April 28, 1955 |
|Education||University of the Witwatersrand and Johannesburg Art Foundation|
|Known for||Printmaking, drawings, and animated films|
William Kentridge (born 28 April 1955) is a South African artist best known for his prints, drawings, and animated films. These are constructed by filming a drawing, making erasures and changes, and filming it again. He continues this process meticulously, giving each change to the drawing a quarter of a second to two seconds' screen time. A single drawing will be altered and filmed this way until the end of a scene. These palimpsest-like drawings are later displayed along with the films as finished pieces of art.
Early life and career
Kentridge was born in Johannesburg to Sydney Kentridge and his wife Felicia Geffen. Both were attorneys who represented people marginalized by the apartheid system. He was educated at King Edward VII School in Houghton, Johannesburg. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Politics and African Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand and then a diploma in Fine Arts from the Johannesburg Art Foundation. In the early 1980s, he studied mime and theatre at the L'École Internationale de Théâtre Jacques Lecoq in Paris. He originally hoped to become an actor, but he reflected later: "I was fortunate to discover at a theatre school that I was so bad an actor [... that] I was reduced to an artist, and I made my peace with it.". Between 1975 and 1991, he was acting and directing in Johannesburg's Junction Avenue Theatre Company. In the 1980s, he worked on television films and series as art director.
As someone who is ethnically Jewish in South Africa, he has a unique position as a third-party observer. His parents were lawyers, famous for their defence of victims of the apartheid. Kentridge developed an ability to remove himself somewhat from the atrocities committed under the later regimes. The basics of South Africa's socio-political condition and history must be known to grasp his work fully, much the same as in the cases of such artists as Francisco Goya and Käthe Kollwitz.
Kentridge is of expressionist lineage: form often alludes to content and vice versa. The feeling that is manipulated by the use of palette, composition and media, among others, often plays an equally vital role in the overall meaning as the subject and narrative of a given work. One must use one's gut reactions as well as one's interpretive skills to find meaning in Kentridge's work, much of which reveals very little actual content. Due to the sparse, rough and expressive qualities of Kentridge's handwriting, however, the viewer sees a sombre picture upon first glance, an impression that is perpetuated as the image illustrates a vulnerable and uncomfortable situation.
Aspects of social injustice that have transpired over the years in South Africa have often become fodder for Kentridge's pieces. Casspirs Full of Love, viewable at the Metropolitan Museum, appears to be nothing more than heads in boxes to the average American viewer, but South Africans know that a casspir is a vehicle used to put down riots, a kind of a crowd-control tank.
The title, Casspirs Full of Love, written along the side of the print, is suggestive of the narrative and is oxymoronic. A casspir full of love is much like a bomb that bursts with happiness - it is an intangible improbability. The purpose of a machine such as this is to instil "peace" by force, but Kentridge points to the fact that it was used as a tool to keep lower-class natives from taking colonial power and money.
Prints and drawings
By the mid-1970s, Kentridge was making prints and drawings. In 1979, he created 20 to 30 monotypes, which soon became known as the "Pit" series. In 1980, he executed about 50 small-format etchings which he called the "Domestic Scenes". These two extraordinary groups of prints served to establish Kentridge's artistic identity, an identity he has continued to develop in various media. Despite his ongoing exploration of non-traditional media, the foundation of his art has always been drawing and printmaking.
In 1987, he began a group of charcoal and pastel drawings based, very tenuously, on Watteau's Embarkation for Cythera. These extremely important works, the best of which reflect a blasted, dystopic urban landscape, demonstrate the artist's growing consciousness of the flexibility of space and movement.
The Six Drawing Lessons, delivered as part of The Norton Lectures series at Harvard University in 2012, consider the work in the studio and the studio as a place of making meaning developed. A series of large drawings of trees in Indian ink on found encyclopedia pages, torn up and reassembled, analyzes the form of different trees indigenous to southern Africa. Drawn across multiple pages from books, each drawing is put together as a puzzle – the single pages first painted, then the whole pieced together.
"My drawings don't start with a 'beautiful mark'," writes Kentridge, thinking about the activity of printmaking as being about getting the hand to lead the brain, rather than letting the brain lead the hand. "It has to be a mark of something out there in the world. It doesn't have to be an accurate drawing, but it has to stand for an observation, not something that is abstract, like an emotion."
