William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition

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The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition, often abbreviated to Putnam Competition, is an annual mathematics competition for undergraduate college students enrolled at institutions of higher learning in the United States and Canada (regardless of the students' nationalities). It awards a scholarship and cash prizes ranging from $250 to $2,500 for the top students and $5,000 to $25,000 for the top schools, plus one of the top five individual scorers (designated as Putnam Fellows) is awarded a scholarship of up to $12,000 plus tuition at Harvard University (Putnam Fellow Prize Fellowship),[1] the top 100 individual scorers have their names mentioned in the American Mathematical Monthly (alphabetically ordered within rank), and the names and addresses of the top 500 contestants are mailed to all participating institutions. It is widely considered to be the most prestigious university-level mathematics competition in the world, and its difficulty is such that the median score is often zero (out of 120) despite being attempted by students specializing in mathematics.[2][3]

The competition was founded in 1927 by Elizabeth Lowell Putnam in memory of her husband William Lowell Putnam, who was an advocate of intercollegiate intellectual competition. The competition has been offered annually since 1938 and is administered by the Mathematical Association of America.[4]

Competition layout[edit]

The Putnam competition takes place on the first Saturday in December, and consists of two three-hour sittings separated by a lunch break. The competition is supervised by faculty members at the participating schools. Each one consists of twelve challenging problems. The problems cover a range of advanced material in undergraduate mathematics, including concepts from group theory, set theory, graph theory, lattice theory, and number theory. [5]

Each of the twelve questions is worth 10 points, and the most frequent scores above zero are 10 points for a complete solution, 9 points for a nearly complete solution, and 1 point for the beginnings of a solution. In earlier years, the twelve questions were worth one point each, with no partial credit given. The competition is considered to be very difficult: it is typically attempted by students specializing in mathematics, but the median score is usually zero or one point out of 120 possible, and there have been only five perfect scores as of 2021.[6][7] In 2003, of the 3,615 students competing, 1,024 (28%) scored 10 or more points, and 42 points was sufficient to make the top percentile.

At a participating college, any student who wishes to take part in the competition may (limited by the number of spots a school receives); but until 2019 the school's official team consisted of three individuals whom it designated in advance. Until 2019, a team's score was the sum of the ranks of its three team members, with the lowest cumulative rank winning. It was entirely possible, even commonplace at some institutions, for the eventual results to show that the "wrong" team was picked—i.e. that some students not on the official team outscored an official team member. For example, in 2010, MIT had two of the top five scorers in the competition and seven of the top 24, while Caltech had just one student in the top five and only four in the top 24; yet Caltech took first place among teams while MIT took second.[8] In 2019 the rules of the competition changed, with a school's team consisting of its top three scorers, and team ranks determined by comparing the sums of the scores of the team members. [5]


The top five teams win $25,000, $20,000, $15,000, $10,000, and $5,000, in that order, with team members receiving $1,000, $800, $600, $400, and $200, respectively.

The top five individual scorers are named Putnam Fellows and awarded $2,500. The school with the first-place team receives an award of $25,000. Each first-place team member, as well as the winner of the Elizabeth Lowell Putnam Prize, receives $1,000. Sixth through 15th place individuals receive $1,000 and the next ten receive $250. The names of the top 100 students are published in the American Mathematical Monthly, and competition results are published in early April of the year following the competition.[9]

Many Putnam Fellows have gone on to become distinguished researchers in mathematics and other fields, including three Fields MedalistsJohn Milnor (also an Abel Prize laureate), David Mumford, and Daniel Quillen—and two Nobel laureates in physics—Richard Feynman and Kenneth Wilson.


