William Holden

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William Holden
Holden-portrait.jpg
Holden in a publicity photo, 1954
Born William Franklin Beedle, Jr.
(1918-04-17)April 17, 1918
O'Fallon, Illinois, U.S.
Died November 12, 1981(1981-11-12) (aged 63)
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
Cause of death Exsanguination following a fall
Education South Pasadena High School
Alma mater Pasadena Junior College
Occupation Actor, wildlife conservationist
Years active 1938–1981
Political party Republican[1]
Spouse(s) Brenda Marshall (m. 1941–71)
Children 3
Awards Academy Award for Best Actor (1953)
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor (1974)

William Holden (April 17, 1918 – November 12, 1981) was an American actor, who was one of the biggest box office draws of the 1950s. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1953 for his role in Stalag 17, and a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor for his role in the 1973 television film The Blue Knight.

Holden starred in some of Hollywood's most popular and critically acclaimed films, including such blockbusters as Sunset Boulevard, Sabrina, The Bridge on the River Kwai, The Wild Bunch, Picnic, The Towering Inferno, and Network. He was named one of the "Top 10 Stars of the Year" six times (1954–1958, 1961), and appeared on the American Film Institute's AFI's 100 Years…100 Stars list as number 25.

Early life and career[edit]

Holden was born William Franklin Beedle, Jr. in O'Fallon, Illinois, the son of Mary Blanche (née Ball; 1898-1990), a schoolteacher, and William Franklin Beedle, Sr. (1891-1967), an industrial chemist.[2] He had two younger brothers, Robert and Richard. Holden's paternal great-grandmother, Rebecca Westfield, was born in England in 1817, while some of his mother's ancestors settled in Virginia's Lancaster County after emigrating from England in the 17th century.[2] His younger brother, Robert W. "Bobbie" Beedle, became a U.S. Navy fighter pilot and was killed in action in World War II, over New Ireland, on January 5, 1944.

His family moved to South Pasadena when he was three. After graduating from South Pasadena High School, Holden attended Pasadena Junior College, where he became involved in local radio plays. Contrary to legend and theatre publicity, he did not study at the Pasadena Playhouse, nor was he discovered in a play there. Rather, he was spotted by a talent scout from Paramount Pictures in 1937 while playing the part of an 80-year-old man, Marie Curie's father-in-law, in a play at the Playbox, a separate and private theatre owned by Pasadena Playhouse director Gilmor Brown. His first film role was in Prison Farm the following year.

A version of how he obtained his stage name "Holden" is based on a statement by George Ross of Billboard magazine: "William Holden, the lad just signed for the coveted lead in “Golden Boy”, used to be Bill Beadle. And here is how he obtained his new movie tag. On the Columbia lot is an assistant director and scout named Harold Winston (Harold A. Winston). Not long ago he was divorced from the actress, Gloria Holden, but carried the torch after the marital rift. Winston was one of those who discovered the “Golden Boy” newcomer and who renamed him — in honor of his former spouse! ..."[3]

Career[edit]

With Lee J. Cobb (right) in Holden's first starring role in a film, Golden Boy (1939)
With Audrey Hepburn in Sabrina (1954)
William Holden and Chandran Rutnam while shooting The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957)

Holden's first starring role was in Golden Boy (1939), in which he played a violinist-turned-boxer. Next he starred with George Raft and Humphrey Bogart in the Warner Bros. gangster epic Invisible Stripes later the same year, followed by the role of George Gibbs in the film adaptation of Our Town.[4] After Columbia Pictures picked up half of his contract, he alternated between starring in several minor pictures for Paramount and Columbia before serving as a 2nd lieutenant in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, where he acted in training films for the First Motion Picture Unit. Beginning in 1950, his career took off when Billy Wilder tapped him to star as the down-at-the-heels screenwriter Joe Gillis, who is taken in by faded silent-screen star Norma Desmond (Gloria Swanson) in Sunset Boulevard, for which Holden earned his first Best Actor Oscar nomination.[5]

Following this breakthrough film, his career quickly grew in stature as Holden played a series of roles that combined good looks with cynical detachment, including a prisoner-of-war entrepreneur in Stalag 17 (1953), for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, a pressured young engineer/family man in Executive Suite (1954), an acerbic stage director in The Country Girl (1954) with Bing Crosby and Grace Kelly, a conflicted jet pilot in the Korean War film The Bridges at Toko-Ri (1954), a wandering college football star in Picnic (1955), a dashing war correspondent in Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing (1955), his most widely recognized role as an ill-fated prisoner in The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) with Alec Guinness, a World War II tug boat captain in The Key (1958), and an American Civil War military surgeon in John Ford's The Horse Soldiers (1959) opposite John Wayne.

