William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme

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The Right Honourable
The Viscount Leverhulme
William Lever.jpg
William Lever
Member of Parliament
for Wirral
In office
1906–1909
Preceded by Joseph Hoult
Succeeded by Gershom Stewart
Personal details
Born William Hesketh Lever
(1851-09-19)19 September 1851
Bolton, Lancashire, England
Died 7 May 1925(1925-05-07) (aged 73)
Nationality English
Political party Liberal Party
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Hulme
Relations James Lever (brother)
Children William Hulme Lever, 2nd Viscount Leverhulme
Education Bolton Church Institute
Occupation Industrialist, philanthropist and politician
Known for Lever Brothers
Religion Nonconformist

William Hesketh Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme (19 September 1851 – 7 May 1925) was an English industrialist, philanthropist, and politician.

Lever started work aged fifteen at his father's wholesale grocery business in Bolton but, as a businessman, he is noted for founding the soap and cleaning product firm, Lever Brothers, with his younger brother James in 1885. He began manufacturing Sunlight Soap and built a business empire with many well-known brands, such as Lux and Lifebuoy. In politics, Lever sat as a Liberal MP for Wirral and then as a Peer (as Lord Leverhulme). He was an advocate for expansion of the British Empire, particularly in Africa and Asia, which supplied palm oil, a key ingredient in Lever's product line.

Biography[edit]

William Lever was born on 19 September 1851 at 16 Wood Street, Bolton, Lancashire, England. He was the eldest son and the seventh child born to James Lever (1809–1897), a grocer, and Eliza Hesketh, daughter of a cotton mill manager. He was educated at Bolton Church Institute between 1864 and 1867 and worked in the family grocery business from 1867 until he was given junior partnership in 1872.

Lever was a member of the Congregationalist Church and applied its ideals in his business life.[1] On 17 April 1874, he married Elizabeth Ellen Hulme, daughter of a draper and neighbour from Wood Street, at the Church of St Andrew and St George (then Congregational, now United Reformed) in Bolton. William, their only surviving child, was born at Thornton Hough in 1888.

Lever moved to Thornton Hough in 1888 and bought Thornton Manor in 1893. He subsequently bought the village which he developed as a model village. His London home was The Hill at Hampstead, bought in 1904. He bought and demolished neighbouring Heath Lodge in 1911 to extend the garden.[2] The Hill was his main home from 1919.[1][3] In 1899 he bought Rockhaven in Horwich and the Rivington estate in early 1900. He built a wooden bungalow on the slopes of Rivington Pike in 1902 which was burned down in an arson attack in 1913 by suffragette, Edith Rigby.[4] Its stone replacement was his summer home until his death.

Lever began collecting artworks in 1893 when he bought a painting by Edmund Leighton.[5] He founded the Lady Lever Art Gallery in 1922, dedicated to his late wife.[6]

In his later years, Leverhulme became deaf and kept a klaxon horn by his bed to wake him at 5 am. He took up ballroom dancing late in life. Throughout his life he thought the only healthy way to sleep was outdoors in the wind and the rain.[7]

Leverhulme was involved with freemasonry and by 1902 was the first initiate of a lodge bearing his name, William Hesketh Lever Lodge No. 2916. He later formed Leverhulme Lodge 4438. He saw freemasonry as a tool to reinforce the hierarchy within Lever Brothers.[8] He was a founder of the Phoenix Lodge 3236 whilst an M.P in 1907[9] and a founder of St. Hilary Lodge No. 3591 founded 4 May 1912, then Past Pro-Grand Warden (P.P.G.W) and Immediate Past Master (I.P.M).[10] He was appointed Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons of England in 1919 and co-founded a number of lodges.[11] He was Provincial Senior Grand Warden of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Cheshire.[12]

Lord Leverhulme died aged 74 of pneumonia at his home in Hampstead on 7 May 1925.[1] His funeral was attended by 30,000 people.[13] He is buried in the churchyard of Christ Church in Port Sunlight, Cheshire.[14] He was succeeded by his son, William Lever, 2nd Viscount Leverhulme.

