William Charles Franklyn Plomer CBE (10 December 1903 – 20 or 21 or 26 September 1973) was a South African and British author, known as a novelist, poet and literary editor. He also wrote a series of librettos for Benjamin Britten. He wrote some of his poetry under the pseudonym Robert Pagan.
Born of British parents in South Africa, he moved to England in 1929 after spending a few years in Japan. Although not as well known as many of his peers, he is recognised as a modernist and his work was highly esteemed by other writers, including Virginia Woolf and Nadine Gordimer. He was a homosexual, and at least one of his novels portrays a gay relationship, but whether he lived as openly gay himself is unclear.
Early life: South Africa
Plomer was born in Pietersburg, in the Transvaal Colony, now Polokwane in the Limpopo Province of South Africa, on 10 December 1903. His parents were English; his father was a colonial civil servant, and the family moved between England and South Africa several times during Plomer's youth, with Plomer educated mostly in the UK, until his father left the civil service and took over a trading station in the Zululand region.
Plomer insisted on the pronunciation of his name as "ploomer" (to rhyme with "rumour"), although his family pronounced it in the usual way.
He started writing his first novel, Turbott Wolfe, when he was just 21, which brought him fame (or notoriety) in the Union of South Africa upon publication in 1925, which had inter-racial love and marriage as a theme. He was co-founder, editor and major contributor of the short-lived literary magazine Voorslag ("Whiplash") with two other South African rebels, Roy Campbell and Laurens van der Post in 1926. It included material in both English and Afrikaans, and intended to publish in the Zulu language, and also attempted to portray the more superior standards of European culture, while promoting a racially equal South Africa. Campbell resigned in protest against the editorial control exerted by the financial backer of the magazine. It never gained a wide readership.
Plomer became a special correspondent for the Natal Witness, but after Van der Post had met and befriended two Japanese men, one being the Japanese captain of a yacht, Katsue Mori, he and Plomer sailed for Japan in September 1926, Plomer leaving South Africa for the last time. Plomer stayed in Japan until March 1929, completing two volumes of short stories (I speak of Africa and Paper Houses) as well as a collection of poetry. He became friends with academic, poet and author Sherard Vines. There he fell in love with a Japanese man, Morito Fukuzawa, who became the model for the title character of Sado.
He then travelled through Korea, China, the Soviet Union, Poland, Germany, and Belgium to England and, through his friendship with his publisher Virginia Woolf and husband Leonard Woolf, entered the London literary circles. Among his friends there were Christopher Isherwood, W.H. Auden, Forster, J.R. Ackerley and Stephen Spender. The Woolfs, under their imprint the Hogarth Press, published Sado in 1931 and The Case is Altered in 1932, the latter becoming his most commercially successful novel.
He became a literary editor for Faber and Faber, and became chief reader and literary adviser to Jonathan Cape from 1937 to 1940, where he recognised the saleability of, and edited the first and many more of Ian Fleming's James Bond series. Fleming dedicated Goldfinger to Plomer.
From 1937, Plomer took part in BBC radio broadcasts, and contributed to the Aldeburgh Festival from its start in 1948. From the late 1950s, he contributed to frequent poetry readings and events, served on the Arts Council and the board of the Society of Authors.
He is known to have used the pseudonym "Robert Pagan", notably for some of his poetry.
At least one source (Alexander) says that Plomer was never openly gay during his lifetime; at most he alluded to the subject. However Southworth says that he lived relatively openly as a homosexual in Japan, and unlike his friend E.M. Forster, portrayed gay relationships in a number of his novels, including Sado, The Case is Altered, and The Invaders.
Later life, death
Plomer described himself as "Anglo-African-Asian" in a 1967 article of that name, nearly 40 years after his return to England.
He died at his home in Hassocks, West Sussex (probably registered at Lewes, hence reporting of Lewes as place of death), variously reported as 20, 21 and 26 September 1973, aged 69, in the arms of his partner of almost thirty years, Charles Erdmann.
In 1976, the inaugural Mofolo-Plomer Prize, created by Nadine Gordimer and so named in honour of Basotho writer Thomas Mofolo and Plomer, was awarded to Mbulelo Mzamane. The judges for that year were Chinua Achebe, Alan Paton and Adam Small. Since then, Achmat Dangor, JM Coetzee, Njabulo Simakahle Ndebele, Rose Zwi and Peter Wilhelm have been other recipients of the prize.