Holden also played a number of sunnier roles in light comedy, such as the handsome architect pursuing virginal Maggie McNamara in the controversial Production Code-breaking The Moon Is Blue (1953) with David Niven, as Judy Holliday's tutor in Born Yesterday (1950), as a playwright captivated by Ginger Rogers' character in Forever Female (1953) and as Humphrey Bogart's younger brother, a carefree playboy, in Sabrina (1954), which also starred Audrey Hepburn. In 1954, Holden was featured on the cover of Life magazine.

On February 7, 1955, Holden appeared as a guest star on I Love Lucy as himself. His career peaked in 1957 with the enormous success of The Bridge on the River Kwai, but Holden spent the next several years starring in a number of films that rarely succeeded commercially or critically.[6] By the mid-1960s, the quality of his roles and films had noticeably diminished. A heavy drinker most of his life, Holden descended into alcoholism in the 1960s and 1970s.

Later career[edit]

In 1969, Holden made a comeback when he starred in director Sam Peckinpah's graphically violent Western The Wild Bunch, winning much acclaim. Also in 1969, Holden starred in director Terence Young's family film L'Arbre de Noël, co-starring Italian actress Virna Lisi, based on the novel of the same name by Michel Bataille. This film was originally released in the United States as The Christmas Tree and on home video as When Wolves Cry.[7]

For television roles in 1974, Holden won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for his portrayal of a cynical, tough veteran LAPD street cop in the television film The Blue Knight, based upon the best-selling Joseph Wambaugh novel of the same name.

Also in 1974, Holden starred with Paul Newman and Steve McQueen in the critically acclaimed disaster film The Towering Inferno, which became a box office smash and one of the highest grossing films of Holden's career.

Two years later he was praised for his Oscar-nominated leading performance in Sidney Lumet's classic Network (1976), a prescient examination of the media written by Paddy Chayefsky, playing an older version of the character type he had become iconic for in the 1950s, only now more jaded and aware of his own mortality.

In 1980, Holden appeared in The Earthling with popular child actor Ricky Schroder, playing a loner dying of cancer who goes to the Australian outback to end his days, meets a young boy whose parents have been killed in an accident, and teaches him how to survive. During his last years, Holden also appeared in his second Irwin Allen film, When Time Ran Out, a critical and commercial failure and heavily disliked by Holden himself; his final film, Blake Edwards's S.O.B., was more successful and a Golden Globe-nominated picture.

In 1981 Holden was offered the role of Coach Daniel B. Delaney in That Championship Season. He became very depressed when filming was delayed until 1982, and drank even more heavily.[8]

Personal life[edit]

Matron of Honor Brenda Marshall (left) and Best Man William Holden, sole guests at Ronald Reagan and Nancy Reagan's wedding in 1952.
Holden in The Revengers (1972)

While in Italy in 1966, Holden killed another driver in a drunk driving incident. He received an eight-month suspended sentence for vehicular manslaughter.[9]

Holden maintained a home in Switzerland and also spent much of his time working for wildlife conservation as a managing partner in an animal preserve in Africa. His Mount Kenya Safari Club in Nanyuki (founded 1959) became a mecca for the international jet set.[10] On a trip to Africa, he fell in love with the wildlife and became increasingly concerned with the animal species that were beginning to decrease in population. With the help of his partners, he created the Mount Kenya Game Ranch and inspired the creation of the William Holden Wildlife Foundation.[11] The Mount Kenya Game Ranch works to assist in Kenya with the wildlife education of its youth.[12]

Marriage and relationships[edit]

Holden was married to actress Ardis Ankerson (stage name Brenda Marshall) from 1941 until their divorce (after many long separations) in 1971. They had two sons, Peter "West" Westfield (born November 17, 1943; died June, 2014) and Scott Porter (born May 2, 1946; died January 21, 2005, San Diego, California). He also adopted his wife's daughter, Virginia, from her first marriage. William was also a distant cousin to news anchor and game show panelist, the late John Cameron Swayze through the family of 17th century British judge Samuel Swayze.[13]

Holden was best man at the marriage of his friend Ronald Reagan to Nancy Davis in 1952; however, he never involved himself in politics.

During the filming of Sabrina (1954), Audrey Hepburn and the already-married William Holden became romantically involved. She hoped to marry him and have children, but she broke off the relationship when Holden revealed that he had undergone a vasectomy.