Top-scoring teams[edit]

Year First Second Third Fourth Fifth
1938 Toronto UC Berkeley Columbia
1939 Brooklyn College MIT Mississippi Woman's
1940 Toronto Yale Columbia
1941 Brooklyn College UPenn MIT
1942 Toronto Yale MIT City College of NY
1946 Toronto MIT Brooklyn College Carnegie Tech
1947 Harvard Yale Columbia UPenn
1948 Brooklyn College Toronto Harvard City College of NY and McGill
1949 Harvard Toronto Carnegie Tech City College of NY
1950 Caltech Harvard NYU Toronto
1951 Cornell Harvard Cooper Union City College of NY
1952 Queen's Brooklyn Polytech Harvard MIT
1953 Harvard City College of NY Cornell UC Berkeley
1954 Cornell Harvard MIT Toronto
1955 Harvard Toronto Yale Kenyon
1956 Harvard Columbia Queen's MIT
1957 Harvard Columbia Cornell Caltech
1958 (Spring) Brooklyn Polytech Harvard Toronto Manitoba
1958 (Fall) Harvard Toronto Caltech Cornell
1959 Brooklyn Polytech Caltech Toronto Harvard Case Tech
1960 UC Berkeley Harvard MIT Michigan State Cornell
1961 Michigan State MIT Caltech Harvard Dartmouth
1962 Caltech Dartmouth Harvard Queen's UCLA
1963 Michigan State Brooklyn College UPenn Caltech MIT
1964 Caltech MIT Harvard Case Tech UC Berkeley
1965 Harvard MIT Toronto Princeton Caltech
1966 Harvard MIT Chicago Michigan Princeton
1967 Michigan State Caltech Harvard MIT Michigan
1968 MIT Waterloo UCLA Michigan State Kansas
1969 MIT Rice Chicago Harvard Yale
1970 Chicago MIT Toronto Illinois Tech Caltech
1971 Caltech Chicago Harvard UC Davis MIT
1972 Caltech Oberlin Harvard Swarthmore MIT
1973 Caltech British Columbia Chicago Harvard Princeton
1974 Waterloo Chicago Caltech MIT British Columbia
1975 Caltech Chicago MIT Princeton Harvard
1976 Caltech Washington U in StL Princeton Case Western Reserve and MIT
1977 Washington U in StL UC Davis Caltech Princeton MIT
1978 Case Western Reserve Washington U in StL Waterloo Harvard Caltech
1979 MIT Caltech Princeton Stanford Waterloo
1980 Washington U in StL Harvard Maryland Chicago UC Berkeley
1981 Washington U in StL Princeton Harvard Stanford Maryland
1982 Harvard Waterloo Caltech Yale Princeton
1983 Caltech Washington U in StL Waterloo Princeton Chicago
1984 UC Davis and Washington U in StL Harvard Princeton Yale
1985 Harvard Princeton UC Berkeley Rice Waterloo
1986 Harvard Washington U in StL UC Berkeley Yale MIT
1987 Harvard Princeton Carnegie Mellon UC Berkeley MIT
1988 Harvard Princeton Rice Waterloo Caltech
1989 Harvard Princeton Waterloo Yale Rice
1990 Harvard Duke Waterloo Yale Washington U in StL
1991 Harvard Waterloo Harvey Mudd Stanford Yale
1992 Harvard Toronto Waterloo Princeton Cornell
1993 Duke Harvard Miami University MIT Michigan
1994 Harvard Cornell MIT Princeton Waterloo
1995 Harvard Cornell MIT Toronto Princeton
1996 Duke Princeton Harvard Washington U in StL Caltech
1997 Harvard Duke Princeton MIT Washington U in StL
1998 Harvard MIT Princeton Caltech Waterloo
1999 Waterloo Harvard Duke Michigan Chicago
2000 Duke MIT Harvard Caltech Toronto
2001 Harvard MIT Duke UC Berkeley Stanford
2002 Harvard Princeton Duke UC Berkeley Stanford
2003 MIT Harvard Duke Caltech Harvey Mudd
2004 MIT Princeton Duke Waterloo Caltech
2005 Harvard Princeton Duke MIT Waterloo
2006 Princeton Harvard MIT Toronto Chicago
2007 Harvard Princeton MIT Stanford Duke
2008 Harvard Princeton MIT Stanford Caltech
2009 MIT Harvard Caltech Stanford Princeton
2010 Caltech MIT Harvard UC Berkeley Waterloo
2011 Harvard Carnegie Mellon Caltech Stanford MIT
2012 Harvard MIT UCLA Stony Brook Carnegie Mellon
2013 MIT Carnegie Mellon Stanford Harvard Caltech
2014 MIT Harvard RPI Waterloo Carnegie Mellon
2015 MIT Carnegie Mellon Princeton Stanford Harvard
2016 Carnegie Mellon Princeton Harvard MIT Stanford
2017 MIT Harvard Princeton Toronto UCLA
2018 Harvard MIT UCLA Columbia Stanford
2019 MIT Harvard Stanford UCLA Waterloo
2021 MIT Princeton Harvard Stanford UCLA

