William James Sidis
|William James Sidis|
William James Sidis at his Harvard graduation (1914)
April 1, 1898|
Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States
|Died||July 17, 1944
South Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
|Alma mater||Harvard University
William James Sidis (/ /; April 1, 1898 – July 17, 1944) was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical abilities and a claimed mastery of many languages. After his death, his sister made the unverifiable claim that his IQ was "the very highest that had ever been obtained", but any records of any IQ testing that Sidis actually took have been lost to history. He entered Harvard at age 11 and, as an adult, was claimed to be conversant in over 40 languages and dialects. It was later acknowledged, however, that some of the claims made were exaggerations, with a researcher stating "I have been researching the veracity of primary sources of various subjects for about twenty-eight years, and never before have I found a topic so satiated with lies, myths, half-truths, exaggerations, and other forms of misinformation as is in the history behind William Sidis". Sidis became famous first for his precocity and later for his eccentricity and withdrawal from public life. Eventually, he avoided mathematics altogether, writing on other subjects under a number of pseudonyms.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Publications and subjects of research
- 3 Legacy
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Parents and upbringing (1898–1909)
William James Sidis was born to Jewish immigrants from Ukraine on April 1, 1898, in New York City. His father, Boris Sidis, Ph.D., M.D., had emigrated in 1887 to escape political persecution. His mother, Sarah (Mandelbaum) Sidis, M.D., and her family had fled the pogroms in 1889. Sarah attended Boston University and graduated from its School of Medicine in 1897.
William was named after his godfather, Boris' friend and colleague, the American philosopher William James. Boris was a psychiatrist and published numerous books and articles, performing pioneering work in abnormal psychology. Boris was a polyglot, and his son William would become one at a young age.
Sidis's parents believed in nurturing a precocious and fearless love of knowledge, for which they were criticized. Sidis could read The New York Times at 18 months. By age 8, he had reportedly taught himself 8 languages (Latin, Greek, French, Russian, German, Hebrew, Turkish, and Armenian) and invented another, which he called Vendergood.
Harvard University and college life (1909–1915)
Although the University had previously refused to let his father enroll him at age 9 because he was still a child, Sidis set a record in 1909 by becoming the youngest person to enroll at Harvard University. In early 1910, Sidis' mastery of higher mathematics was such that he lectured the Harvard Mathematical Club on four-dimensional bodies. Sidis began taking a full-time course load in 1910 and earned his Bachelor of Arts degree, cum laude, on June 18, 1914, at age 16. Another child prodigy, cybernetics pioneer Norbert Wiener, also attended Harvard at the time and knew Sidis.
Shortly after graduation, he told reporters that he wanted to live the perfect life, which to him meant living in seclusion. He granted an interview to a reporter from the Boston Herald. The paper reported Sidis's vows to remain celibate and never to marry, as he said women did not appeal to him. Later he developed a strong affection for a young woman named Martha Foley. He later enrolled at Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
According to The Prodigy: a Biography of William James Sidis, he briefly served at the League of Nations before leaving because U.S. president Woodrow Wilson would not withdraw troops deployed during the Great War. He was outspoken about his pacifism.
Teaching and further education (1915–1919)
After a group of Harvard students threatened Sidis physically, his parents secured him a job at the William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science, and Art (now Rice University) in Houston, Texas as a mathematics teaching assistant. He arrived at Rice in December 1915 at the age of 17. He was a graduate fellow working toward his doctorate.
Sidis taught three classes: Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and trigonometry (he wrote a textbook for the Euclidean geometry course in Greek). After less than a year, frustrated with the department, his teaching requirements, and his treatment by students older than he was, Sidis left his post and returned to New England. When a friend later asked him why he had left, he replied, "I never knew why they gave me the job in the first place—I'm not much of a teacher. I didn't leave—I was asked to go." Sidis abandoned his pursuit of a graduate degree in mathematics and enrolled at the Harvard Law School in September 1916, but withdrew in good standing in his final year in March 1919.
Politics and arrest (1919–1921)
In 1919, shortly after his withdrawal from law school, Sidis was arrested for participating in a socialist May Day parade in Boston that turned violent. He was sentenced to 18 months in prison under the Sedition Act of 1918. Sidis' arrest featured prominently in newspapers, as his early graduation from Harvard had garnered considerable local celebrity status. During the trial, Sidis stated that he had been a conscientious objector to the World War I draft, was a socialist, and an atheist. He later developed his own libertarian philosophy based on individual rights and "the American social continuity". His father arranged with the district attorney to keep Sidis out of prison before his appeal came to trial; his parents, instead, held him in their sanatorium in New Hampshire for a year. They took him to California, where he spent another year. While at the sanatorium, his parents set about "reforming" him and threatened him with transfer to an insane asylum.