Holden met French actress Capucine in the early 1960s. The two starred in the films The Lion (1962) and The 7th Dawn (1964). They began a two-year affair, which is alleged to have ended due to Holden's alcoholism.[14] Capucine and Holden remained friends until his death in 1981.[15]

In 1972, Holden began a nine-year relationship with actress Stefanie Powers, which sparked her interest in animal welfare.[16] After his death, Powers set up the William Holden Wildlife Foundation at Holden's Mount Kenya Game Ranch.[17]

Death[edit]

According to the Los Angeles County Coroner's autopsy report, Holden was alone and intoxicated in his apartment in Santa Monica, California, on November 12, 1981, when he slipped on a rug, severely lacerated his forehead on a teak bedside table, and bled to death. Evidence suggests he was conscious for at least half an hour after the fall. It is probable that he may not have realized the severity of the injury and did not summon aid, or was unable to call for help. His body was found four days later.[10]

Holden had dictated in his will that the Neptune Society cremate him and scatter his ashes in the Pacific Ocean. No funeral or memorial service was held, in accordance with his wishes.[18]

For his contribution to the film industry, William Holden has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 1651 Vine Street.[19] He also has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.[20]

A reference to Holden's death and the media coverage that followed occurs in the song "Tom's Diner" by Suzanne Vega.[21] She had seen the New York Post's front page announcing his death. This was the day that part of the song is based upon. It has been dubbed "Tom's Diner Day".[22]

In popular culture[edit]

Holden makes a cameo appearance in Walker Percy's 1961 novel "The Moviegoer". Percy's hero, Binx Bolling, encounters the star in the French Quarter: "Today I am in luck. Who should come out of Pirate's Alley half a block ahead of me but William Holden!"[23]

In 2011, Holden's stepdaughter, Virginia Holden Gaines, wrote a book, Growing Up with William Holden: A Memoir, reliving her memories of life with her father.[24]

Filmography[edit]

Year Movie Role Notes
1938 Prison Farm Prisoner uncredited
1939 Million Dollar Legs Graduate who says "Thank You" uncredited
Golden Boy Joe Bonaparte
Invisible Stripes Tim Taylor
1940 Our Town George Gibbs
Those Were the Days! P.J. "Petey" Simmons
Arizona Peter Muncie
1941 I Wanted Wings Al Ludlow
Texas Dan Thomas
1942 The Fleet's In Casey Kirby
The Remarkable Andrew Andrew Long
Meet the Stewarts Michael Stewart
1943 Young and Willing Norman Reese
Reconnaissance Pilot Himself short film
Wings Up Himself short film
1947 Blaze of Noon Colin McDonald
Dear Ruth Lt. William Seacroft
Variety Girl Himself
1948 The Man from Colorado Capt. Del Stewart
Rachel and the Stranger David Harvey
Apartment for Peggy Jason Taylor
The Dark Past Al Walker
1949 Streets of Laredo Jim Dawkins
Miss Grant Takes Richmond Dick Richmond
Dear Wife Bill Seacroft
1950 Father Is a Bachelor Johnny Rutledge
Sunset Boulevard Joe Gillis Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor
Union Station Lt. William Calhoun
Born Yesterday Paul Verrall
1951 Force of Arms Sgt. Joe "Pete" Peterson
Submarine Command Lt. Cmdr. Ken White
1952 Boots Malone Boots Malone
The Turning Point Jerry McKibbon
1953 Stalag 17 Sgt. J.J. Sefton Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated – New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
The Moon Is Blue Donald Gresham
Die Jungfrau auf dem Dach Tourist cameo
Forever Female Stanley Krown
Escape from Fort Bravo Capt. Roper
1954 Executive Suite McDonald Walling Venice Film Festival Special Award for Ensemble Acting
Sabrina David Larrabee
Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto Narrator uncredited
The Country Girl Bernie Dodd
The Bridges at Toko-Ri Lt. Harry Brubaker
1955 Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing Mark Elliott
Picnic Hal Carter Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor
1956 The Proud and Profane Lt. Col. Colin Black
Toward the Unknown Maj. Lincoln Bond
1957 The Bridge on the River Kwai Shears
1958 The Key Capt. David Ross
1959 The Horse Soldiers Major Henry Kendall
1960 The World of Suzie Wong Robert Lomax Nominated – Laurel Award for Top Male Dramatic Performance
1962 Satan Never Sleeps Father O'Banion
The Counterfeit Traitor Eric Erickson
The Lion Robert Hayward
1964 Paris When It Sizzles Richard Benson/Rick
The 7th Dawn Major Ferris
1966 Alvarez Kelly Alvarez Kelly
1967 Casino Royale Ransome
1968 The Devil's Brigade Lt. Col. Robert T. Frederick
1969 The Wild Bunch Pike Bishop
The Christmas Tree Laurent Ségur
1971 Wild Rovers Ross Bodine
1972 The Revengers John Benedict
1973 Breezy Frank Harmon
1974 Open Season Hal Wolkowski
The Towering Inferno Jim Duncan
1976 Network Max Schumacher Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
Nominated – National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor
1978 Fedora Barry "Dutch" Detweiler
Damien: Omen II Richard Thorn
1979 Escape to Athena Prisoner smoking a cigar in prison camp uncredited
Ashanti Jim Sandell
1980 When Time Ran Out Shelby Gilmore
The Earthling Patrick Foley
1981 S.O.B. Tim Culley
Television
Year Title Role Notes
1955 Lux Video Theatre Intermission Guest episode: Love Letters
I Love Lucy Himself episode: Hollywood at Last
1956 The Jack Benny Program Himself episode: William Holden/Frances Bergen Show
1973 The Blue Knight Bumper Morgan Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
1976 21 Hours at Munich Chief of Police Manfred Schreiber

