November 21, 1785|
|Died||April 25, 1853(aged 67)|
|Known for||Research on digestion|
William Beaumont was born to Samuel and Lucretia Beaumont in Lebanon, Connecticut. In 1811 William trained to become a physician through an apprenticeship with Dr. Truman Powell in St. Albans, Vermont. From 1812 until 1815, Beaumont served as a surgeon's mate in the Army during the War of 1812. After the war ended he started a private practice in Plattsburgh, New York, but by 1819 Beaumont had rejoined the Army as a surgeon. He was assigned a location at Fort Mackinac. Beaumont took a leave in 1821, and married Deborah Green Platt in Plattsburgh, before returning to his post. Deborah was divorced from Nathaniel Platt, whose uncle Zephaniah Platt founded Plattsburgh after the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
Experiments with St. Martin
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On June 6, 1822, an employee of the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island, named Alexis St. Martin, was accidentally shot in the stomach by a discharge of a shotgun loaded with a buck shot from close range that injured his ribs and his stomach. Dr. Beaumont treated his wound, but expected St. Martin to die from his injuries. Despite this dire prediction, St. Martin survived – but with a hole, or fistula, in his stomach that never fully healed. Unable to continue work for the American Fur Company, he was hired as a handyman by Dr. Beaumont.
By August 1825, Beaumont had been relocated to Fort Niagara in New York, and Alexis St. Martin had come with him. Beaumont recognized that he had in St. Martin an unusual opportunity to observe digestive processes. Dr. Beaumont began to perform experiments on digestion using the stomach of St. Martin. Most of the experiments were conducted by tying a piece of food to a string and inserting it through the hole into St. Martin's stomach. Every few hours, Beaumont would remove the food and observe how well it had been digested. Beaumont also extracted a sample of gastric acid from St. Martin's stomach for analysis. In September, Alexis St. Martin ran away from Dr. Beaumont and moved to Canada, leaving Beaumont to concentrate on his duties as an army surgeon but Dr. Beaumont had him caught to continue to exhibit him. Beaumont also used samples of stomach acid taken out of St. Martin to "digest" bits of food in cups. This led to the important discovery that the stomach acid, and not solely the mashing, pounding and squeezing of the stomach, digests the food into nutrients the stomach can use; in other words, digestion was primarily a chemical process and not a mechanical one.
During 1826 and 1827, Dr. Beaumont was stationed at Fort Howard in Green Bay, Wisconsin. In 1828 he was transferred to St. Louis, Missouri. While en route to St. Louis, Alexis St. Martin was ordered to stop at Fort Crawford in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, to serve as Dr. Beaumont's handyman again. In early 1831, Dr. Beaumont conducted another set of experiments on St. Martin's stomach, ranging from the simple observation of normal digestion to the effects that temperature, exercise and even emotions have on the digestive process.
Beaumont published the account of his experiments in 1833, as Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the Physiology of Digestion. He and St. Martin parted ways, with Beaumont eventually going to St. Louis, Missouri, and St. Martin to his home in Quebec province, Canada. Off and on for the next twenty years, Beaumont tried to get St. Martin to move to St. Louis, but the move never occurred.
Beaumont died in 1853 as a result of slipping on ice-covered steps. He was buried at Bellefontaine Cemetery.
His papers are held at Washington University (St. Louis), School of Medicine, Library, and copies are held at the National Library of Medicine.
Several institutions are named for William Beaumont, including:
- Beaumont High School in St. Louis, Missouri
- William Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, Michigan
- William Beaumont Hospital in Troy, Michigan
- William Beaumont Hospital in Grosse Pointe, Michigan (formerly Bon Secours Hospital, but merged into the Beaumont hospital system and renamed)
- William Beaumont Army Medical Center in El Paso, Texas
- Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine in the cities of Auburn Hills and Rochester Hills, MI.
- William Beaumont Elementary School in Waterford, Michigan is named in his honor.
- Beaumont Highway, in Beaumont's hometown of Lebanon, was named in his honor
- Beaumont's experiments on St. Martin were featured in a 2012 episode of Radiolab, which aired in on 2 April.