Between 1989 and 2003 Kentridge made a series of nine short films that he eventually gathered under the title 9 Drawings for Projection. In 1989, he began the first of those animated movies, Johannesburg, 2nd Greatest City After Paris. The series runs through Monument (1990), Mine (1991), Sobriety, Obesity & Growing Old (1991), Felix in Exile (1994), History of the Main Complaint (1996), Weighing and Wanting (1998), and Stereoscope (1999), up to Tide Table (2003) and Other Faces, 2011.
For the series, he used a technique that would become a feature of his work - successive charcoal drawings, always on the same sheet of paper, contrary to the traditional animation technique in which each movement is drawn on a separate sheet. In this way, Kentridge's videos and films came to keep the traces of the previous drawings. His animations deal with political and social themes from a personal and, at times, autobiographical point of view, since the author includes his self-portrait in many of his works.
The political content and unique techniques of Kentridge's work have propelled him into the realm of South Africa's top artists. Working with what is in essence a very restrictive media, using only charcoal and a touch of blue or red pastel, he has created animations of astounding depth. A theme running through all of his work is his peculiar way of representing his birthplace. While he does not portray it as the militant or oppressive place that it was for black people, he does not emphasize the picturesque state of living that white people enjoyed during apartheid either; he presents instead a city in which the duality of man is exposed. In a series of nine short films, he introduces two characters - Soho Eckstein and Felix Teitlebaum. These characters depict an emotional and political struggle that ultimately reflects the lives of many South Africans in the pre-democracy era.
In an introductory note to Felix In Exile, Kentridge writes, "In the same way that there is a human act of dismembering the past there is a natural process in the terrain through erosion, growth, dilapidation that also seeks to blot out events. In South Africa this process has other dimensions. The very term 'new South Africa' has within it the idea of a painting over the old, the natural process of dismembering, the naturalization of things new."
Not only in Felix In Exile but in all of his animated works do the concepts of time and change comprise a major theme. He conveys it through his erasure technique, which contrasts with conventional cel-shaded animation, whose seamlessness de-emphasizes the fact that it is actually a succession of hand-drawn images. This he implements by drawing a key frame, erasing certain areas of it, re-drawing them and thus creating the next frame. He is able in this way to create as many frames as he wants based on the original key frame simply by erasing small sections. Traces of what has been erased are still visible to the viewer; as the films unfold, a sense of fading memory or the passing of time and the traces it leaves behind are portrayed. Kentridge's technique grapples with what is not said, what remains suppressed or forgotten but can easily be felt.
In the nine films that follow Soho Eckstein's life, an increasing vehemence is placed on the health of the individual and contemporary South African society. Conflicts between anarchic and bourgeois individualistic beliefs, again a reference to the duality of man, indicate the idea of social revolution by poetically disfiguring surrounding buildings and landscapes. Kentridge states that, although his work does not focus on apartheid in a direct and overt manner, but rather on the contemporary state of Johannesburg, his drawings and films are certainly spawned by, and feed off of, the brutalised society that it left in its wake. As for more direct political issues, Kentridge says his art presents ambiguity, contradiction, uncompleted movements and uncertain endings, all of which seem like insignificant subtleties but can be attributed to most of the calamity presented in his work. In a mixed-media triptych entitled "The Boating Party" (1985), based on Renoir's painting of a similar name, the havoc caused by a seemingly-uninterested aristocracy is perhaps his most severe comment on the state of South Africa during apartheid. The languid diners sit at ease while the surrounding area is ravaged, torn and burned, a contrast that is reflected in his style and choice of colours.
In 1988, Kentridge co-founded Free Film-makers Co-Operative in Johannesburg. In 1999, he was appointed a film-maker by Stereoscope. "Purely in the context of my own work," he wrote in a published playscript of his celebrated Ubu and the Truth Commission, "I would repeat my trust in the contingent, the inauthentic, the whim, the practical, as strategies for finding meaning. I would repeat my mistrust in the worth of Good Ideas. And state a belief that somewhere between relying on pure chance on the one hand, and the execution of a programme on the other, lies the most uncertain but the most fertile ground for the work we do [...]. I think I have shown that it is not the clear light or reason or even aesthetic sensibility which determines how one works, but a constellation of factors only some of which we can change at will." In 2001, Creative Time aired his film Shadow Procession on the NBC Astrovision Panasonic screen in Times Square.