Teams ranked by historical performance[edit]

Below is a table of teams by the number of appearances in the top five and number of titles.

The following table lists Teams finishing in Top Five (as of 2021 competition):

Top Five Team (s)
66 Harvard
51 MIT
33 Caltech
32 Princeton
20 Waterloo
19 Toronto
15 Stanford
12 Duke
11 Chicago, Washington University in St. Louis, Yale
10 UC Berkeley, Cornell
9 Carnegie Mellon (including former Carnegie Tech)
6 Columbia
5 Brooklyn College, City College of New York, Michigan State
4 Case Western Reserve (including former Case Tech), Michigan, Rice
3 Brooklyn Polytech, UC Davis, Queen's, Penn
2 British Columbia, Dartmouth, Harvey Mudd, Maryland
1 Cooper Union, Illinois Tech, Kansas, Kenyon, Manitoba, McGill, Miami University, RPI
NYU, Oberlin, Stony Brook, Swarthmore, William Carey (under former name of Mississippi Woman's)

For a recent analysis, the following table lists teams that finished in the top five since 2000 (as of 2021 competition):

Top Five Team (s)
20 Harvard, MIT
12 Stanford
11 Princeton
8 Caltech
7 Duke
6 Carnegie Mellon
5 UCLA, Waterloo
3 UC Berkeley, Toronto
1 Chicago, Harvey Mudd, Stony Brook, RPI, Columbia

The following table lists Teams with First place finishes (as of 2021 competition):

First Place Team (s)
30 Harvard
11 MIT
10 Caltech
4 Toronto, Washington University in St. Louis
3 Brooklyn College, Duke, Michigan State
2 Brooklyn Polytech, Cornell, Waterloo
1 UC Berkeley, UC Davis, Carnegie Mellon, Case Western Reserve, Chicago, Princeton, Queen's

Putnam Fellows[edit]

Since the first competition, the top five (or six, in case of a tie) scorers in the competition have been named Putnam Fellows. Within the top five, Putnam Fellows are not ranked. Students are not allowed to participate in the Putnam Competition more than four times. For example, if a high school senior chooses to officially participate, he/she effectively chooses to forfeit one of his/her years of eligibility in college (see Gabriel Carroll). This makes it even more of a remarkable feat to become a Putnam Fellow four times. In the history of the Competition, only eight students have been Putnam Fellows four times, with twenty-three others winning the award three times. The following table lists these students:

