William Pakenham (Royal Navy officer)
|Sir William Christopher Pakenham|
|Born||10 July 1861|
|Died||28 July 1933
San Sebastian, Spain
|Allegiance|| United Kingdom
|Years of service||1874-1926|
|Battles/wars||World War I|
Admiral Sir William Christopher Pakenham, KCB, KCMG, KCVO (10 July 1861 – 28 July 1933) was a British observer with the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Russo-Japanese War; during World War I he commanded the 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron at the Battle of Jutland, and from December 1916 was Commander-in-Chief of the Battle Cruiser Fleet.
A member of the Pakenham family headed by the Earl of Longford, he was the second son of Rear-Admiral the Honourable Thomas Alexander Pakenham, third son of Thomas Pakenham, 2nd Earl of Longford. His mother was Sophia Frances Sykes, daughter of Sir Tatton Sykes, 4th Baronet.
As part of the Mediterranean Squadron, he served on HMS Monarch and he was promoted to midshipman in 1876. Noted for his swimming ability, he was highly commended for gallantry after jumping into the sea and rescuing a coxswain who had fallen overboard at Larnaca, Cyprus, in August 1878 and some years later endeavoured to save a man who fell from overboard from HMS Calypso at Kiel, Germany. Promoted to sub lieutenant in October 1880, he was transferred to HMS Canada in April 1883 and was promoted to lieutenant in October 1883. In June 1896, he was promoted to commander and took up a post with the Naval Intelligence Department from August 1899 to March 1901.
He was appointed to command HMS Daphne in March 1901, and served on the China Station when he was promoted to Captain on 30 June 1903 before he became a Naval Attaché at Tokyo from April 1904 to May 1906. During his stay in Japan, he was one of several military observers as part of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, who provided military intelligence and military advice to their Japanese counterparts.
During the early stages of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, he was attached to the Japanese First Fleet, where he developed ties with Japanese admiral Togo Heihachiro. However, despite these ties, he was reportedly hesitant to set foot on shore, for fear that the Japanese fleet would sail without him.  He was eventually assigned to the battleship Asahi, where he spent 14 months, and was an observer at the Battle of Tsushima aboard the on 27 May 1905. During this battle, he narrowly missed being hit by fragments of a Russian shell, which killed crewmen standing nearby. Drenched with blood, Pakenham returned to his cabin and changed into a new dress white uniform, and returned to his observation post a few minutes later.  His detailed reports on the battle strongly supported the Royal Navy’s trend towards the use of all big-gun fast battleship fleet. Pakenham's reports to London were strongly pro-Japanese and the British historian Geoffrey Jukes observed his "...reporting tended to depict Russia as his enemy, not just Japan's".
He acted as a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty between 9 December 1911 and December 1913. He was promoted to Rear Admiral, and in December was appointed to command the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron. He served as Fourth Sea Lord of the Admiralty between 1911 and 1913. He served as Naval Aide-de-Camp to King George V between 1912 and 1913.
During the First World War, Pakenham was given command of the 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron on 7 March 1915, and raised his flag aboard the battlecruiser HMAS Australia. After Australia was taken out of service following a collision, he transferred his flag to HMS New Zealand: aboard this battlecruiser, he participated in the Battle of Jutland, and was awarded the Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 31 May 1916 for his actions. Pakenham was appointed Rear Admiral Commanding HM Australian Fleet in September 1916. After Admiral Sir David Beatty was given the command of the Grand Fleet in succession to Admiral Sir John Jellicoe in November 1916, he assumed command of the Battle Cruiser Force on 19 June 1917, and was promoted to Acting Vice Admiral. During the visit of King George V to the Fleet in July 1917, Pakenham was made a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO). He was also awarded the Order of St. Stanislaus (Second Class) and was given a gift from the Emperor Taisho of Japan.
After the end of the First World War, Pakenham briefly served as the President of the Royal Naval College, Greenwich from 1919 to 1920 and then as Commander-in-Chief on the North America and West Indies Station from October 1920 with HMS Raleigh as his flagship. His visit to the west coast of the United States in 1922 was a diplomatic success, and he was appointed admiral in that year; however, Raleigh ran aground in fog off the coast of Labrador and was a loss. Pakenham was awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in June 1925, and was awarded Bath King of Arms on 7 February 1930.
- First World War.com Pakenham biography
- thepeerage.com Admiral Sir William Christopher Pakenham
- Dodd, Chapt. X. (Part 1)
- "Naval & Military intelligence" The Times (London). Friday, 8 March 1901. (36397), p. 10.
- The London Gazette: . 3 July 1903. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Kowner, Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War, p. 280-281.
- Jukes, Geoffrey The Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905, London: Osprey, 2002 page 91.
- The London Gazette: . 1 August 1905. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- The London Gazette: . 20 April 1906. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- The London Gazette: . 4 June 1912. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- The London Gazette: . 10 December 1912. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- The London Gazette: . 6 August 1912. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Stevens, David (2001). "World War I". In Stevens, David. The Royal Australian Navy. The Australian Centenary History of Defence (vol III). South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-19-555542-2. OCLC 50418095.
- Stevens, in Stevens, The Royal Australian Navy, p. 38
- Sir William Pakenham at Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- The London Gazette: . 2 June 1925. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- The London Gazette: . 7 February 1930. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Dodd, Francis (1917). Admirals of the British Navy (1917–1918) - Part 1, London, Country Life Ltd. online library
- Kowner, Rotem (2006). Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War. ISBN 0-8108-4927-5: The Scarecrow Press.
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