Box office ranking[edit]

For a number of years exhibitors voted Holden among the most popular stars in the country:

  • 1954 - 7th (US)
  • 1955 - 4th (US)
  • 1956 - 1st (US)
  • 1957 - 7th (US)
  • 1958 - 6th (US), 6th (UK)
  • 1959 - 12th (US)
  • 1960 - 14th (US)
  • 1961 - 8th (US)
  • 1962 - 15th (US)

Radio appearances[edit]

Year Program Episode/source
1952 Lux Radio Theatre Submarine Command[25]
1952 Hollywood Star Playhouse The Joyful Beggar[25]
1953 Lux Radio Theatre Appointment with Danger[26]
1953 Lux Summer Theatre High Tor[27]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Heymann 2009, p. 25.
  2. ^ a b "Ancestry of William Holden." Genealogy.com. Retrieved: November 13, 2011.
  3. ^ Ross, George. "Broadway: 'Golden Boy'." The Pittsburgh Press, April 12, 1939, p. 23.
  4. ^ Capua 2010, pp. 16–17.
  5. ^ Capua 2010, pp. 54–55.
  6. ^ "Film Ratings." IMDb. Retrieved: December 6, 2012.
  7. ^ Capua 2010, pp. 135–136, 141.
  8. ^ Capua 2010, pp. 162–163.
  9. ^ Brown, Andrew M. "When Alcoholics drink themselves to death." The Telegraph, April 7, 2011.
  10. ^ a b Bennett, Bruce. "William Holden's Unscripted Fall From Grace." New York Sun, July 2, 2008.
  11. ^ "The William Holden Wildlife Education Center." Mount Kenya Wilderness Conservancy, 2015. Retrieved: January 24, 2015.
  12. ^ "WHWF History." William Holden Wildlife Foundation, 2010. Retrieved: January 24, 2015.
  13. ^ "John Cameron Swayze (1906–1995)." IMDb. Retrieved: January 24, 2015.
  14. ^ Osborne, Robert (host). "The Lion". Turner Classic Movies, air date: November 4, 2012.
  15. ^ Strodder 2000, p. 112.
  16. ^ Capua 2010, p. 165.
  17. ^ Bacon, Doris Klein. "For Love of Bill." People, Vol. 17, No. 21, May 31, 1982.
  18. ^ Capua 2010, p. 164
  19. ^ "Hollywood Star Walk: William Holden." Los Angeles Times, March 26, 2013.
  20. ^ "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees." St. Louis Walk of Fame. Retrieved: January 24, 2015.
  21. ^ "Tom's Essay." The New York Times. Retrieved: July 9, 2015.
  22. ^ "Tom's Diner Day." Suzanne Vega website, via Internet Archive Retrieved: July 9, 2015.
  23. ^ Percy, Walker. The Moviegoer, p. 7. Retrieved: January 24, 2015.
  24. ^ "Virginia Holden Gaines." Facebook, 2011. Retrieved: January 24, 2015.
  25. ^ a b Kirby, Walter (November 23, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 48. Retrieved June 16, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  26. ^ Kirby, Walter (January 18, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 40. Retrieved June 20, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  27. ^ Kirby, Walter (May 31, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 40. Retrieved June 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read

Bibliography[edit]

With Humphrey Bogart in Sabrina
  • Capua, Michelangelo. William Holden: A Biography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7864-4440-3.
  • Gaines, Virginia Holden and Mike Prcic. Growing Up with William Holden: A Memoir. Newark, Notts, UK: Strategems, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9741304-5-3.
  • Heymann, C. David. Bobby and Jackie: A Love Story. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009. ISBN 978-1-4001-6422-6.
  • Phillips, Gene D. Some Like It Wilder: The Life and Controversial Films of Billy Wilder. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8131-2570-1.
  • Quirk, Lawrence J. The Complete Films of William Holden. Sacramento, California: Citadel Press, 1986. ISBN 978-0-8065-0998-3.
  • Quirk, Lawrence J.The Films of William Holden. Sacramento, California: Citadel Press, 1973. ISBN 978-0-8065-0375-2.
  • Strodder, Chris. Swingin' Chicks Of the Sixties. San Rafael, California: Cedco Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 978-0-7683-2232-3.
  • Thomas, Bob. Golden Boy: The Untold Story of William Holden. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0-312-33697-4.

External links[edit]