Name School Years
Don Coppersmith MIT 1968 1969 1970 1971
Arthur Rubin Purdue, Caltech 1970 1971 1972 1973
Bjorn M. Poonen Harvard 1985 1986 1987 1988
Ravi D. Vakil Toronto 1988 1989 1990 1991
Gabriel D. Carroll UC Berkeley, Harvard 2000 2001 2002 2003
Reid W. Barton MIT 2001 2002 2003 2004
Daniel Kane MIT 2003 2004 2005 2006
Brian R. Lawrence Caltech 2007 2008 2010 2011
Edward L. Kaplan Carnegie Tech 1939 1940 1941
Andrew M. Gleason Yale 1940 1941 1942
Donald J. Newman City College of NY 1948 1949 1950
James B. Herreshoff IV UC Berkeley 1951 1952 1953
Samuel Jacob Klein City College of NY 1953 1959 1960
Randall L. Dougherty UC Berkeley 1978 1979 1980
Eric D. Carlson Michigan State 1980 1982 1983
David W. Ash Waterloo 1981 1982 1983
Noam D. Elkies Columbia 1982 1983 1984
David J. Grabiner Princeton 1986 1987 1988
David J. Moews Harvard 1986 1987 1988
J. P. Grossman Toronto 1993 1994 1995
Kiran S. Kedlaya Harvard 1993 1994 1995
Lenhard L. Ng Harvard 1993 1994 1995
Ciprian Manolescu Harvard 1997 1998 2000
Aaron C. Pixton Princeton 2004 2005 2007
Yufei Zhao MIT 2006 2008 2009
Arnav Tripathy Harvard 2007 2008 2009
Seok Hyeong Lee Stanford 2008 2010 2011
Evan M. O'Dorney UC Berkeley, Harvard 2011 2012 2013
Zipei Nie MIT 2012 2013 2014
David H. Yang MIT 2013 2014 2015
Yunkun Zhou MIT 2015 2016 2017
Shengtong Zhang MIT 2018 2019 2021

The following table lists all Putnam fellows from 1938 to present, with the years they placed in the top five.[10] Ioana Dumitriu was the first woman to become a Putnam Fellow, in 1996.