He has been invited to create stage design and act as a theatre director in opera. His political perspective is expressed in his opera directions, which involves different layers: stage direction, animation movies, influences of the puppet world. He has staged Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (Monteverdi), Die Zauberflöte (Mozart) and The Nose (Shostakovich). Following that, he collaborated with the French composer François Sarhan on a short show called Telegrams from the Nose, for which he made the stage and set design for the performance. In 2015 his production of Berg's Lulu will première at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, a co-production with the English National Opera and the Dutch National Opera.
Kentridge's protean artistic investigation continues in his series of tapestries begun in 2001. The tapestries stem from a series of drawings in which he conjured shadowy figures from ripped construction paper and collaged them onto the web-like background of nineteenth-century atlas maps. To reincarnate these figures into tapestry, Kentridge worked in close collaboration with the Johannesburg-based Stephens Tapestry Studio, mapping out cartoons from enlarged photographs of the drawings and hand-picking dyes to colour the locally spun mohair (goat hair).
In 2009, Kentridge, in partnership with Gerhard Marx, created a 10m-tall sculpture for his home city of Johannesburg entitled Fire Walker. In 2012 his sculpture, Il cavaliere di Toledo, was unveiled in Naples. Rebus (2013), referring in title to the allusional device using pictures to represent words or parts of words, is a series of bronze sculptures that form two distinct images when turned to a certain angle; when paired in correspondence, for example, a final image – a nude – is created from two original forms – a stamp and a telephone.
William Kentridge is married to Anne Stanwix, an immunologist, and they have three children. A third-generation South African of Lithuanian-Jewish heritage, he is the son of the prominent South African lawyer Sydney Kentridge and the lawyer and activist Felicia Kentridge.
- 1997 Documenta X, Kassel
- 1998 São Paulo Biennial
- 1998 The Drawing Center, New York
- 1999 Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art
- 1999 Venice Biennial
- 2000 Bienal de la Habana, Havana
- 2002 Documenta 11, Kassel, Germany
- 2003 Goodman Gallery, Johannesburg
- 2004 Metropolitan Museum, New York
- 2005 Musée d'art Contemporain, Montreal
- 2006 Johannesburg Art Gallery
- 2006 Salzburg Museum der Moderne
- 2006 Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey
- 2006 Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago
- 2007 Smith College Art Museum
- 2007 Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 2007 University of Brighton Gallery
- 2007 Bienal do Mercosul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
- 2008 Williams College Museum of Art
- 2008 Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- 2008 Biennale of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
- 2008 William Kentridge Seeing Double, Marian Goodman Gallery, New York 
- 2009 Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art
- 2009 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
- 2009 Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth
- 2009 Henry Art Gallery, Seattle
- 2009 The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto
- 2009 The Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach
- 2010 Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 2010 The Jewish Museum (New York), New York
- 2010 Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, Hiroshima
- 2010 Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center
- 2010 Jeu de Paume, Paris
- 2010 Louvre, Paris
- 2010 William Kendtridge: Five Themes, Albertina Museum 
- 2011 Israel Museum, Jerusalem
- 2011 MOMA, New York City
- 2011 MACO, Oaxaca
- 2011 Garage Center for Contemporary Culture, Moscow
- 2011 Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
- 2012 Australian Centre for the Moving Image, Melbourne 
- 2012 Jewish History Museum, Amsterdam
- 2012 dOCUMENTA (13), Kassel Germany
- 2012 Instituto Moreira Salles, Rio de Janeiro
- 2013 Volte Gallery, Mumbai India
- 2013 mac, Birmingham, England
- 2013 MAXXI, Rome
- 2013 Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo
- 2014 Fortune: Banco de la República 
- 2015 William Kentridge: Tapestries, Kewening Galerie 
- 2015 EYE Film Institute Netherlands, Amsterdam: If We Ever Get To Heaven (till August 31)
- 2015 Haus Konstruktiv, Zurich: William Kentridge – The Nose (4th June to 6th September)
- 2015 Royal Academy Summer show
In parallel with the Five Themes exhibition at the Jeu de Paume in Paris (2010), the artist was featured at the Louvre. The Louvre show, Carnets d'Egypte, included drawings of the artist, presented next to works from the museum collections, and videos shown in Louis XIVth’s bed.
Kentridge's works are included in numerous international collections, including the Museum of Modern Art, New York; Tate Modern, London; the Kalamazoo Institute of Arts and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago. An edition of the five-channel video installation The Refusal of Time (2012), which debuted at documenta 13, was jointly acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
In 2015, Kentridge gave the definitive collection of his archive and art — films, videos and digital works — to the George Eastman Museum, one of the world’s largest and oldest photography and film collections.
