William H. Parker (police officer)
|William H. Parker|
June 21, 1905|
Lead, South Dakota, U.S.
|Died||July 16, 1966
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Department||Los Angeles Police Department|
|Years of service||1927–1966|
|Rank||Chief of Police|
William Henry Parker III (June 21, 1905 – July 16, 1966) was the police chief of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) and has been called "Los Angeles' greatest and most controversial chief of police". He was the longest-serving police chief at 39 years on the force. The former headquarters of the LAPD, the Parker Center, was named after him.
Parker was born in Lead, South Dakota, and raised in Deadwood. His grandfather William H. Parker (1847-1908), was an American Civil War veteran who later served in Congress. The Parker family migrated to Los Angeles, California, in 1922, for better opportunities, when the city was advertised as the "white spot of America" during that period. Parker originally wanted to be an attorney, and studied at several colleges before enrolling in 1926 at the University of the West's Los Angeles College of Law, an institution which operated in the 1920s and '30s. He joined the LAPD on August 8, 1927, and continued his legal studies. Parker graduated with an LL.B. degree in 1930 and passed the bar exam, but opted to continue with the police department instead of practicing law.
He served as an LAPD officer for 15 years before taking a leave to fight in World War II. He attained the rank of captain as a planner and organizer of prisoner detention and policing in Sardinia, Normandy, Munich, and Frankfurt. Parker received the Purple Heart after being wounded during the Normandy invasion. His other awards included the French Croix de Guerre with silver star and the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity.
After the war, Parker returned to the police department and rose through the ranks to captain, then inspector, and then one of the department's deputy chiefs.
Parker as chief
Parker became police chief on August 9, 1950, and is credited with transforming the LAPD into a world-renowned law-enforcement agency. The department that he took over in 1950 was notoriously corrupt. Seeing ward politics, with its heavy involvement by partisan groups in the police department and mingling of political circles with vice and corruption on the streets, led him to conclude that a differently organized police force was necessary to keep the peace.
Parker's experience with military public relations in World War II was used to develop an effective media relations strategy for the police department. Thanks to shows such as Dragnet and a steady stream of good publicity from local newspapers, he was highly admired nationwide. Parker was a guest on the television program What's My Line? on August 21, 1955.
Under Parker's early term, the LAPD initiated a more professionalized force which institutionalized officers into an environment that was more answerable to administrative oversight than political representatives. Included in this change was a standardized police academy and more proactive policing methods, practices very similar to military peacekeeping methods to which he was exposed during the war.
Under Parker, the LAPD faced accusations of police brutality and racism towards the city's African American and Latino residents. According to a documentary commissioned by the LAPD in 2009, Parker supported the city's racist power structure, which he denied as late as the 1960s. Some critics see Parker's policies as responsible for ongoing tensions between the LAPD and minorities. Although Parker testified to the Civil Rights Commission in 1959 that segregation was not a problem, in 1962, he ordered the desegregation of the LAPD. When asked by the Commission about discrimination against minorities, he replied "I think the greatest dislocated minority in America today are the police."
Another aspect of changes initiated by Parker which changed the police force from one of a walking peace-force to a more militarized mobile response force, was a reduction in the size of the police force, in relation to the population. The term "Thin Blue Line" was coined by Parker. Parker's experience with the numerically larger force of his early career led him to judge that fewer but more professional officers would mean less corruption. Additionally, the strategy of changing the beat posture to one of mobility led to change from foot patrols to one which favored police cars. Not incidentally, this also furthered Parker's belief that isolating his officers from the streets would reduce opportunities for corruption. However, Parker recognized that certain areas of the city and certain functions of the police department needed to remain rooted in the more traditional form of police work.
Although Parker reduced police corruption and cleaned up the overall image of the police, certain sections of the LAPD continued practices which lent more to an image of old semicorrupt control of vice and petty crime. The vice squad and reserve force continued to remain controversial elements of the police force. Parker also used elements of the reserve force such as the Organized Crime and Intelligence Division of the LAPD to keep tabs on suspected politicians and their mafia syndicate allies, as well as the notoriously corrupt and narcotic-ridden Hollywood movie industry system and its celebrities. The 1990 novel and 1997 film L.A. Confidential along with the 2013 film Gangster Squad, provide fictional depictions of the LAPD under Parker during these years.
Parker served on the Los Angeles County Civil Defense and Disaster Commission during the Cuban Missile Crisis in the early 1960s.
Parker died of a heart attack on July 16, 1966, after attending a dinner where he received a commendation. The LAPD's Police Administration Building on North Los Angeles Street was officially renamed Parker Center shortly after his death.
In popular culture
- Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry, a former LAPD officer, wrote speeches for Parker. Roddenberry is said to have modeled the character Mr. Spock after Parker.
- Bruce Dern portrayed Parker in the 1996 movie Mulholland Falls.
- Nick Nolte portrayed Parker in the 2013 movie Gangster Squad.
- Neal McDonough portrayed Parker at the rank of captain in the 2013 television miniseries Mob City.
- In James Ellroy's 2014 novel Perfidia, a fictionalized version of William Parker is one of the four main protagonists in the story.
- Parker was also portrayed in Ellroy's 1990 novel L.A. Confidential and by John Mahon in Curtis Hanson's 1997 film adaptation.
- Parker's and contemporary gangster Mickey Cohen's biographies are represented in John Buntin's novel L.A. Noir: The Struggle for the Soul of America's Most Seductive City (2010)
- Billy G. Mills (born 1929), Los Angeles City Council member, 1963–74, investigating the Watts riots
- Buntin, John (2009). L.A. Noir: The Struggle for the Soul of America's Most Seductive City. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 9780307352071. OCLC 431334523. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- Randall Sullivan (2002-05-17), LAbyrinth: A Detective Investigates the Murders of Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G., the Implication of Death Row Records' Suge Knight, and the Origins of the Los Angeles Police Scandal, Atlantic Monthly Press, retrieved 2007-08-31
- Staff. "W.H. Parker (1905–1966) Miscellaneous Crew". Amazon via IMDb. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "Businessman Appointed to Civil Defense Group". Los Angeles Times, December 3, 1961, p. WS22.
- Donovan, John T. (2005), "'I Have No Use For This Fellow Parker': William H. Parker of the LAPD and His Feud With J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI", Southern California Quarterly, 87 (2): 171–198, doi:10.2307/41172260
- Kramer, Sarah Alisa (2007), William H. Parker and the Thin Blue Line: Politics, Public Relations and Policing in Postwar Los Angeles, Washington, D.C.: American University [Ph.D. diss.]
William A. Worton
|Chief of LAPD
Thad F. Brown