Name (School) Year (s)
George W. Mackey (Rice) 1938
Irving Kaplansky (Toronto) 1938
Michael J. Norris (College of St. Thomas) 1938
Robert W. Gibson (Fort Hays Kansas State) 1938
Bernard Sherman (Brooklyn College) 1938, 1939
Abraham Hillman (Brooklyn College) 1939
Richard P. Feynman (MIT) 1939
William Nierenberg (City College of NY) 1939
Edward L. Kaplan (Carnegie Tech) 1939, 1940, 1941
John Cotton Maynard (Toronto) 1940
Robert Maughan Snow (George Washington) 1940
W. J. R. Crosby (Toronto) 1940
Andrew M. Gleason (Yale) 1940, 1941, 1942
Paul C. Rosenbloom (UPenn) 1941
Richard F. Arens (UCLA) 1941
Samuel I. Askovitz (UPenn) 1941
Harold Victor Lyons (Toronto) 1942
Harvey Cohn (City College of NY) 1942
Melvin A. Preston (Toronto) 1942
Warren S. Loud (MIT) 1942
Donald A. Fraser (Toronto) 1946
Eugenio Calabi (MIT) 1946
Felix Browder (MIT) 1946
J. Arthur Greenwood (Harvard) 1946
Maxwell A. Rosenlicht (Columbia) 1946, 1947
Clarence Wilson Hewlett, Jr. (Harvard) 1947
William Turanski (UPenn) 1947
Eoin L. Whitney (Alberta) 1947, 1948
W. Forrest Stinespring (Harvard) 1947, 1949
George F. D. Duff (Toronto) 1948
Harry Gonshor (McGill) 1948
Leonard Geller (Brooklyn College) 1948
Robert L. Mills (Columbia) 1948
Donald J. Newman (City College of NY) 1948, 1949, 1950
Ariel Zemach (Harvard) 1949
David L. Yarmush (Harvard) 1949
John W. Milnor (Princeton) 1949, 1950
John P. Mayberry (Toronto) 1950
Richard J. Semple (Toronto) 1950
Z. Alexander Melzak (British Columbia) 1950
Arthur P. Dempster (Toronto) 1951
Harold Widom (City College of NY) 1951
Herbert C. Kranzer (NYU) 1951
Peter John Redmond (Cooper Union) 1951
James B. Herreshoff IV (UC Berkeley) 1951, 1952, 1953
Eugene R. Rodemich (Washington U in StL) 1952
Gerhard Rayna (Harvard) 1952
Richard G. Swan (Princeton) 1952
Walter Lewis Baily, Jr. (MIT) 1952
Marshall L. Freimer (Harvard) 1953
Norman Bauman (Harvard) 1953
Tai Tsun Wu (Minnesota) 1953
Samuel Jacob Klein (City College of NY) 1953, 1959, 1960
Benjamin Muckenhoupt (Harvard) 1954
James Daniel Bjorken (MIT) 1954
Leonard Evens (Cornell) 1954
William P. Hanf (UC Berkeley) 1954
Kenneth G. Wilson (Harvard) 1954, 1956
Howard C. Rumsey, Jr. (Caltech) 1955
Jack Towber (Brooklyn College) 1955
David B. Mumford (Harvard) 1955, 1956
Trevor Barker (Kenyon) 1955, 1956
Everett C. Dade (Harvard) 1955, 1957
Richard Michael Friedberg (Harvard) 1956
David M. Bloom (Columbia) 1956, 1957
J. Ian Richards (Minnesota) 1957
Richard T. Bumby (MIT) 1957
Rohit J. Parikh (Harvard) 1957
David R. Brillinger (Toronto) Spring 1958
Donald J. C. Bures (Queen's) Spring 1958
Lawrence A. Shepp (Brooklyn Polytech) Spring 1958
Richard M. Dudley (Harvard) Spring 1958
Joseph Lipman (Toronto) Spring 1958, Fall 1958
Alan Gaisford Waterman (San Diego State) Fall 1958
John Rex Forrester Hewett (Toronto) Fall 1958
Robert C. Hartshorne (Harvard) Fall 1958
Alfred W. Hales (Caltech) Fall 1958, 1959
Daniel G. Quillen (Harvard) 1959
Donald Passman (Brooklyn Polytech) 1959
Donald S. Gorman (Harvard) 1959
Martin Isaacs (Brooklyn Polytech) 1959
Stephen L. Adler (Harvard) 1959
Stephen Lichtenbaum (Harvard) 1959
Jon H. Folkman (UC Berkeley) 1960
Louis Jaeckel (UCLA) 1960
Melvin Hochster (Harvard) 1960
William R. Emerson (Caltech) 1960
Barry Wolk (Manitoba) 1961
Elwyn R. Berlekamp (MIT) 1961
Edward Anton Bender (Caltech) 1961, 1962
John Hathaway Lindsey (Caltech) 1961, 1962
William C. Waterhouse (Harvard) 1961, 1962
John William Wood (Harvard) 1962
Robert S. Strichartz (Dartmouth) 1962
Joel H. Spencer (MIT) 1963
Lawrence A. Zalcman (Dartmouth) 1963
Lawrence J. Corwin (Harvard) 1963
Robert E. Greene (Michigan State) 1963