Business[edit]

After working for his father's wholesale grocery business, in 1886 he established a soap manufacturing company, Lever Brothers, with his brother James. It is now part of Unilever. It was one of the first companies to manufacture soap from vegetable oils, and with Lever's business acumen and marketing practices, produced a great fortune.

Port Sunlight[edit]

In 1887 Lever, looking to expand his business, bought 56 acres (230,000 m2) of land on the Wirral in Cheshire between the River Mersey and the railway line at Bebington. This site became Port Sunlight where he built his works and a model village to house its employees. From 1888, Port Sunlight village offered decent living conditions in the belief that good housing would ensure a healthy and happy workforce. The community was designed to house and support the workers. Life in Port Sunlight included intrusive rules and implied mandatory participation in activities. The tied cottages meant that a worker losing his or her job could be almost simultaneously evicted.[15]

In some matters, Lever was keen to allow the residents of Port Sunlight a degree of democratic control, and this seems to have led to a common conviction that he was in favour of women’s suffrage: a belief that possibly stems from a situation arising in connection the Bridge Inn, a Port Sunlight temperance “pub” that was opened in I900. Lever was a lifelong teetotaller, and he naturally assumed that the Bridge would be “dry”. Within two years of its opening, however, representations were made to change its status to a licensed house. Lever promptly announced that he would not impose his own views, and that the issue would be decided by a referendum; insisting somewhat unconventionally for that time that women would take part. With the added proviso that the Bridge would only become a true British “pub” if a supermajority of 75% was in favour, Lever probably felt confident that the outcome would support his abstemious sentiments, but in the event more than 80% voted for a liquor license and even though some people petitioned Lever urging him to use his absolute authority in Port Sunlight and ignore the referendum, he refused to do so.[16]

In reality, workers' social lives were policed from the head office, and some of Lever’s employees clearly resented his paternalism. However well intentioned, the power it afforded the company, even though it was rarely exercised, was viewed as an attack on workers' liberty and human rights. Although many such people preferred to find their own accommodation, there were others who, for whatever reason, were never given an opportunity to reside in Port Sunlight. Perhaps Lever’s observations on this matter are revealing:

'The private habits of an employee have really nothing to do with Lever Brothers providing the man is a good workman. At the same time, a good workman may have a wife of objectionable habits, or he may have objectionable habits himself, which make it undesirable to have him in the (Port Sunlight) village. . . .' [17]
Cartoon from The Daily Mirror, 22 October 1906. A parody of William Lever, whose factory was named "Port Sunlight".

Advertising[edit]

Lever's rival in the soap industry was A & F Pears. Andrew Pears had taken the lead in using art for marketing by buying paintings such as "Bubbles" by John Everett Millais to promote its products, which Lever also wanted to do. in 1886. Three years later Lever bought 'The New Frock' by William Powell Frith to promote his firm's product Sunlight soap.[18]

Soap monopoly[edit]

In 1906 Lever, together with Joseph Watson of Leeds and several other large soap manufacturers, established the short-lived Soap Trust cartel, in imitation of similar combinations established in the USA following John D. Rockefeller's organisation of the Standard Oil Co. as a trust in 1882.[19] Lever believed such an organisation would bring benefits to the consumer as well as the manufacturer, through economies of scale in purchasing and advertising. The scheme was launched when President Roosevelt had just launched his trust-busting policy in America. [20]

The British press, in particular the Daily Mail, of which he had been one of the largest advertising customers, was virulently opposed to the scheme, and aroused popular hostility urging a boycott of trust brands and making what were later proved in court to be libellous assertions as to the constituent ingredients of the soaps concerned. All participants in the trust suffered severe damage to their profits and reputations. Lever estimated his loss at "considerably over half a million" combined with a reduction by a third in the value of his shareholding, and the scheme was abandoned before the year's end.[21]

Africa[edit]

In the early 1900s, Lever was using palm oil produced in the British West African colonies. When he found difficulties in obtaining more palm plantation concessions, he started looking elsewhere in other colonies. In 1911, Lever visited the Belgian Congo to take advantage of cheap labour and palm oil concessions in that country.[22]

