William Morris Agency
|Industry||Talent and Literary Agencies|
|Successor||William Morris Endeavor|
in New York City, New York, United States
The William Morris Agency (WMA) was a Hollywood-based talent agency. It represented some of the best known 20th-century entertainers in film, television, and music. During its 109-year tenure it came to be regarded as the "first great talent agency in show business".
In 1898, William Morris (born Zelman Moses), a German-Jewish immigrant to the US, posted a cross-hatch trademark above an office door in New York City – four "X's", representing a W superimposed on an M – and went into business as William Morris, Vaudeville Agent. By the time WMA formally incorporated in New York State on January 31, 1918, Morris' son William Morris Jr. and his assistant Abraham Lastfogel, who started out as an office boy and after becoming a talent agent in his own right, entered into a business partnership with Morris Sr.
As silent film grew into widely viewed entertainment, Morris encouraged his clients to experiment in the new medium. Stars such as Charlie Chaplin, Al Jolson, the Marx Brothers, and Mae West were all represented by the company.
By 1930, Morris had turned over leadership of the agency to his son and Lastfogel. In 1932, five years after his retirement, William Morris, Sr. died from heart failure. By that time, the Agency had begun the process of relocating from Hollywood and Vine to Canon Drive in Beverly Hills.
1945 to 2000
By 1965, WMA's Music Department was representing several clients including the Rolling Stones, Sonny & Cher, the Beach Boys, and the Byrds. In 1973, the Agency's newly established Nashville office provided another significant boost to the operations of William Morris, extending the Agency's reach into country music and beyond. In 1976, Nat Lefkowitz was named as co-chairman of the firm (he later hired his nephew, Ted Ashley who would go on to found the Ashley-Famous talent agency). In 1980, Morris Stoller was named chairman.
In the early 1980s, WMA built the William Morris Plaza located at 150 El Camino Drive, directly across the street from its main building at 151 El Camino. In 1989, WMA acquired the Jim Halsey Company.
In the early 1990s, WMA's Literary Department announced the largest book-to-screen deal ever inked when it sold the television rights for Scarlett, the sequel to Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind. In 2000, WMA acquired The Writers Shop, which was owned by Jennifer Rudolph Walsh.
In 2003, WMA opened an office in Miami Beach, and in 2004 they opened an office in Shanghai. In 2007, the Agency expanded its London music operation, underscoring WMA's continued commitment to the international marketplace. Along with the addition of new personnel, the London office moved into the iconic Centre Point Tower.
In 2003, a seismic shift occurred in the agency landscape when WMA's SVP and Theatre topper, George Lane, and fellow agent in charge of foreign rights, Michael Cardonick, left WMA to open Creative Artists Agency's New York City office and Theatrical Department.
2009 merger with Endeavor
On April 27, 2009, WMA and the Endeavor Talent Agency announced that they were merging to form William Morris Endeavor. Endeavor executives Ari Emanuel and Patrick Whitesell were widely recognized as the architects of the deal and ultimately took the roles of WME Co-CEOs. Following the official announcement of the merger, nearly 100 WMA employees and former board members were let go. One of those leaving was Jim Wiatt, who came to WMA in 1999 from International Creative Management, where he was Vice-Chairman, in 1999. He had joined WMA as President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, and had risen to Board Chairman.
WMA Agent Training Program
The WMA Agent Training Program, often referred to as the "mailroom", was established in the 1940s and is well known for its roster of successful alumni. Since the 1970s the program has been replicated at other talent agencies and studios, many of which were headed by former mailroom trainees. Once accepted, trainees rotate through different departments, starting with the mailroom, before becoming a full-time assistant or coordinator.
WMA's longtime competitor, Creative Artists Agency, was founded in 1975 by Michael Ovitz, Ronald Meyer, William Haber, Michael S. Rosenfeld, and Rowland Perkins, all former WMA agent trainees. David Geffen once called the WMA Agent Training Program "The Harvard School of Show Business – only better: no grades, no exams, a small stipend and great placement opportunities." Graduates from the Training Program were perceived at a high level of prestige within the entertainment industry, because of the caliber of notable alums that have graduated from the program.:464
Former Chairman Norman Brokaw became the first mailboy in the Beverly Hills Mailroom at age 15. The Agent Training program still exists today at William Morris Endeavor. It was famously documented in David Rensin's 2003 book, The Mailroom: Hollywood History from the Bottom Up.
- "Company Overview of William Morris Endeavor Entertainment, LLC". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
- Cullen, Frank; Florence Hackman; Donald McNeilly (2007). Vaudeville old & new: an encyclopedia of variety performances in America, Volume 1. Psychology Press. p. 1020. ISBN 0-4159-3853-8. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Littleton, Cynthia; Fleming, Michael (April 27, 2009). "WMA, Endeavor approve merger". Variety. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- "William Morris Agency, Inc. History". fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "A Charmed Life, or a Thirty-Six Short Makes It Big". The Brokaw Company. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Weisbord, Merrily (1991). Our future selves : love, life, sex, and aging. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books. p. 157. ISBN 978-1556431456.
- Claudia Eller (January 16, 2003). "Morris Targets Miami's Talent". Los Angeles Times.
- "Nat Lefkowitz, a former co-chairman of the William Morris Agency, the theatrical talent agency with which he was associated for 56 years, died Sunday in New York University Medical Center, where he had undergone heart surgery. He was 78 years old". The New York Times. September 6, 1983.
- Fleming, Karl (June 24, 1974). "Who is Ted Ashley? Just the King of Hollywood, Baby". New York Magazine. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- "Morris Stoller, 74, William Morris Agency Head, Dies". The Los Angeles Times. March 25, 1986.
- "Jennifer Rudolph Walsh". Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Sutter, Claude Brodesser,Mary; Brodesser, Claude; Sutter, Mary (2003-01-16). "WMA goes to Miami". Variety. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
- Robert Hofler (2003-05-09). "CAA opening Gotham digs". Variety.com. Retrieved 2015-04-27.
- Finke, Nikki (2009-04-27). "Latest WMA-Endeavor Merger Update: Hollywood History In The Making Today: Endeavor And William Morris Vote Yes". Deadline.
- "It's A Takeover, Not A Merger". LA Weekly. May 28, 2009.
- Michael Cieply (December 26, 2009). "Layoffs in the William Morris-Endeavor Merger". The New York Times.
- Finke, Nikki (2009-10-09). "WME Will Stay In Endeavor Headquarters Instead Of Moving To New Morris Building". Deadline.
- Rose, Frank (1996). The Agency (First ed.). New York: Harper Business. ISBN 0887308074.
- Rensin, David (2003). The Mailroom (First ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345442350.
- Haskell, Sam. Promises I Made My Mother. ISBN 978-0345506559.
- Rensin, David. The Mailroom: Hollywood History from the Bottom Up. ISBN 978-0345442345.
- Rose, Frank. The Agency: William Morris and the Hidden History of Show Business. ISBN 978-0887307492.