl, was that there was "an election coming". However, Kenneth Moorefield, Deputy Inspector General for Special Plans and Operations, dismissed these allegations, claiming that there as no "attempt ... to delay our investigation ... or turn it off.
The Wall Street Journal, which initially broke the story of the atrocities at Dawood Military Hospital -- sparking a U.S. Congressional investigation -- later reported that Caldwell chastised military officers under his command for calling in the Inspector General, allegedly saying "that President Obama 'calls me Bill'." The Congressional probe into the atrocities at the Dawood Hospital thanked The Wall Street Journal, saying if it wasn't for the newspaper, the story never would have come to light, the neglect would have persisted while U.S. taxpayer money would have continued to be wasted, propping up the deplorable conditions at the facility. Caldwell allegedly pressured The Wall Street Journal reporter who broke the story.
The Department of Defense Office of Inspector General (DoDIG) conducted an investigation into the allegations and determined that Caldwell and his deputy Major General Gary S. Patton sought in 2011 to restrict contact with a team of investigators probing allegations of corruption and sub-standard patient care at Dawood National Military Hospital. The Inspector General recommended that the Secretary of the Army take appropriate action against Caldwell and his immediate subordinate, Major General Patton. An Army spokesman stated that, following the investigation, Caldwell "requested that he be retired, knowing that these substantiated allegations would directly prevent any future promotion or assignment to a position of importance and responsibility."
United States Army North (Fifth Army)
Caldwell's final military command was United States Army North, also known as the Fifth Army, which was also his father's final military assignment. Under Caldwell's command, Army North successfully executed seven National Special Security Events, six Presidential support missions, and supported a major wild land fire-fighting effort. They also supported civil authorities in responding to two major hurricanes (Isaac & Sandy). During Hurricane Sandy, Caldwell and Army North tracked and supervised the deployment of over 1,680 government personnel and civilian technicians, and also helped provide over 8 million gallons of fuel and enough electricity to support 55,000 families. Caldwell and Army North also supported a number of regional certification exercises to include Ardent Sentry 12, Vibrant Response 13 and Vigilant Shield 13.
Caldwell and Army North also continued an unprecedented engagement with Mexico. In Fiscal Year 2008, Army North undertook only 3 training programs with Mexico's Secretariat of National Defense (SEDENA). By 2012, however, Army North and SEDENA were participating in nearly 100 events.
Dates of rank
Awards and decorations
American civilian decorations
- Louisiana Cross of Merit
- Louisiana Emergency Service Ribbon
- US Department of State Meritorious Honor Award Certificate
Foreign military decorations
- Polish Armed Forces Gold Medal
- Afghanistan Ghazi Mir Bacha Khan Medal
- Afghanistan National Police Symbol of Honor Medal
International military decorations
- Honorary Member of the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club
- Veterans of Foreign Wars Commander-in-Chief Gold Medal and Citation of Merit Award
- Honorary ROCK of the Year in 2008
- Caldwell, W. (2013). Enhancing North American Security – A Military Perspective. "Interagency Journal" The Journal of the Simons Center, Vol. 3, Issue 4, Special Edition, November 2012.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Curing Afghanistan. Foreign Policy. Retrieved April 7, 2010, from http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/04/07/curing_afghanistan.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Leadership Development, Professionalism, and Transition. Small Wars Journal. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://smallwarsjournal.com/blog/2010/08/leadership-development-profess.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Economy of Force to Strategic Cornerstone: The Past, present and Future of the Afghan National Security Forces. Army Magazine. November 2010.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Towards Transition. Defence Management Journal. November 2010.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). No Trainers? No Transition. NATO Review. November 2010.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). The Challenges of a Multilateral Approach. PRISM. Volume 2, Number 1, November 2010.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). From the Operational to the Strategic: A Post-2011 Opportunity. Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute Policy Update. December 12, 2010.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Developing Ministries and Security Forces in Afghanistan. Journal of International Peace Operations. Volume 6, Number 4, January 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Security, Capacity and Literacy. Military Review. January–February 2011.
- Caldwell, W. and Nathan K. Finney. (2011). Building the Security Force that Won't Leave. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 62, 3rd Quarter 2011.
- Caldwell, W. and Nathan K. Finney. (2011). Helping Afghans Help Themselves. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings. July 2011.
