William Orlando Darby
|William Orlando Darby|
|Born||February 8, 1911
Fort Smith, Arkansas, United States
|Died||April 30, 1945 (aged 34)
Torbole, Italy †
|Buried||Fort Smith National Cemetery, Arkansas, United States|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1933–1945|
|Unit||Field Artillery Branch|
|Commands held||1st Ranger Battalion
6615th Ranger Force
179th Infantry Regiment
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross (2)
Army Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit
Purple Heart (3)
French Croix de Guerre with Silver Star
Russian Order of Kutuzov (3rd degree)
British Distinguished Service Order
Brigadier General William O. Darby (8 February 1911 – 30 April 1945) was a United States Army officer who fought in World War II, where he was killed in action. He was posthumously promoted to brigadier general. Darby led the famous Darby's Rangers, which evolved into the U.S. Army Rangers.
Darby was born in Fort Smith, Arkansas. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point with a bachelor of science degree and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Field Artillery on 13 June 1933.
His first assignment was being an assistant executive and supply officer with the 82nd Field Artillery at Fort Bliss, Texas. In July 1934, he transferred to Cloudcroft, New Mexico where he commanded the 1st Cavalry Division detachment. He received intensive artillery training from September 1937 to June 1938 while attending Field Artillery School at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. On 9 September 1940, he was promoted to captain and subsequently served with the 80th Division at Camp Jackson, South Carolina; Fort Benning, Georgia; Camp Beauregard, Louisiana and Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
As World War II progressed, Darby saw rapid promotion to the grade of lieutenant colonel. He was one of the first U.S. troops sent to Northern Ireland at the outbreak of the war, and during his stay there, he became interested in the British Commandos. On June 19, 1942 the 1st Ranger Battalion was sanctioned, recruited, and began training in Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland. His interest was such that, when the U.S. Army decided to establish its Ranger units, he was assigned to direct their organization and training. Many of the original Rangers were volunteers from the Red Bull, the 34th Infantry Division, a National Guard division and the first ground combat troops to arrive in Europe.
“Darby's Rangers” trained with their British counterparts in Scotland and in 1943, the 1st Ranger Battalion made its first assault at Arzew. Darby was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) for his actions on March 21–25 during that operation. The citation stated:
“Lt. Col. Darby struck with his force with complete surprise at dawn in the rear of a strongly fortified enemy position. Always conspicuously at the head of his troops, he personally led assaults against the enemy line in the face of heavy machine gun and artillery fire, establishing the fury of the Ranger attack by his skillful employment of hand grenades in close quarter fighting. On March 22, Lt. Col. Darby directed his battalion in advance on Bon Hamean, capturing prisoners and destroying a battery of self propelled artillery.”
“Lt. Col. Darby, with the use of one 37mm gun, which he personally manned, managed not only to repulse an enemy attack, but succeeded with this weapon in destroying one tank, while two others were accounted for by well directed hand grenade fire.”
Darby was also awarded the Silver Star for his actions in North Africa on February 12, 1943:
“Without regard for his personal safety, the day previous to a raid, he reconnoitered enemy positions and planned the attack which he led the following morning. The thorough organization and successful attack led by Lt. Col. Darby revealed his initiative, courage, and devotion to duty which is a credit to the Armed Forces of the United States.”
Promotions and death
Darby took part in the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943 and was promoted to full colonel on December 11, 1943. He commanded the 179th Infantry Regiment, part of the 45th "Thunderbirds" Infantry Division during the Rome-Arno and Anzio campaigns in the Italian Campaign from February 18 to April 2, 1944.
He was ordered to Washington, D.C. for duty with the Army Ground Forces and later with the War Department General Staff at The Pentagon. In March 1945, he returned to Italy for an observation tour with General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold.
On 23 April 1945, Brigadier General Robinson E. Duff, Assistant Division Commander (ADC) of the U.S. 10th Mountain Division, was wounded; Darby took over for Duff. “Task Force Darby” spearheaded the breakout of the American Fifth Army from the Po River valley bridgehead during the Spring 1945 offensive in Italy and reached Torbole at the head of Lake Garda.
On 30 April 1945, while Darby was issuing orders for the attack on Trento to cut off a German retreat, an artillery shell burst in the middle of the assembled officers and NCOs, killing Darby and a sergeant and wounding several others. Relying on the inspiration of their late commander, “Task Force Darby” continued on with their mission. Two days later, on 2 May 1945, all German forces in Italy surrendered.
Darby, aged 34 at the time of his death, was posthumously promoted to brigadier general on May 15, 1945. He was buried in Cisterna, Italy and was reinterred at Fort Smith National Cemetery in Fort Smith, Arkansas on March 11, 1949.
- Darby's medals, military records, and uniforms are on display at the Fort Smith Museum of History in Fort Smith, and his boyhood home is open for tours.
- Camp Darby, near Fort Benning, which is home to the second part of the "Benning Phase" of Ranger School, is named after him.
- Two U.S. Army installations in Europe were named after Darby; W.O. Darby Kaserne, Fürth, Germany (closed in 1995); and the operational Camp Darby, near Livorno, Italy.
- The town of Cisterna, Italy, dedicated its high school to Darby.
- A book entitled Onward We Charge: The Heroic Story of Darby's Rangers in World War II by H. Paul Jeffers was published in 2007.
- An Admiral Benson Class transport ship, the USS Admiral W. S. Sims (AP-127), was renamed USAT General William O. Darby in the 1940s.
- In 1955, the name of Fort Smith Junior High School was changed to William O. Darby Junior School. In 1958, the name of the school’s athletic teams was changed from Cubs to Rangers after the famous Darby's Rangers.
- In 1958, the motion picture Darby's Rangers, starring James Garner dramatized Darby's military exploits. Wayde Preston also played a character role based on Darby in the 1968 film Anzio.
- In 1992, Darby was inducted into the Ranger Hall of Fame.
Awards and decorations
Darby's military awards include:
|Distinguished Service Cross with oak leaf cluster|
|Legion of Merit|
|Purple Heart with two oak leaf clusters|
|American Defense Service Medal|
|European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with five campaign stars|
|World War II Victory Medal|
|Croix de Guerre with Silver Star (France)|
|Order of Kutuzov, 3rd degree (Soviet Union)|
|Distinguished Service Order (United Kingdom)|
Dates of rank
- Cadet, USMA - 1 July 1929
- 2nd lieutenant - 13 June 1933
- 1st lieutenant - 13 June 1936
- Captain - 9 September 1940
- Major - 1 June 1942
- Lieutenant colonel - 6 August 1942
- Colonel - 11 December 1943
- Brigadier general (posthumous) - 15 May 1945
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Orlando Darby.|
- Arkansas Ties ... William O. Darby  Retrieved August 3, 2014
- Gen William Orlando Darby at Find a Grave
- NavSource Online
- Darby's Rangers (1958) on Internet Movie Database
- U.S. Army Ranger Association, Ranger Hall of Fame  Retrieved August 3, 2014
- Military Times Hall of Valor, William Orlando Darby  Retrieved August 3, 2014