Lever's attitudes towards the Congolese were paternalistic and by today's standards, racist, and his negotiations with the Belgian coloniser to enforce the system known as travail forcé (forced labour) are well documented in the book Lord Leverhulme's Ghosts: Colonial Exploitation in the Congo by Jules Marchal [ISBN 978-1-84467-239-4] in which the author states: "Leverhulme set up a private kingdom reliant on the horrific Belgian system of forced labour, a program that reduced the population of Congo by half and accounted for more deaths than the Nazi holocaust." As such, he participated in this system of formalised labour. The archives show a record of Belgian administrators, missionaries and doctors protesting against the practices at the Lever plantations. Formal parliamentary investigations were called for by members of the Belgian Socialist Party, but despite their work the practice of forced labour continued until independence in 1960.[23]

Lewis & Harris[edit]

Abandoned house, Lewis.

In May 1918, by then in semi-retirement, Leverhulme bought the Isle of Lewis for £167,000 and in late 1919 he bought the estate of South Harris for £36,000; both in the Island of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. His plans for their future prosperity centred upon the application of modern science and his own business skills in establishing a large and thriving fishing industry. Although Stornaway had a good harbour, there were many disadvantages to Leverhulme’s plans for the port. Its remoteness led to additional transport costs for ice, fuel, packaging, and anything else that had to be imported, as well as for the fish products, almost all of which was sold on the mainland. The place itself was, for various reasons, unpopular with sailors, and the local population’s strict observance of the Sabbath had a negative affect on fishing operations, while catches of varieties of fish other than herring were unfeasibly small. Leverhulme intended that the port should be improved and enlarged to attract landings of fish from visiting vessels to supplement catches made by local boats and his own fleet of modern drifters and trawlers. There would be an ice-making factory, and cargo vessels with refrigerated holds to take the fresh fish to a depot on the mainland at Fleetwood, Lancashire, which was well placed to serve the industrial towns of the north of England. Leverhulme also expanded the herring-curing capacity and enlarged the fish processing facilities with the installation of a canning factory, and a plant to make fish-cakes, fish-paste, glue, animal feed, and fertiliser, with similar equipment being established at Fleetwood.[24]

Vertical Integration was apparently one of Leverhulme’s main strategies for the island fisheries venture, and to this end he acquired retail fishmonger’s shops in most of the UK’s larger towns and cities: all were modernised and refitted and their previous proprietors were installed as managers. This aspect of Lever’s Hebridean venture was named Mac Fisheries; the fleet of fishing vessels the MacLine Company. Mac Fisheries was a success and it grew rapidly until there were over four hundred shops all purchasing fish from many different wholesale suppliers. Other food industry enterprises were acquired including Wall's, a manufacturer of ice-cream and sausages, and various companies specialising in different segments of the fish business, as well as several fishing fleet owners and operators. Although these developments brought tangible benefits to the people of Lewis, Leverhulme’s plans did not suit everyone, and this anomaly created severe obstacles for his ambitious plans for the Western Isles.[25]

Typically, Leverhulme’s business strategies were comprehensive and meticulously set out. His plans for the island called for a reliable workforce, but although the inhabitants of Stornoway were generally well educated and hard working, they were for the most part regularly employed and well paid. The largely Gaelic speaking crofters, on the other hand, were mainly subsistence farmers and many of them were squatters; and it was this section of the population that Leverhulme hoped to develop and recruit. The crofters were poor, but they were used to an independent life style that was both long established and deeply ingrained in their psyche. Nevertheless, Leverhulme planned to entice them into becoming carbon copies of his Lancashire artisans by offering them an attractive alternative to their meagre smallholdings. He didn’t actively oppose the crofter’s way of life, but neither did he support it as some thought he, as their patron, ought to have done. And when the crofters learned about the money that was being expended on other projects, they began to resent his lack of support for them. [26]

Leverhulme did his utmost to woo the population of Lewis and to make himself – as well as his schemes – popular among all the islanders. This seems to have worked to some extent, but there were other sceptics whose voices were heard in government circles. Robert Munro, the Secretary of State for Scotland, and Donald Murray, the MP for the Western Isles, as well as a number of supporting characters including most of the House of Commons, were anxious to redress past oppression of the Highlanders who had so recently served with outstanding bravery in the First World War.