- Caldwell, W. and Nathan K. Finney. (2011). Developing a Sustainable Security Force. Canadian Military Journal. Summer 2011.
- Caldwell, W. and Keith Detwiler. (2011). Afghanistan: Return on Investment. Armed Forces Journal. August 2011.
- Caldwell, W. and Derek Reveron (2011). Beyond the Tenth Year in Afghanistan: Security Force Assistance and International Security, Foreign Police Research Institute.
- Caldwell, W. and Crispin Burke (2013). America's Veterans: A Sound Investment. Center for a New American Security.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Dr. Seuss and the Afghan Military. Wall Street Journal.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). The Military Women of Afghanistan. The Boston Globe.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). The Unnoticed Surge in Afghan Security. Chicago Tribune.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Hope and Opportunity. Ledger-Enquirer.
- Caldwell, W. (2012). Moral and Persistent, Lincoln Inspires. San Antonio Express-News.
- Caldwell, W. (2012). In 'Military City', Army Celebrates a Big Day. San Antonio Express-News.
- Caldwell, W. (2012). This Time, a Hero's Welcome. San Antonio Express-News.
- Caldwell, W. (2013). Happy Birthday, U.S. Army. San Antonio Express-News
- Caldwell, W. (2013). San Antonio Truly is Military City, USA. San Antonio Express-News
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Update on Progress and Challenges in Developing An Afghan Security Force. Think Progress.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Literacy as a Matter of Life and Death. Huffington Post.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). No Trainers, No Transition. Allied Command Operations Blog.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Inspirational Leaders, Incredible Impact. Huffington Post.
- Caldwell, W. (2010). Communicating Their Own Story: Progress in the Afghan National Security Force. MountainRunner.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Drop by Drop, A River is Formed: Transition Begins in Afghanistan. New Atlanticist. July 19, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Heart of Transition in Herat. New Atlanticist. July 22, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). International Partnership and Transition in Afghanistan. New Atlanticist. July 28, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Building the Afghan National Security Force Under Fire. New Atlanticist. August 4, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). NATO and the Afghan Surge. New Atlanticist. August 15, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Building a Capable, Affordable, and Sustainable Afghan National Security Force. New Atlanticist. August 23, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Leadership Lessons of an Afghan Colonel. New Atlanticist. August 30, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Tragedy, Hope, and 9/11 Remembered. New Atlanticist. September 8, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). International Partnership and NATO’s Future in Afghanistan. New Atlanticist. September 15, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). The Afghan National Police. New Atlanticist. September 23, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). Resilience and Heroism in Afghanistan. New Atlanticist. September 30, 2011.
- Caldwell, W. (2012). Mexico Matters! Small Wars Journal. October 22, 2012
- Caldwell, W. (2012). Using Social Media To Tell the Army Story Army Live Blog. November 1, 2012
- International Security Assistance Force
- Combined Security Transition Command – Afghanistan
- 2009 congressional delegation to Afghanistan
Notes and references
- Abi-Habib, Maria. (2011). "Neglect at Afghan Military Hospital, Graft and Deadly Neglect" from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111904480904576496703389391710
- Abi-Habib, Maria. (2012) Pentagon Is Pressed on Afghan Inquiry from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303703004577474841924769810
- Kennedy, Allison (October 25, 2008). "Leadership is their life". Columbus Ledger-Enquirer (Columbus, GA).
- George Bush Presidential Library and Museum, Public Papers – 1991 – June, Appointment of the 1991–1992 White House Fellows, June 4, 1991
- News article, Army Lt. Gen. Daniel P. Bolger Assumes NTM-A/CSTC-A Command, by Mass Communication Specialist First Class Chris Fahey, NATO Training Mission – Afghanistan, November 5, 2011
- Casie, Vinall (July 22, 2003). "U.S. Army Maj. Gen. William B. Caldwell IV, Senior Military Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense". DefendAmerica.mil. Retrieved 2007.
- "SHAPE International School, Mons on www.isbi.com". Isbi.com. 2003-07-01. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Proiment alumni" (List). Hargrave Military Academy.
- Gilmore, Gerry (September 21, 2005). "82nd Airborne Division Becomes 'Waterborne' in New Orleans". American Forces Press Service.