- William Beaumont experiments on Alexis St. Martin were featured in a 2012 episode of Dark Matters: Twisted But True, which aired on Wednesday, August 1.
- Beaumont, William. "Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion." Plattsburgh: FF Allen, 1833.
- Beaumont, William. "Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion." Maclachlan and Stewart (Edinburgh), 1838.
- Myer, Jesse S. (editor) (1912). Life and Letters of Dr. William Beaumont. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company. ISBN 0-8016-0535-0.
- Beaumont, William (1838). Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. Edinburgh: Maclachlan and Stewart. ISBN 0-486-69213-2.
- Harré, R. (1981). Great Scientific Experiments. Phaidon (Oxford). pp. 39–47. ISBN 0-7148-2096-2.
- "William Beaumont Papers 1812-1959". National Library of Medicine.
- http://www.radiolab.org/2012/apr/02/holey-cow/ Radiolab: "Guts: Holey Cow." WNYC, April 2, 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- Beaumont, W. (June 1977). "Nutrition Classics. Experiments and observations on the gastric juice and the physiology of digestion. By William Beaumont. Plattsburgh. Printed by F. P. Allen. 1833". Nutr. Rev. (United States) 35 (6): 144–5. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1977.tb06570.x. ISSN 0029-6643. PMID 327355.
- Brodman, E. (1964). "Scientific and Editorial Relationships between Joseph Lovell and William Beaumont". Bulletin of the history of medicine (United States) 38: 127–32. ISSN 0007-5140. PMID 14132124.
- Cummiskey, R. D.; O'Leary J. P. (August 1996). "William Beaumont". The American surgeon (United States) 62 (8): 690–1. ISSN 0003-1348. PMID 8712571.
- Dubois, A.; Johnson L. F. (December 1985). "William Beaumont: frontier physician and founding father of gastric physiology". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. (United States) 7 (6): 472–4. doi:10.1097/00004836-198512000-00005. PMID 3910708.
- Field, W. (December 1985). "An original Beaumont letter". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. (United States) 7 (6): 475–6. doi:10.1097/00004836-198512000-00006. PMID 3910709.
- Harré, R. (1981). Great Scientific Experiments. Phaidon (Oxford). p. 39. ISBN 0-19-286036-4.
- Mai, F. M. (October 1988). "Beaumont's contribution to gastric psychophysiology: a reappraisal". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry (Canada) 33 (7): 650–3. ISSN 0706-7437. PMID 3058293.
- Modlin, I. M. (September 1999). "A gastric sexology: the story of three men and three bottles of gastric juice". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. (United States) 29 (2): 111–4. doi:10.1097/00004836-199909000-00001. PMID 10478867.
- Life and Letters of Dr. William Beaumont Jesse S. Myer (editor), C. V. Mosby Company (St. Louis), 1912.
- Nelson, Rodney B. (1990), Beaumont: America's First Physiologist, Geneva, Illinois: Grant House Press.
- O'Leary, J. P. (January 1994). "The identification of the caustic agent in gastric juice". The American surgeon (United States) 60 (1): 79–80. ISSN 0003-1348. PMID 8273980.
- Palmer, W. L. (October 1953). "Centennial of the death of William Beaumont, 1785-1853". Gastroenterology 25 (2): 113–8. ISSN 0016-5085. PMID 13107912.
- Rutkow, I. M. (November 1998). "Beaumont and St Martin: a blast from the past". Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (United States) 133 (11): 1259. doi:10.1001/archsurg.133.11.1259. PMID 9820364.
- Schatzki, S. C. (June 1993). "Beaumont and St. Martin". AJR. American journal of roentgenology (United States) 160 (6): 1176. doi:10.2214/ajr.160.6.8498211. ISSN 0361-803X. PMID 8498211.
- Smith, A. H. (May 1951). "William Beaumont (November 21, 1785-April 25, 1853)". J. Nutr. (Not Available) 44 (1): 3–16. ISSN 0022-3166. PMID 14851070.
- The Case of the Wounded Woodsman and His Dedicated Physician Albert B. Lowenfels, MD; 09/02/2009
|Wikisource has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia article about William Beaumont.|