Kentridge's Five Themes exhibit was included in the 2009 Time 100, an annual list of the one hundred top people and events in the world. That same year, the exhibition was awarded First Place in the 2009 AICA (International Association of Art Critics Awards) Best Monographic Museum Show Nationally category.
Kentridge's artworks are among the most sought-after and expensive works in South Africa: "a major charcoal drawing by world-renowned South African artist William Kentridge could set you back some R250 000". Kentridge is represented by Marian Goodman Gallery in New York.
- Greg Kucera Gallery 2007.
- "William Kentridge | Who's Who SA". Whoswhosa.co.za. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
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- Cameron, Christov-Bakargiev, Coetzee 1999.
- Christov-Bakargiev, 1998.
- Edmunds 2003.
- http://www.mariangoodman.com/exhibitions/2013-09-17_william-kentridge/ Marian Goodman Gallery, New York.
- "William Kentridge - May 6 - June 18, 2011 - Marian Goodman Gallery". Mariangoodman.com. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- Kasfir 1999.
- Kentridge 2007.
- http://www.philamuseum.org/exhibitions/264.html?page=2 Notations/William Kentridge: Tapestries, 12 December 2007 – 6 April 2008
- "William Kentridge: Breathe, Dissolve, Return - September 11 - October 16, 2010 - Marian Goodman Gallery". Mariangoodman.com. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Lulu - February 2015 - The Metropolitan Opera". metopera.org. February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- http://www.philamuseum.org/exhibitions/264.html Notations/William Kentridge: Tapestries, 12 December 2007 – 6 April 2008
- "Comune di Napoli - Municipalità 2 - Notte d'Arte". Comune.napoli.it. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "William Kentridge - September 17 - October 26, 2013 - Marian Goodman Gallery". Mariangoodman.com. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
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- "Volte". Volte.in. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "A Universal Archive exhibition". Macarts.co.uk. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Pinacoteca do Estado de Sуo Paulo". Pinacoteca.org.br. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- Charlotte Burns (10 October 2014), The sun never sets on William Kentridge The Art Newspaper.
- Joshua Barone (October 8, 2015), William Kentridge Gives Major Collection to George Eastman Museum New York Times.
- "Bastille Day celebrations in South Africa". French Embassy in South Africa. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- Reed, Lou (30 April 2009). "William Kentridge - The 2009 TIME 100". TIME. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
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- Cameron, Dan; Christov-Bakargiev, Carolyn; Coetzee, JM. William Kentridge. New York: Phaidon Press, 1999.
- Christov-Bakargiev, Carolyn. William Kentridge. Societé des Expositions du Palais de Beaux-Arts de Bruxelles, 1998.
- Cole, William. "On Some Early Prints by William Kentridge", Print Quarterly vol. XXVI no. 3 (2009), 268-273.
- Coumans, Sandra. "Geschichte und Identität. Black Box / Chambre noire von William Kentridge", Regiospectra Verlag Berlin, 2012.
- Edmunds, Paul. "William Kentridge's SANG Retrospective", Artthrob: Contemporary Art in South Africa 65 (2003).
- Greg Kucera Gallery. "William Kentridge". 2007.
- Kasfir, Sydney. Contemporary African Art. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
- Kentridge, William. "Director's Note". In Ubu and the Truth Commission, by Jane Taylor, viii-xv. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2007.
- McCulloch, Samantha; Williams-Wynn, Christopher. "Conflicts between context and content in William Kentridge: Five Themes: a case study of the Melbourne exhibition", Museum Management and Curatorship vol. 30 no. 4 (2015), 283-295.
- Taylor, Jane. Ubu and the Truth Commission. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2007.
- William Kentridge: The Refusal of Time at The Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Artworks by William Kentridge
- Interview with William Kentridge, by Lilian Tone
- William Kentridge at Who's Who
- Wits honours top artist
- Get ready for Grahamstown
- SA artists in Barcelona
- SA artists at Havana Biennale
- William Kentridge: Anything Is Possible PBS, Art-21, 21 October 2010
- William Kentridge believes South Africa let Nelson Mandela down Interview with William Kentridge, by Flavia Foradini,The Art Newspaper, online edition, 13 Dec 2013
- How We Make Sense of the World. An interview with William Kentridge Video by Louisiana Channel
- culturebase: William Kentridge