Nadine Gordimer, in her introduction to a new edition of Turbott Wolfe in 2003, said that the novel deserved recognition as being in the "canon of renegade colonialist literature along with Conrad", and others have noted its experimental narrative structure, which puts it (along with some of his other work) in the category of a modernist novel.
- 1925. Turbott Wolfe (novel)
- 1927. Notes for Poems. Hogarth Press, London (poetry)
- 1927. I Speak of Africa (short stories)
- 1929. The Family Tree. Hogarth, London (poetry)
- 1929. Paper Houses. Hogarth, London (short stories)
- 1931. Sado. Hogarth, London (novel)
- 1932. The Case is Altered (novel)
- 1932. The Fivefold Screen (poetry)
- 1933. The Child of Queen Victoria (short stories)
- 1933. Cecil Rhodes (biography)
- 1934. The Invaders (novel)
- 1936. Visiting the Caves. Cape, London (poetry)
- 1936. Ali the Lion (biography, reissued in 1970 as The Diamond of Janina)
- 1937. William Plomer (editor): Haruko Ichikawa: A Japanese Lady in Europe. Cape, London
- 1938. Selections from the Diary of the Rev. Francis Kilvert (1870–1879)
- 1940. Selected Poems. Hogarth, London
- 1942. In a Bombed House, 1941: Elegy in Memory of Anthony Butts (poetry)
- 1943. Double Lives: An Autobiography. Cape, London.
- 1945. Curious Relations. Cape, London. under pseudonym William D'Arfey. Collaboration with Anthony Butts (memoirs of Butts's family)
- 1945. The Dorking Thigh and Other Satires (poetry)
- 1949. Four Countries. Cape, London (short stories)
- 1952. Museum Pieces (novel)
- 1955. A Shot in the Park (poetry, published in U.S. as Borderline Ballads)
- 1958. At Home: Memoirs. Cape, London.
- 1960. Collected Poems. Cape, London.
- 1960. A Choice of Ballads (poetry)
- 1966. Taste and Remember (poetry)
- 1973. Collected Poems. Cape, London (expanded edition)
- 1975. The Autobiography of William Plomer. Cape, London (revision of Double Lives, he died before he could rework At Home)
- 1978. Electric Delights. Selected and introduced by Rupert Hart-Davis. Cape, London (previously uncollected pieces, including the essay "On Not Answering the Telephone")
- Johannesburg (poetry)
- Cheney, Matthew. "William Plomer". Modernist Archives Publishing Project. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- Southworth, Helen (2012). Leonard and Virginia Woolf, The Hogarth Press and the Networks of Modernism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748669219. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- Alexander 1989, p. 143.
- Griswold, John (2006). Ian Fleming's James Bond: Annotations And Chronologies for Ian Fleming's Bond Stories. AuthorHouse. p. 243. ISBN 9781425931001.
- "Details: Collection Level Description: Plomer Collection". Durham University. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- Alexander 1989, p. 194.
- Alexander 1989, p. 310+.
- "William Plomer: South African writer". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- "[List of deaths]" (PDF). London Gazette: 3636. 19 March 1974.
[Name] Plomer, William Charles Franklyn. [Address] 43 Adastra Avenue, Hassocks, Hassocks, Sussex. [Description] Author and poet. [DOD] 26th September 1973.
- "Notes and correspondence". Journal of Southern African Studies. 2 (2): 238–239. 1976. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
Published online: 24 Feb 2007
- "Minister Paul Mashatile pays tribute to late Prof. Mbulelo Mzamane". Gov.za. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- "William Plomer". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- Benny Green, "Dilemmas", The Spectator, 31 March 1978, p. 22.
- Alexander, Peter F. (1989). William Plomer: A Biography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-212243-8.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: William Plomer|
- Plomer Collection at Durham University
- Portraits of William Plomer at the National Portrait Gallery, London
- "William Plomer and Japan" in Japonisme, Orientalism, Modernism: A Critical Bibliography of Japan in English-Language Verse (themargins.net)
- Allison, John (21 June 2013). "William Plomer: The forgotten link between Britten and Bond". The Daily Telegraph.