Stephen E. Crick, Jr. (Michigan State) 1963
Barry B. MacKichan (Harvard) 1964
Fred William Roush (UNC Chapel Hill) 1964
Roger E. Howe (Harvard) 1964
Rufus (Robert) Bowen (UC Berkeley) 1964, 1965
Vern Sheridan Poythress (Caltech) 1964
Andreas R. Blass (Detroit) 1965
Barry Simon (Harvard) 1965
Daniel Fendel (Harvard) 1965
Lon M. Rosen (Toronto) 1965
Marshall W. Buck (Harvard) 1966
Robert E. Maas (Santa Clara) 1966
Robert S. Winternitz (MIT) 1966
Theodore C. Chang (MIT) 1966
Richard C. Schroeppel (MIT) 1966, 1967
David R. Haynor (Harvard) 1967
Dennis A. Hejhal (Chicago) 1967
Don B. Zagier (MIT) 1967
Peter L. Montgomery (UC Berkeley) 1967
Dean G. Huffman (Yale) 1968
Gerald S. Gras (MIT) 1968
Neal Koblitz (Harvard) 1968
Gerald A. Edgar (UC Santa Barbara) 1968, 1969
Don Coppersmith (MIT) 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971
Alan R. Beale (Rice) 1969
Steven K. Winkler (MIT) 1969, 1970
Robert A. Oliver (Chicago) 1969, 1970
Jeffrey Lagarias (MIT) 1970
Jockum Aniansson (Yale) 1970
Arthur Rubin (Purdue, Caltech) 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973
Dale Peterson (Yale) 1971
David Shucker (Swarthmore) 1971
Robert Israel (Chicago) 1971
Michael Yoder (Caltech) 1971, 1972
Arthur Rothstein (Reed) 1972
David Vogan (Chicago) 1972
Dean Hickerson (UC Davis) 1972
Ira Gessel (Harvard) 1972
Angelos J. Tsirimokos (Princeton) 1973
Matthew L. Ginsberg (Wesleyan) 1973
Peter G. De Buda (Toronto) 1973
David J. Anick (MIT) 1973, 1975
Grant M. Roberts (Waterloo) 1974
James B. Saxe (Union) 1974
Karl C. Rubin (Princeton) 1974
Philip N. Strenski (Armstrong State) 1974
Thomas G. Goodwillie (Harvard) 1974, 1975
Ernest S. Davis (MIT) 1975
Franklin T. Adams (Chicago) 1975
Christopher L. Henley (Caltech) 1975, 1976
David J. Wright (Cornell) 1976
Nathaniel S. Kuhn (Harvard) 1976
Paul M. Herdig (Case Western Reserve) 1976
Philip I. Harrington (Washington U in StL) 1976
Steven T. Tschantz (UC Berkeley) 1976, 1978
Adam L. Stephanides (Chicago) 1977, 1981
Michael Roberts (MIT) 1977
Paul A. Vojta (Minnesota) 1977
Stephen W. Modzelewski (Harvard) 1977
Russell D. Lyons (Case Western Reserve) 1977, 1978
Mark R. Kleiman (Princeton) 1978
Peter W. Shor (Caltech) 1978
Randall L. Dougherty (UC Berkeley) 1978, 1979, 1980
Charles H. Walter (Princeton) 1979
Mark G. Pleszkoch (Virginia) 1979
Miller Puckette (MIT) 1979
Richard Mifflin (Rice) 1979
Daniel J. Goldstein (Chicago) 1980
Laurence E. Penn (Harvard) 1980
Michael Raship (Harvard) 1980
Eric D. Carlson (Michigan State) 1980, 1982, 1983
Robin A. Pemantle (UC Berkeley) 1981
Scott R. Fluhrer (Case Western Reserve) 1981
David W. Ash (Waterloo) 1981, 1982, 1983
Michael J. Larsen (Harvard) 1981, 1983
Brian R. Hunt (Maryland) 1982
Edward A. Shpiz (Washington U in StL) 1982
Noam D. Elkies (Columbia) 1982, 1983, 1984
Gregg N. Patruno (Princeton) 1983
Benji N. Fisher (Harvard) 1984
Daniel W. Johnson (Rose-Hulman Tech) 1984
Richard A. Stong (Washington U in StL) 1984
Michael Reid (Harvard) 1984, 1987
Everett W. Howe (Caltech) 1985
Keith A. Ramsay (Chicago) 1985
Martin V. Hildebrand (Williams) 1985
Douglas S. Jungreis (Harvard) 1985, 1986
Bjorn M. Poonen (Harvard) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988
David I. Zuckerman (Harvard) 1986
Waldemar P. Horwat (MIT) 1986
David J. Grabiner (Princeton) 1986, 1987, 1988
David J. Moews (Harvard) 1986, 1987, 1988
Constantin S. Teleman (Harvard) 1987
John S. Tillinghast (UC Davis) 1987
Jeremy A. Kahn (Harvard) 1988
Ravi D. Vakil (Toronto) 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
Andrew H. Kresch (Yale) 1989
Christos A. Athanasiadis (MIT) 1989