The Small Landholders (Scotland) Act 1911 had empowered the Scottish Secretary, on behalf of the Government, to acquire certain farms in the Highlands and Islands by compulsory purchase and to have them divided up to provide more crofts. In 1913, four farms on Lewis had been scheduled for take-over, but the action had been opposed by the Proprietor at that time, and when the war with Germany broke out it was left in abeyance. Towards the end of the war, in the summer of 1918, the Scottish Office first proposed to Leverhulme that under the Small Landholders Act, the Board of Agriculture should take possession of certain of his farms and create something fewer than a hundred and fifty crofts. He was against this, even though some local politicians believed that Leverhulme's project and the provision of more crofts were not mutually exclusive. But Leverhulme firmly believed that he could greatly improved living standards to an extent that crofting would become a forgotten way of life. He was also impatient with politicians’ machinations and the laborious indolence of the political system that persisted with the ‘futile land reform’ instead of adopting what he considered the most sensible course of action; to forget about new crofts and allow him, in the interests of expediency, to behave like the monarch of the Western Isles.

Thus, by the beginning of 1919 the positions taken up by those involved were fairly well defined. Robert Munro, himself a Highlander, believed passionately in the reinstatement of the crofts and he also felt strongly that the Westminster Parliament was unlikely to tolerate any departure from the implementation of land reform, but he saw no reason why Lewis should not have Leverhulme's industrial schemes as well as more crofts. Leverhulme refused to budge, believing that the break-up of his farms would lead to seriously inefficient, probably unsustainable, and ultimately abandoned smallholdings as crofters moved away in search of better incomes. Ranged against this at least ostensibly reasonable prediction was the formidable influence wielded by prospective crofters away fighting in France, as well as by supporters of the Highland League which was politically dedicated to land reform.

In early March 1919 men started to takeover Leverhulme's farms on Lewis. They drove off the farmers' livestock, demolished boundary walls, and staked out six-acre plots: by the summer sixteen out of the twenty-two farms on the island had been affected. Expecting Leverhulme's approval, the raiders were taken aback when he voiced his complete condemnation of their actions and asked them to withdraw from his land. Some left, but others erected shelters for their families on the stolen plots. Leverhulme was evidently not willing to prosecute ex-servicemen who were trying to secure homes for their families, and it seems unlikely that, under the circumstances, legal action would have succeeded. Instead, he toured Lewis trying to persuade them that their future lay with him and not in the crofting system. They were, however, extremely reluctant to abandon old ways and most of them continued to espouse the crofting way of life.

Attitudes began to harden and polarize, culminating in politicians pressing ahead with land reform and Leverhulme demanding a ten year moratorium coupled with a thinly veiled threat to withdraw from his schemes. In early 1920, upon his return from a business trip to the USA, Leverhulme learned that raiding had continued during his absence. By then, serious financial difficulties were besetting Lever Brothers concerning the disastrous Niger Company, making his decision about the Western Isles project relatively straightforward. With a pressing need to make significant savings, he announced intention to concentrate his efforts on Stornoway and on Harris, and that all work in the country areas of Lewis would be abandoned forthwith. [27]

The population of Harris was smaller in size and more scattered than that of Lewis. Consequently, Leverhulme’s plans advanced there with very few problems.

With permission from the locals, the fishing village of Obbe was renamed Leverburgh.

On 3 September 1923, Leverhulme addressed the Stornoway Council and the Lewis District Council at a meeting which he had asked to be specially convened on that date. Leverhulme asked them to take the land and make their system work, but only Stornoway, always on Leverhulme's side, accepted the gift, set up the Trust, and to a large extent made it work for the benefit of the town. Left with so much of the Island he no longer wanted, Leverhulme sold off as much as he could. Many of the buyers were interested principally in shooting and fishing. Leverhulme died in May 1925. Very soon thereafter the Board of Lever Brothers gave orders for all development on Harris to stop, and so Leverhulme's scheme for the Western Isles perished with almost nothing achieved there.

[28]

Politics[edit]

William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme, in a portrait painted in 1918 by William Strang

Lever was a lifelong supporter of William Ewart Gladstone and Liberalism. He was invited to contest elections for the Liberal Party. He served as Member of Parliament (MP) for the Wirral constituency between 1906 and 1909 and used his maiden speech in the House of Commons to urge Henry Campbell-Bannerman's government to introduce a national old age pension, such as the one he provided for his workers. On the recommendation of the Liberal Party, he was created a baronet in 1911 and raised to the peerage as Baron Leverhulme on 21 June 1917, the "hulme" element of his title being in honour of his wife.

