William Howard Taft IV
William Howard Taft IV
|Legal Adviser of the Department of State|
April 16, 2001 – March 1, 2005
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||David Andrews|
|Succeeded by||John B. Bellinger III|
|United States Permanent Representative to NATO|
August 3, 1989 – June 26, 1992
|Appointed by||George H.W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Alton G. Keel Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Reginald Bartholomew|
|Acting United States Secretary of Defense|
January 20, 1989 – March 21, 1989
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Frank Carlucci|
|Succeeded by||Dick Cheney|
|21st United States Deputy Secretary of Defense|
February 3, 1984 – April 22, 1989
George H. W. Bush
|Preceded by||W. Paul Thayer|
|Succeeded by||Donald J. Atwood Jr.|
|General Counsel of the Department of Defense|
April 2, 1981 – February 3, 1984
|Preceded by||Togo D. West Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Chapman B. Cox|
|Born||September 13, 1945|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
(m. 1974; died 2008)
|Alma mater||Yale University (BA)|
Harvard Law School (JD)
William Howard Taft IV (born September 13, 1945) is an attorney who has served in the United States government under several Republican administrations. He is the son of William Howard Taft III and the great-grandson of President William Howard Taft.
Early life and education
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Taft was born in Washington, D.C., the second child of William Howard Taft III and Barbara Bradfield, and a great-grandson of U.S. President William Howard Taft. Taft attended St. Paul's School, graduating in 1962. He earned his bachelor of arts degree in English from Yale University in 1966 and his law degree from Harvard Law School in 1969.
From 1970 to 1973, he was the principal assistant to Caspar W. Weinberger, who was deputy director, then director, of the Office of Management and Budget in the Executive Office of the President under President Richard Nixon. Taft assisted him in the management of the budgetary process, policy review, and program oversight for the entire federal government.
Taft married Julia Vadala in 1974.
Taft served from 1973 to 1976 as the executive assistant to the United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. In April 1976 Taft was appointed by President Gerald Ford to serve as general counsel of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. In that post, as the chief lawyer for the department and the principal administrator of the Office of the General Counsel, he supervised over 350 lawyers in Washington and 10 regional offices.
In February 1981, as one of his first appointments, President Ronald Reagan appointed Taft as General Counsel of the Department of Defense. Taft was then appointed Deputy Secretary of Defense and served from January 1984 to April 1989. He served as acting Secretary of Defense from January to March 1989 after George H. W. Bush became president. Bush's initial nominee, John Tower, was not confirmed by the United States Senate after much contentious debate and testimony. The eventual appointee confirmed in March was Richard B. Cheney (later Vice President of the United States, 2001–2009). Although he was only acting Secretary of Defense, and never confirmed as the permanent Secretary, he became the third member of his family to hold a position as civilian head of a military department, following his great-great-grandfather Alphonso Taft (under President Ulysses S. Grant) and his great-grandfather William Howard Taft (under President Theodore Roosevelt).
Service in George W. Bush administration
After the election of 2000, George W. Bush appointed Taft to serve as chief legal advisor to the United States Department of State under Secretary of State Colin Powell, with whom he was reportedly friends. This appointment was technically a significantly lower appointment than he had held in other administrations, but it permitted him to work with his wife, Julia Taft, a top State Department official in charge of refugees who also served during the Clinton administration.
While serving as Legal Adviser, Taft wrote two seminal law journal articles regarding the views of the United States on the legality of the use of military force. First, in connection with the decision of the International Court of Justice in the Oil Platforms case, Taft countered a series of propositions that the court appeared to accept regarding the principles governing the use of force. This included his conclusion that "There is no requirement in international law that a State exercising its right of self-defence must use the same degree or type of force used by the attacking State in its most recent attack. Rather, the proportionality of the measures taken in self-defence is to be judged according to the nature of the threat being addressed."  Second, Taft coauthored (with Todd F. Buchwald) an article in the Americal Journal of International Law that set forth the official United States Government view regarding the permissibility under international law of the use of force by the United States and Coalition forces during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The article concluded that the preemptive use of force in Iraq is lawful where, as in Iraq, "it represents an episode in an ongoing broader conflict initiated--without question-- by the opponent and where, as here, it is consistent with the resolutions of the Security Council.