Later life (1921–1944)
After returning to the East Coast in 1921, Sidis was determined to live an independent and private life. He only took work running adding machines or other fairly menial tasks. He worked in New York City and became estranged from his parents. It took years before he was cleared legally to return to Massachusetts, and he was concerned about his risk of arrest for years. He obsessively collected streetcar transfers, wrote self-published periodicals, and taught small circles of interested friends his version of American history. In 1933, Sidis passed a Civil Service exam in New York, but scored a low ranking of 254. In a private letter, Sidis wrote that this was "not so encouraging".
In 1944, Sidis won a settlement from The New Yorker for an article published in 1937. He had alleged it contained many false statements. Under the title "Where Are They Now?", the pseudonymous article described Sidis's life as lonely, in a "hall bedroom in Boston's shabby South End". Lower courts had dismissed Sidis as a public figure with no right to challenge personal publicity. He lost an appeal of an invasion of privacy lawsuit at the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 1940 over the same article. Judge Charles Edward Clark expressed sympathy for Sidis—who claimed that the publication had exposed him to "public scorn, ridicule, and contempt" and caused him "grievous mental anguish [and] humiliation"—but found that the court was not disposed to "afford to all the intimate details of private life an absolute immunity from the prying of the press".
Sidis died in 1944 from a cerebral hemorrhage in Boston at the age of 46. His father had died from the same malady in 1923 at age 56.
Publications and subjects of research
From writings on cosmology, to writings on American Indian history, to Notes on the Collection of Transfers, and several purported lost texts on anthropology, philology, and transportation systems, Sidis covered a broad range of subjects. Some of his ideas concerned cosmological reversibility and "social continuity".
In The Animate and the Inanimate (1925), Sidis predicted the existence of regions of space where the second law of thermodynamics operated in reverse to the temporal direction that we experience in our local area. Everything outside of what we would today call a galaxy would be such a region. Sidis claimed that the matter in this region would not generate light. Sidis's The Tribes and the States (ca. 1935) employs the pseudonym "John W. Shattuck", purporting to give a 100,000-year history of the Settlement of the Americas, from prehistoric times to 1828. In this text, he suggests that "there were red men at one time in Europe as well as in America".
Sidis was also a "peridromophile", a term he coined for people fascinated with transportation research and streetcar systems. He wrote a treatise on streetcar transfers under the pseudonym of "Frank Folupa" that identified means of increasing public transport usage.
Sidis created a constructed language called Vendergood in his second book, the Book of Vendergood, which he wrote at the age of 8. The language was mostly based on Latin and Greek, but also drew on German and French and other Romance languages. It distinguished between eight moods: indicative, potential, imperative absolute, subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, optative, and Sidis's own strongeable.
After his death, Sidis's sister claimed Sidis had an IQ reported in Abraham Sperling's 1946 book Psychology for the Millions as "the very highest that had ever been obtained", but later authors found that some of his biographers, such as Amy Wallace, exaggerated how high his IQ actually was and exactly what Sperling had claimed. Sperling actually wrote:
Helena Sidis told me that a few years before his death, her brother Bill took an intelligence test with a psychologist. His score was the very highest that had ever been obtained. In terms of IQ, the psychologist related that the figure would be between 250 and 300. Late in life William Sidis took general intelligence tests for Civil Service positions in New York and Boston. His phenomenal ratings are matter of record.
It has been acknowledged that Helena and William's mother Sarah had developed a reputation of exaggerated claims about the Sidis family. Helena had also falsely claimed that the Civil Service exam William took in 1933 was an IQ test and that his ranking was an IQ score of 254. It is speculated that the number "254" was actually William's placement on the list after he passed the Civil Service exam, as he stated in a letter sent to his family. Helena also claimed that "Billy knew all the languages in the world, while my father only knew twenty-seven. I wonder if there were any Billy didn’t know." This claim was not backed by any other source outside the Sidis family, and Sarah Sidis also made an improbable claim in her 1950 book The Sidis Story that William could learn a language in just one day. Boris Sidis had once dismissed tests of intelligence as "silly, pedantic, absurd, and grossly misleading".
Sidis' life and work, particularly his ideas about Native Americans, are extensively discussed in Robert M. Pirsig's book Lila: An Inquiry into Morals (1991). Sidis is also discussed in Ex-Prodigy, an autobiography by mathematician Norbert Wiener (1894–1964), who was a prodigy himself and a contemporary of Sidis at Harvard.
A Danish author Morten Brask wrote a fictional novel based on Sidis' life; The Perfect Life of William Sidis was published in Denmark in 2011. Another novel based on his biography was published by the German author Klaus Cäsar Zehrer in 2017.