In November 1918 Lord Leverhulme was invited to become Mayor of Bolton though he was not a councillor because the council wanted to honour a "Notable son of the Town" as a mark of the high regard the citizens of Bolton had for him.[29] He was High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1917. He was elevated to the viscountcy on 27 November 1922.[1]

Legacy[edit]

Lever was a major benefactor to his native town, Bolton, where he was made a Freeman of the County Borough in 1902. He bought Hall i' th' Wood, one time home of Samuel Crompton, and restored it as a museum for the town. He donated 360 acres (1.5 km2) of land and landscaped Lever Park in Rivington in 1902. Lever was responsible for the formation of Bolton School after re-endowing Bolton Grammar School and Bolton High School for Girls in 1913. He donated the land for Bolton's largest park, Leverhulme Park, in 1914.[30]

Leverhulme endowed a school of tropical medicine at Liverpool University, gave Lancaster House in London to the British nation and endowed the Leverhulme Trust set up to provide funding for publications of education and research. The garden of his former London residence 'The Hill' in Hampstead, designed by Thomas Mawson, is open to the public[31] and has been renamed Inverforth House.[32] A blue plaque at Inverforth House commemorating Leverhulme was unveiled by his great-granddaughter, Jane Heber-Percy, in 2002.[33]

He built many houses in Thornton Hough which became a model village comparable to Port Sunlight[34] and in 1906 built Saint Georges United Reformed Church.[35] The Lady Lever Art Gallery opened in 1922 and is in the Port Sunlight conservation area. In 1915 Lever acquired a painting entitled "Suspense" by Charles Burton Barber (an artist who came to resent 'manufacturing pictures for the market'). The painting was previously owned by his competitor, A & F Pears, who used paintings such as "Bubbles" by John Everett Millais to promote its products. Much of Leverhulme's art collection is displayed in the gallery which houses one of the finest formed by an industrialist in England.[5]

A.N. Wilson from the Mail Online, January 2010, remarked, "The altruism of Leverhulme or the Cadbury family are in sad contrast to the antisocial attitude of modern business magnates, who think only of profit and the shareholder."[36]

Quotes[edit]

William Lever made the celebrated observation about advertising, "I know half my advertising isn't working, I just don't know which half."[37]

Titles, styles and honours[edit]

Honours[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • Mr William Lever 1851–1911
  • Sir William Lever, Bt 1911–1917
  • The Rt. Hon. The Lord Leverhulme 1917–1922
  • The Rt. Hon. The Viscount Leverhulme 1922–1925