In 2004, Taft's name surfaced as a dissenter concerning the policy of interrogation techniques for military detainees. In a January 11, 2002, memo, Taft opposed Department of Justice lawyers to argue that the president could not "suspend" U.S. obligations to respect the Geneva Conventions and that a legal argument to do so was "legally flawed and procedurally impossible." This was also the position of Secretary Powell, who attempted to persuade Bush to reconsider. Alberto R. Gonzales, the White House counsel, subsequently advised Bush in a memo that Taft and Powell were wrong and the Justice Department's analysis was "definitive." Gonzales claimed terrorist attacks "require a new approach in our actions toward captured terrorists," and argued that if suspected terrorists had never respected the Geneva Conventions' human rights protections, the U.S. didn't need to do so.
Leaving government service
After the re-election of President Bush, resignation of Colin Powell and appointment of Condoleezza Rice as secretary of state, Taft resigned to return to private practice, again at Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson. Currently he is a visiting professor at Stanford Law School, having succeeded Allen Weiner as the Warren Christopher Professor of the Practice of International Law and Diplomacy in 2007. In January 2009 he was named chair of the board of trustees for Freedom House, an independent watchdog organization that supports the expansion of freedom around the world.
On September 12, 2006, Taft co-signed (along with 28 other retired military or defense department officials) a letter to the chairman and ranking member of the Senate Armed Services committee in which he stated his belief that the Bush Administration's attempt to redefine Common Article 3 of the Geneva Convention "poses a grave threat" to U.S. service members.
Taft is said to be one of the sources who told journalists David Corn and Michael Isikoff that former Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage was the source syndicated columnist Robert Novak had when he made public the fact that Valerie Wilson worked for the CIA. In a review of Corn's and Isikoff's book, Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War, Novak wrote: "I don't know precisely how Isikoff flushed out Armitage [as Novak's original source], but Hubris clearly points to two sources: Washington lobbyist Kenneth Duberstein, Armitage's political adviser, and William Taft IV, who was the State Department legal adviser when Armitage was deputy secretary."
Though a staunch Republican, Taft opposed the 2016 presidential campaign of Donald Trump, declaring alongside 49 other Republican former national security officials that he would not vote for the candidate. In 2020, Taft again rebuked his party, endorsing Democrat Joe Biden over Trump.
- "II. Secretaries of Defense" (PDF). Washington Headquarters Services - Pentagon Digital Library.
Deputy secretary of defense, 3 February 1984 to 22 April 1989.
- Julia Taft Obituary
-  Tat, William H., "Self-Defense and the Oil Platforms Decision," 29 Yale J. International Law, 295, 305 (2004)
-  Taft, William H. and Buchwald, Todd F., "Preemption, Iraq and International Law, 97 American Journal of International Law 557, 563 (2003)
- Lawyer for State Dept. Disputed Detainee Memo
- "William Taft IV to Join Stanford Law School as the Warren Christopher Professor of the Practice of International Law and Diplomacy" Stanford Law School, April 4, 2007
- "Freedom House Welcomes William H. Taft IV as New Chairman"; retrieved January 15, 2011
- Novak, Robert, "Who Said What When: The rise and fall of the Valerie Plame 'scandal'", The Weekly Standard, October 16, 2006, book review of Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War, by Michael Isikoff and David Corn, accessed October 8, 2008
- "Former GOP national security officials: Trump would be 'most reckless' American president in history". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
- "Republicans endorse Biden". Sandusky Register. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
|| General Counsel of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare
Richard I. Beattie
Leonard Niederlehner (Acting)
| General Counsel of the Department of Defense
Chapman B. Cox
| Legal Adviser of the Department of State
John B. Bellinger III
W. Paul Thayer
| United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
Donald J. Atwood Jr.
Alton G. Keel Jr.
| U.S. Ambassador to NATO