In education discussions
The debate about Sidis' manner of upbringing occurred within a larger discourse about the best way to educate children. Newspapers criticized Boris Sidis' child-rearing methods. Most educators of the day believed that schools should expose children to common experiences to create good citizens. Most psychologists thought intelligence was hereditary, a position that precluded early childhood education at home.
The difficulties Sidis encountered in dealing with the social structure of a collegiate setting may have shaped opinion against allowing such children to rapidly advance through higher education in his day. Research indicates that a challenging curriculum can relieve social and emotional difficulties commonly experienced by gifted children. Embracing these findings, several colleges now have procedures for early entrance. The Davidson Institute for Talent Development has developed a guidebook on the topic.
Sidis was portrayed derisively in the press of the day. The New York Times, for example, described him as "a wonderfully successful result of a scientific forcing experiment". His mother later maintained that newspaper accounts of her son bore little resemblance to him.
- Sperling, Abraham Paul (1947). Psychology for the Millions. New York: Frederick Fell. pp. 332–339. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "The Logics - Was William James Sidis the Smartest Man on Earth". Thelogics.org. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "A Genius Among Us: The Sad Story of William J. Sidis". Today I Found Out. 2013-12-06. Retrieved 2016-12-09.
- "History of Homeopathy and Its Institutions in America By William Harvey King, M.D., LL.D. Presented by Sylvain Cazalet". Homeoint.org. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- Wallace, p. 23.
- "Wonderful Boys of History Compared With Sidis. All Except Macaulay Showed Special Ability in Mathematics. Instances of Boys Having 'Universal Genius'". The New York Times. 16 January 1910. p. SM11. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Harvard College, 1952". Sidis.net. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Harvard Transcripts". Sidis.net. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- Sidis, William James (June 1938). "Libertarian". Continuity News. Cambridge, Mass. (2): 4.
- Sidis, William James. "The Concept of Rights". American Independence Society. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Railroading in the Past". Sidis.net. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- Bates, Stephen (2011). "The Prodigy and the Press: William James Sidis, Anti-Intellectualism, and Standards of Success" (PDF). J&MC Quarterly. 88 (2): 374–397. ISSN 1077-6990. doi:10.1177/107769901108800209. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Sidis vs New Yorker". Sidis.net. 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- LaMay, p. 63.
- "Shirley Smith's Letter to the Editor". Sidis.net. 1944-07-19. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- Sidis, William James (1925). "The Animate and the Inanimate". Boston, Mass.: The Gorham Press.
- Sidis, William James. "Continuity News".
- "The Tribes and the States, Table of Contents". Sidis.net. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- "The Tribes and the States, Native American history". Sidis.net. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- "Notes on the Collection of Transfers". Sidis.net. 1926-06-20. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- "Perpetual Calendar". United States Patent Office. 9 December 1930. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Wallace (1986).
- Gowdy, Larry Neal (20 October 2013). "Myths, Facts, Lies, and Humor About William James Sidis - Part One". thelogics.org. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
A letter written by William Sidis stated that he had taken a civil service exam, that he passed the state clerical exam, and that he was number 254 on the list; "not so encouraging". It may never be known if Sidis actually did take an IQ test, and it may never be known if the 250-300 number arrived from Sidis' placement in the job pool.
- "Foundations of Normal and Abnormal psychology". Sidis.net. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- Zehrer, Klaus Cäsar (2017). Das Genie. Zürich: Diogenes Verlag. ISBN 978-3-257-06998-3.
- Kett, Joseph F. (1978). "Curing the Disease of Precocity". The American Journal of Sociology. 84 (suppl.). ISSN 0002-9602. JSTOR 3083227. doi:10.1086/649240.
- The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children: What Do We Know, edited by Maureen Neihart, Sally M. Reis, Nancy M. Robinson, and Sidney M. Moon; National Association for Gifted Children (Prufrock Press, Inc.), 2002: pp. 286–287.
- Considering the Options: A Guidebook for Investigating Early College Entrance (PDF), Print.ditd.org, retrieved 26 November 2014
- "Sidis Could Read at Two Years Old; Youngest Harvard Undergraduate Under Father's Scientific Forcing Process Almost from Birth. Good Typewriter at Four; At 5 Composed Text Book on Anatomy, in Grammar School at 6, Then Studied German, French, Latin, and Russian.". The New York Times. October 18, 1909. p. 7.
- LaMay, Craig L. (2003). Journalism and the Debate Over Privacy. LEA's Communication Series. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8058-4626-3.
- Wallace, Amy (1986). The Prodigy: a Biography of William James Sidis, America's Greatest Child Prodigy. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. ISBN 0-525-24404-2.
- Seitz, Robert N. (2002). "Review of Amy Wallace, The Prodigy (1986)". High IQ News. Retrieved 2016-02-05.