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Davenport-Hines, Richard. Lever, William Hesketh, first Viscount Leverhulme (1851–1925). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  2. ^ "Hindsites, Camden's secret histories, pass it on for 2012.". Camden. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  3. ^ Thornton Manor History, retrieved 8 June 2011 
  4. ^ Preston's Blue Plaques, Edith Rigby (pdf), Preston Council, retrieved 21 June 2010 
  5. ^ a b "19th Century European Paintings, Sculpture & Master Drawings, New York Auction, 1997". Christies. 1997. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  6. ^ "Lady Lever Art Gallery". 
  7. ^ "The King of Sunlight How William Lever Cleaned Up The World". Adam MacQuen. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  8. ^ "Lady Lever Art Gallery, Masonic Lodge Apron". Liverpool Museum. 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  9. ^ "About Phoenix Lodge 3236". Phoenix Lodge 3236. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  10. ^ "About St Hilary Lodge". St Hilary Lodge. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  11. ^ "Mersey Lodge 5434". Mersey Lodge 5434. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  12. ^ HAMILL, John. "Oxford Journals, Humanities, Journal of the History of Collections, Volume4, Issue2". Oxford Press. pp. 285–295. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  13. ^ Pathe News, 1925
  14. ^ "William Hesketh Lever - Find A Grave". findagrave.com. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  15. ^ Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2009). "Western Civilization: Since 1789, Volume 3, page 711". Western Civilization: Since 1789, Seventh edition. Thomson Learning Academic Center. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  16. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3, pp. 80-81
  17. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3, p. 81
  18. ^ Lady Lever art gallery, "The New Frock" by William Powell Frith Accessed 1 September 2012
  19. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3 Chapter 6, Soap Combine, pp. 38-67
  20. ^ Christopher Harding, Jennifer Edwards Cartel Criminality: The Mythology and Pathology of Business Collusion, Routledge, Abingdon, 2015, ISBN 978-1-4724-0312-4, p. 38
  21. ^ Wilson, Charles. The History of Unilever, London, 1954. Chapter 6, The Crisis of 1906, pp.72–88.
  22. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3, Chapter 9 The Congo, pp. 107-131
  23. ^ Jules Marechal, "Travail forcé pour l'huile de palme de Lord Leverhulme L'Histoire du Congo 1910–1945". Part III. Editions Paula Bellings. pp.348–368.
  24. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3, Chapter 13 Western Isles, pp. 197-235
  25. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3, Chapter 13 Western Isles, pp. 197-235
  26. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3, Chapter 13 Western Isles, pp. 197-235
  27. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3, Chapter 13 Western Isles, pp. 197-235
  28. ^ Jolly, W. P. Lord Leverhulme A Biography, Constable & Co., London, 1976, ISBN 0 09 461070 3, Chapter 13 Western Isles, pp. 197-235
  29. ^ William Hesketh Lever, boltonsmayors.org.uk, retrieved 29 September 2010 
  30. ^ Leverhulme Park
  31. ^ 'The Hill' Hampstead at the Thomas Mawson Archive website
  32. ^ "British Listed Building, The Hill, 477610". Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  33. ^ "Heritage: Soap-boiler, social reformer, MP and tribal chieftain – the life of William Lever". Ham & High. 
  34. ^ "Thornton Hough Appraisal". Wirral. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  35. ^ "St Georges URC, History". Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  36. ^ Wilson, An (25 January 2010). "A.N. WILSON: How the Cadbury family of the Victorian age would put today's fat cats to shame". Daily Mail. London. 
  37. ^ "Advertising: setting the advertising budget"
  38. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28566. p. 9826. 29 December 1911. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
  39. ^ The London Gazette: no. 30150. p. 6286. 26 June 1917. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
  40. ^ The London Gazette: no. 32776. p. 8793. 12 December 1922. Retrieved 13 June 2009.

References[edit]

  • Lever, William Hulme. 'Viscount Leverhulme by his Son' George Allen & Unwin Ltd. London 1927
  • Macqueen, Adam. The King of Sunlight : How William Lever Cleaned Up the World, Bantam Press, 2004. ISBN 0-593-05185-8
  • Marechal, Jules. Travail forcé pour l'huile de palme de Lord Leverhulme L'Histoire du Congo 1910–1945, Part III. Editions Paula Bellings. 396 pages.

Further reading[edit]

  • Jolly, W. P., Lord Leverhulme a Biography, Constable, London, ISBN 0-09-461070-3
  • Lewis, Brian. So Clean: Lord Leverhulme, Soap and Civilization (2008)
  • Smith, Malcolm David, Leverhulme's Rivington, Wyre Publishing, Lancashire, ISBN 0-9526187-3-7, The Story of the Rivington 'Bungalow'.
  • Mawson, Thomas H, Bolton A Study In Town Planning & Art
  • Hutchinson, Roger, "The Soapman"
  • Nicolson, Nigel, "Lord of the Isles"
  • Bergin, John Philip, "Nature and the Victorian Entrpreneur: Soap, Sunlight and Subjectivity". Unpublished PhD, University of Hull, 1999.
  • Hochschild Adam and Marchal Jules, "Lord Leverhulme's Ghosts: Colonial Exploitation in the Congo" ISBN 978-1-84467-239-4 in

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Joseph Hoult
Member of Parliament for Wirral
19061910
Succeeded by
Gershom Stewart
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Leverhulme
1922–1925
Succeeded by
William Hulme Lever
Baron Leverhulme
1917–1925
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baronet
(of Thornton Manor)
1911–1925
Succeeded by
William Hulme Lever