Colin M. Springer (Waterloo) 1989
Sihao Wu (Yale) 1989
William P. Cross (Caltech) 1989
Jordan Lampe (UC Berkeley) 1990
Raymond M. Sidney (Harvard) 1990
Eric K. Wepsic (Harvard) 1990, 1991
Jordan S. Ellenberg (Harvard) 1990, 1992
Joshua B. Fischman (Princeton) 1991
Xi Chen (Missouri–Rolla) 1991
Samuel A. Kutin (Harvard) 1991, 1992
Jeffrey M. Vanderkam (Duke) 1992
Serban M. Nacu (Harvard) 1992
Adam M. Logan (Princeton) 1992, 1993
Craig B. Gentry (Duke) 1993
Wei-Hwa Huang (Caltech) 1993
J. P. Grossman (Toronto) 1993, 1994, 1995
Kiran S. Kedlaya (Harvard) 1993, 1994, 1995
Lenhard L. Ng (Harvard) 1993, 1994, 1995
William R. Mann (Princeton) 1994
Jeremy L. Bem (Cornell) 1994, 1996
Sergey V. Levin (Harvard) 1995
Yevgeniy Dodis (NYU) 1995
Dragos N. Oprea (Harvard) 1996
Ioana Dumitriu (NYU) 1996
Robert D. Kleinberg (Cornell) 1996
Stephen S. Wang (Harvard) 1996
Daniel K. Schepler (Washington U in StL) 1996, 1997
Ovidiu Savin (Pittsburgh) 1997
Patrick K. Corn (Harvard) 1997
Samuel Grushevsky (Harvard) 1997
Mike L. Develin (Harvard) 1997, 1998
Ciprian Manolescu (Harvard) 1997, 1998, 2000
Ari M. Turner (Princeton) 1998
Nathan G. Curtis (Duke) 1998
Kevin D. Lacker (Duke) 1998, 2001
Christopher C. Mihelich (Harvard) 1999
Colin A. Percival (Simon Fraser) 1999
Davesh Maulik (Harvard) 1999
Derek I.E. Kisman (Waterloo) 1999
Sabin Cautis (Waterloo) 1999
Abhinav Kumar (MIT) 1999, 2000
Pavlo Pylyavskyy (MIT) 2000
Alexander B. Schwartz (Harvard) 2000, 2002
Gabriel D. Carroll (UC Berkeley, Harvard) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003
George Lee, Jr. (Harvard) 2001
Jan K. Siwanowicz (City College of NY) 2001
Reid W. Barton (MIT) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004
Deniss Cebikins (MIT) 2002
Melanie E. Wood (Duke) 2002
Ralph C. Furmaniak (Waterloo) 2003
Ana Caraiani (Princeton) 2003, 2004
Daniel M. Kane (MIT) 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006
Vladimir V. Barzov (MIT) 2004
Aaron Pixton (Princeton) 2004, 2005, 2007
Oleg I. Golberg (MIT) 2005
Matthew M. Ince (MIT) 2005
Ricky I. Liu (Harvard) 2005
Tiankai Liu (Harvard) 2005, 2006
Hansheng Diao (MIT) 2006
Po-Ru Loh (Caltech) 2006
Yufei Zhao (MIT) 2006, 2008, 2009
Jason C. Bland (Caltech) 2007
Brian R. Lawrence (Caltech) 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011
Qingchun Ren (MIT) 2007, 2009
Xuancheng Shao (MIT) 2007
Arnav Tripathy (Harvard) 2007, 2008, 2009
Seok Hyeong Lee (Stanford) 2008, 2010, 2011
Bohua Zhan (MIT) 2008
William A. Johnson (U of Washington) 2009
Xiaosheng Mu (Yale) 2009, 2011
Yu Deng (MIT) 2010
Colin P. Sandon (MIT) 2010
Alex (Lin) Zhai (Harvard) 2010
Samuel S. Elder (Caltech) 2011
Evan M. O'Dorney (Harvard) 2011, 2012, 2013
Benjamin P. Gunby (MIT) 2012
Eric K. Larson (Harvard) 2012
Mitchell M. Lee (MIT) 2012, 2013
Zipei Nie (MIT) 2012, 2013, 2014
Bobby C. Shen (MIT) 2013, 2014
David H. Yang (MIT) 2013, 2014, 2015
Ravi Jagadeesan (Harvard) 2014
Mark A. Sellke (MIT) 2014
Lingfu Zhang (MIT) 2014
Pakawut Jiradilok (Harvard) 2015
Bumsoo Kim (Princeton) 2015
Gyujin Oh (Stanford) 2015
Daniel Spivak (Waterloo) 2015
Yunkun Zhou (MIT) 2015, 2016, 2017
Joshua D. Brakensiek (Carnegie Mellon) 2016
Dong Ryul Kim (Harvard) 2016, 2018
Thomas E. Swayze (Carnegie Mellon) 2016
Samuel Zbarsky (Carnegie Mellon) 2016
David Stoner (Harvard) 2017, 2018
Ömer Cerrahoğlu (MIT) 2017
Jiyang Gao (MIT) 2017
Junyao Peng (MIT) 2017
Ashwin Sah (MIT) 2017, 2019
Yuan Yao (MIT) 2018, 2019
Shengtong Zhang (MIT) 2018, 2019, 2021
Shyam Narayanan (Harvard) 2018
Kevin Sun (MIT) 2019
Daniel Zhu (MIT) 2019, 2021
Andrew Gu (MIT) 2021
Michael Ren (MIT) 2021
Edward Wan (MIT) 2021

