William John Patterson

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Hon.

William John Patterson

William John Patterson.jpg
6th Premier of Saskatchewan
In office
November 1, 1935 – July 10, 1944
MonarchGeorge V
Edward VIII
George VI
Lieutenant GovernorHugh Edwin Munroe
Archibald Peter McNab
Preceded byJames G. Gardiner
Succeeded byTommy Douglas
10th Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan
In office
June 25, 1951 – February 3, 1958
MonarchGeorge VI
Elizabeth II
Governor GeneralThe Viscount Alexander of Tunis
Vincent Massey
PremierTommy Douglas
Preceded byJohn Michael Uhrich
Succeeded byFrank Lindsay Bastedo
Leader of the Opposition
In office
July 10, 1944 – August 6, 1946
Preceded byJohn Brockelbank
Succeeded byWalter Tucker
MLA for Pipestone
In office
June 9, 1921 – June 19, 1934
Preceded byRichard James Phin (Lib.)
Succeeded byriding abolished
MLA for Cannington
In office
June 19, 1934 – April 2, 1949
Preceded bySamson Wallace Arthur (Ind.)
Succeeded byRosscoe Arnold McCarthy (Lib.)
Personal details
BornMay 13, 1886
Grenfell, District of Assiniboia, North-West Territories
DiedJune 10, 1976(1976-06-10) (aged 90)
Regina, Saskatchewan
Political partyLiberal

William John Patterson (May 13, 1886 – June 10, 1976) was a Liberal politician and the sixth premier of Saskatchewan from 1935 to 1944. He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan in the 1921 election. He succeeded James G. Gardiner to become the province's first Saskatchewan-born premier.

Patterson's leadership was considered to be uninspired.[according to whom?] He was unable to resist the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation's rise to power in the 1944 election under Tommy Douglas. Patterson's Liberals were reduced to five seats in the Legislature. He resigned as Liberal leader in 1946.

Patterson served as the tenth Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan from 1951 to 1958, becoming the first person to have been both Premier and lieutenant governor of the province.

Early life[edit]

Paterson was born on May 13, 1886, in Grenfell in what was then the District of Assiniboia of the North-West Territories. His father, John Patterson, had moved to Grenfell in 1882 to work as a railway section foreman during the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. His mother, Catherine Fraser, was an immigrant from Scotland.

Patterson left school at 15 and found work first at a bank and then in the Saskatchewan Department of Telephones. Following the outbreak of World War I, Patterson in 1916 enlisted in the Canadian Army, serving as a cavalry officer. He was wounded in September 1918.

Upon his return to Saskatchewan after the war, he studied law in Grenfell under lawyer G.C. Neff and then moved to Windthorst, Saskatchewan to set up a financial and insurance agency.

Politics[edit]

Patterson ran in the Saskatchewan general election of 1921, as the Saskatchewan Liberal Party's candidate for the constituency of Pipestone. Patterson won the district and took his seat in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan.[1] Patterson held several cabinet positions in governments headed by Premier James Garfield Gardiner. He was reelected in the 1925 election and the 1929 election, but in the latter case, the Liberals lost the election and so Patterson moved to the Opposition. In the 1934 election, the Liberals returned to power, and Patterson returned to cabinet.

In 1935, Premier Gardiner left provincial politics to become Canadian Minister of Agriculture under Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King. Patterson was elected as Gardiner's successor as leader of the Liberal Party of Saskatchewan and Premier of Saskatchewan. Taking office in the midst of the Great Depression, Patterson sought to extend social programs to assist those in need. His government increased funding for education, enacted pension and debt relief legislation, and expanded public funding for treatment of tuberculosis, cancer, and polio.

However, Patterson subscribed to the conventional wisdom of the day that deficit spending would ruin the province's credit and he thus therefore refused to run a budget deficit, instead funding the increased government spending through a new sales tax. His government also passed legislation making it easier to form credit unions, permitting the formation of unions, and increasing labour standards.

Patterson won re-election in the 1938 election and continued to serve as premier. In the 1944 election, however, the Liberals were easily defeated by the Saskatchewan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, under the leadership of Tommy Douglas. Patterson served as Leader of the Opposition until 1946, when he resigned as Liberal leader. He remained a Member of the Legislative Assembly and was a candidate in the 1948 election, and was re-elected as the member from Cannington.

Following his resignation, Patterson took up a position with the federal Board of Transport Commissioners.

Patterson during his time as Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan

In 1951, Patterson was appointed as the first Saskatchewan-born Lieutenant Governor. He served in this post until 1958. Upon Patterson's retirement, Douglas introduced special legislation to provide Patterson with a pension to thank for his many years of service to the province.

Patterson then lived quietly in retirement until his death in Regina, on June 10, 1976.[2]

Electoral record[edit]

Saskatchewan general elections, 1938 and 1944[edit]

1938 General election[edit]

Patterson led the Liberals in the general election of 1938. He won a solid majority government. The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under George Hara Williams came in second place and continued as the Official Opposition.