- Dreazen, Y. (2010). U.S. Says Afghan Forces Growing Faster Than Expected. National Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011, from http://nationaljournal.com/nationalsecurity/u-s-says-afghan-forces-growing-faster-than-expected-20101024
- Riechmann, D. (2010). NATO Says 900 Trainers Needed for Afghan Forces. MSNBC.COM. Retrieved February 12, 2011, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40074763/ns/world_news-south_and_central_asia
- Partlow, J. (2010, November9). Milestone in Training Afghan Forces. The Washington Post, p. A-6.
- Caldwell, W. (2011). The Unnoticed Surge in Afghan Security. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-02-15/news/ct-oped-0215-afghan-20110215_1_afghans-transition-command-surge
- Riechmann, D. (2011). NATO: 740 More Trainers Still Needed for Afghan Forces. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/13/AR2011021300319.html
- Year in Review, pp. 6–7.
- Vanden-Brook, T. (2011). Afghan Forces Undergo Stricter Vetting by NATO Commanders. USA Today. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/afghanistan/2011-02-18-afghansecurity18_ST_N.htm
- Congressional Testimony. (2011). Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2012 and the Future Years Defense Program. Retrieved February 19, 2011, from http://armed-services.senate.gov/Webcasts/2011/02%20February/02-17-11%20Webcast.htm
- MSNBC.com, Report: Army Targeted U.S. Senators With Psy-Ops, February 24, 2011
- Robert Burns, Associated Press, Army Times, Pentagon Clears 3-Star of Alleged Psyops Use, July 27, 2011
- Jim Garamone, American Forces Press Service, Report Clears Afghanistan Training Commander, July 28, 2011
- Margasak, Larry. (2012). "Generals deny trying to stop Afghan hospital probe". Associated Pres. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://bigstory.ap.org/article/generals-deny-trying-stop-afghan-hospital-probe
- (2012). Al Jazeera from http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/insidestoryamericas/2012/08/2012827501143132.html.
- Capaccio, Tony (September 19, 2013). "Generals Seen Trying to Impede Afghan Hospital Probe". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Caldwell, William. "ARMY Magazine 2012–2013 Green Book" (2013). http://www.editiondigital.net/publication?i=128725
- Michelle Tan, Army Times, Army North Welcomes New Commander, September 5, 2013
- Joe Gould, Army Times, , November 6, 2013
- Empty citation (help)
- Power, Julie (6 December 2014). "Love me don't: the West African online scam using US soldiers". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "STATEMENT OF LIEUTENANT GENERAL WILLIAM B. CALDWELL, IV UNITED STATES ARMY COMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT AND GOVERNMENT REFORM SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY, HOMELAND DEFENSE, AND FOREIGN OPERATIONS" (PDF). United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William B. Caldwell, IV.|
- Multi-National Force – Iraq
- FM 3-0 Operations, 27 February 2008
- FM 3-07 Stability Operations, October 2008
- Combined Arms Center Blog website
- Selected Speeches from Caldwell
- "New US Army doctrine culls lessons from RP" (October 10, 2008) by Rodney J. Jaleco, ABS-CBN North America News Bureau
- "Stability Operations: A Road Map from Conflict to Peace - A Preview of the New Army Field Manual 3-07" (October 8, 2008) by Lt. Gen. William B. Caldwell IV, Foreign Press Center Briefing
- "Standard Warfare May Be Eclipsed By Nation-Building" (October 5, 2008) by Ann Scott Tyson, Washington Post
- Windows Media Clip of Caldwell on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart (March 10, 2008)
- "Top General: Let Soldiers Blog" (January 31, 2008) by Noah Shachtman, Wired Blog Network
- Talk to Jazeera - Major General Caldwell on YouTube (April 11, 2007) by Al Jazeera
- "82nd Airborne Division Becomes 'Waterborne' in New Orleans" (September 21, 2005) by Gerry J. Gilmore, American Forces Press Service
- "Learning to Leverage New Media: The Israeli Defense Forces in Recent Conflicts" (May-June, 2009) by Lt. Gen. William Caldwell, Mr. Dennis Murphy and Mr. Anton Menning, Military Review
- "Fostering a Culture of Engagement" (Sept.-Oct. 2009) by Lt. Gen. William Caldwell, Lt. Col. Shawn Stroud and Mr. Anton Menning, Military Review
- ISAF - International Security Assistance Force
- Media Engagement: Brussels (February 23, 2011)