Elizabeth Lowell Putnam Award winners[edit]

Since 1992, the Elizabeth Lowell Putnam Award has been available to be awarded to a female participant with a high score, with three awards being made for the first time in 2019.[11] The year(s) in which they were Fellows are in bold. Ioana Dumitriu was the first woman to become a Putnam Fellow, in 1996.

Name School Year (s)
Dana Pascovici Dartmouth 1992
Ruth A. Britto-Pacumio MIT 1994
Ioana Dumitriu NYU 1995, 1996, 1997
Wai Ling Yee Waterloo 1999
Melanie E. Wood Duke 2001, 2002
Ana Caraiani Princeton 2003, 2004
Alison B. Miller Harvard 2005, 2006, 2007
Viktoriya Krakovna Toronto 2008
Yinghui Wang MIT 2010
Fei Song Virginia 2011
Xiao Wu Yale 2013
Simona Diaconu Princeton 2016
Ni Yan UCLA 2017
Danielle Wang MIT 2015, 2018
Laura Pierson Harvard 2019
Qi Qi MIT 2019
Hanzhi Zheng Stanford 2019
Dain Kim MIT 2021

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "William Lowell Putnam Competition Prizes". math.scu.edu. Santa Clara University.
  2. ^ "Putnam Competition | Mathematical Association of America". www.maa.org. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  3. ^ David Arney; George Rosenstein. "The Harvard-United States Military Academy Mathematics Competition of 1933: Genesis of the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition". www.westpoint.edu. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  4. ^ "History of the Putnam Prize". Santa Clara University – Mathematics & Computer Science. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Putnam Competition | Mathematical Association of America". www.maa.org. Retrieved Mar 27, 2020.
  6. ^ "82nd Putnam Competition Announces Top Students in Undergraduate Mathematics". newsroom.maa.org. Retrieved 2022-12-01.
  7. ^ "MIT students dominate annual Putnam Mathematical Competition". MIT News | Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2022-12-01.
  8. ^ Fujimori, Jessica (3 May 2016). "At Putnam, students rise to the challenge". news.mit.edu. MIT News. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  9. ^ Weisstein, Eric (17 April 2018). "Putnam Mathematical Competition". mathworld.wolfram.com. Wolfram Web Resources. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  10. ^ "List of Previous Putnam Winners" (PDF). Mathematical Association of America. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  11. ^ "Top Students and Teams Announced in Putnam Competition". www.maa.org. Mathematical Association of America.

External links[edit]