Saskatchewan General Election: June 8, 1938
Party Leaders Seats Won Popular Vote Popular Vote
Percentage
Liberal William John Patterson1 38 200,334 45.45%
  Co-operative Commonwealth Federation George Hara Williams2 10 82,529 18.73%
Social Credit Joseph Needham 2 70,084 15.90%
Unity 2 9,848 2.24%
Conservative John Diefenbaker 0 52,315 11.87%
Independent Labour 0 12,039 2.73%
Labour Progressive 0 8,514 1.93%
Independent 0 4,023 0.91%
  Independent Conservative 0 828 0.19%
  Independent Social Credit 0 228 0.05%
Total 52 440,742 100.00%
Source: Elections Saskatchewan — Elections Results — 1938

1 Premier when election was called; Premier after election.
2 Leader of the Opposition when election was called; Leader of the Opposition after election.

1944 General election[edit]

Provincial elections are normally held between four to five years after the previous election, but this election was delayed because of World War II. Patterson again led the Liberals in the general election of 1944, but this time was soundly defeated by Tommy Douglas and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation.

Saskatchewan General Election: June 15, 1944
Party Leaders Seats Won Popular Vote Popular Vote
Percentage
  Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Tommy Douglas1 47 211,364 53.13%
Liberal William John Patterson2 5 140,901 35.42%
Progressive Conservative Rupert Ramsay 0 42,511 10.69%
Labour Progressive 0 2,067 0.52%
Independent 0 705 0.18%
Social Credit Joseph Needham 0 249 0.06%
  Independent Liberal 0 5 0.00%3
Total 52 397,802 100.00%
Source: Elections Saskatchewan — Elections Results — 1944

1 Member of the federal Parliament until shortly before the election was called; Premier after election.
2 Premier when election was called; Leader of the Opposition after election.
3 Rounds to zero.

Saskatchewan constituency elections[edit]

Patterson stood for election to the Legislative Assembly eight times, in two different ridings, Pipestone and Cannington. He was elected once by acclamation and seven times in contested elections. Although he normally won by healthy pluralities or majorities, in one case, 1944, he won by only six votes.[3]

1921 General election: Pipestone[edit]

Saskatchewan General Election, June 9, 1921: Pipestone
Party Candidate Popular Vote %
Liberal Yes William John Patterson 1,624 47.95%
  Independent Thomas Harkness 1,530 45.17%
  Independent Allan Brown Potter 233 6.88%
Total 3,387 100.00%
Source: Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division[3]

Yes Elected.

1925 General election: Pipestone[edit]

Saskatchewan General Election, June 2, 1925: Pipestone
Party Candidate Popular Vote %
Liberal Yes X William John Patterson 2,046 64.52%
Progressive Elias Parmlee St. John 1,125 35.48%
Total 3,171 100.00%
Source: Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division[3]

Yes Elected.
X Incumbent.

1926 By-election: Pipestone[edit]

Provincial Ministerial By-Election, March 18, 1926: Pipestone
Party Candidate Popular Vote %
Liberal Yes X William John Patterson Acclaimed
Total
Source: Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division[3]

The by-election was called on Patterson accepting the position of Provincial Treasurer in the Cabinet of Premier Gardiner, an office of profit under the Crown, on February 26, 1926.
Yes Elected.
X Incumbent.

1929 General election: Pipestone[edit]

Saskatchewan General Election, June 6, 1929: Pipestone
Party Candidate Popular Vote %
Liberal Yes X William John Patterson 2,507 58.34%
Conservative Frederick Gore Leggett 1,790 41.66%
Total 4,297 100.00%
Source: Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division[3]

Yes Elected.
X Incumbent.

1934 General election: Cannington[edit]

Saskatchewan General Election, June 19, 1934: Cannington
Party Candidate Popular Vote %
Liberal Yes William John Patterson 4,222 49.97%
Farmer–Labour Donald Kenneth Cameron 2,152 25.47%
Conservative X Samson Wallace Arthur 2,075 24.56%
Total 8,449 100.00%
Source: Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division[3]

Yes Elected.
X Incumbent.

1938 General election: Cannington[edit]

Saskatchewan General Election, June 8, 1938: Cannington
Party Candidate Popular Vote %
Liberal Yes X William John Patterson 4,473 56.26%
  Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Gladys Strum 3,477 43.74%
Total 7,950 100.00%
Source: Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division[3]

Yes Elected.
X Incumbent.

1944 General election: Cannington[edit]

Saskatchewan General Election, June 15, 1944: Cannington
Party Candidate Popular Vote %
Liberal Yes X William John Patterson 3,210 45.20%
  Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Gladys Strum 3,204 45.12%
Progressive Conservative William Armstrong Brigden 687 9.67%
Total 7,101 99.99%1
Source: Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division[3]

Yes Elected.
X Incumbent.
1 Rounding error.

1948 General election: Cannington[edit]

Saskatchewan General Election, June 24, 1948: Cannington
Party Candidate Popular Vote %
Liberal Yes X William John Patterson 4,687 54.44%
  Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Ralph Hjertaas 3,422 39.75%
Social Credit Peter Franchuk 500 5.81%
Total 8,609 100.00%
Source: Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division[3]

Yes Elected.
X Incumbent.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Saskatchewan Election Results By Electoral Division" (PDF). Saskatchewan Archives Board. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  2. ^ "William John Patterson | the Canadian Encyclopedia".
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Saskatchewan Archives — Election Results by Electoral Division.

External links[edit]