William Ponsonby (British Army officer)
Sir William Ponsonby
Portrait engraving published in 1817
|Member of Parliament|
|Preceded by||Lord George Thomas Beresford|
|Succeeded by||George Robert Dawson|
|Born||13 October 1772|
|Died||18 June 1815 (aged 42)|
|Cause of death||Killed in action|
|Spouse(s)||Hon. Georgiana FitzRoy|
|Awards||Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath|
|Years of service||1811–1815|
Major-General Hon. Sir William Ponsonby KCB (13 October 1772 – 18 June 1815) was an Anglo-Irish politician and British Army officer who served in the Peninsula War and was killed at the Battle of Waterloo.
Early life and education
He was the second son of William Ponsonby, who was created Baron Ponsonby of Imokilly in 1806, and Hon. Louisa Molesworth. He was the grandson of politician Hon. John Ponsonby and great-grandson of the 3rd Duke of Devonshire and the 1st Earl of Bessborough. Educated at Kilkenny and Eton, he married Hon. Georgiana FitzRoy, youngest daughter of Charles FitzRoy, 1st Baron Southampton.
Between 1796 and 1798, Ponsonby sat as a Member of Parliament (MP) in the Irish House of Commons for the Tories and represented Bandonbridge. Subsequently, he stood for Fethard (County Tipperary) and held this seat until the Act of Union in 1801. He entered the British House of Commons in 1812, sitting for Londonderry until his death. In 1815, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB).
When Ponsonby's command, the 5th Dragoon Guards, arrived in the Peninsula in October 1811, it became part of John Le Marchant's heavy cavalry brigade. For the rest of the war, this brigade included the 5th Dragoon Guards and the 3rd and 4th Dragoons. Ponsonby took part in Le Marchant's famous charge at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812. On that occasion, the British heavy dragoons rode down one French infantry division and part of a second before being repulsed. Upon Le Marchant's death in the battle, Ponsonby took over the brigade, participating in the campaign that included the Siege of Burgos. In 1813, Ponsonby led his 1,200-strong cavalry brigade at the Battle of Vitoria. During the Battle of the Pyrenees and the autumn campaigns in the mountains, the Duke of Wellington sent the bulk of his cavalry to the rear. On 25 January 1814, Ponsonby took leave of his brigade and in the final battles in France, Lord Charles Manners exercised command.
Battle of Waterloo
Ponsonby's part in the Battle of Waterloo is remembered because it highlights some pertinent points about cavalry charging. Ponsonby was in command of the Union Brigade, so-called because it included an English, a Scottish and an Irish regiment. The brigade consisted of the 1st Royal and 6th Inniskilling Regiments of Dragoons in the first line and the 2nd Royal North British Dragoons (Scots Greys) in reserve. It had counter-attacked to great effect against the disorganised French columns of d'Erlon's I Corps. Carried away by their initial success, however, the brigade failed to rally and continued towards the French positions. The Scots Greys in particular, forgetting their supporting role and ignoring the “recall”, charged on in disordered groups, some of whom reached the French guns on the other side of the valley. By this time their horses were exhausted and a swift retribution followed in the form of a counter-attack by the French lancers. The brigade suffered very heavy losses (see table below) and played no further part in the battle. Ponsonby, who was mounted on a horse of less value than the best one in his stable, rode too far and with his horse mired in mud close to enemy lines, was set upon by French Lancers. Recognising his rank and worth as a prisoner, the French gestured to him, urging him to surrender. He failed to understand them, and, when a group of his own Union Brigade spotted him and rode to his rescue, the lancers from one of the French line regiments (either the 3rd Lancers or 4th Lancers) attached to d'Erlon's I Corps had no option but to kill him. Myths growing up after the battle turned this into a guardsman from the "Red Lancers", which included the surviving squadron of the Polish lancers of the Guard. Following Ponsonby's death, command of the Union Brigade devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Clifton of the 1st Royal Dragoons.
|Unit||Commander||Rank & File||Casualties||Officer Losses|
|2nd Union Cavalry Brigade||Maj-Gen William Ponsonby †||1186||582||35|
|1st (Royal) Dragoons||Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Clifton||394||182||14|
|2nd (Royal North British) Dragoons||Lieutenant-Colonel James Inglis Hamilton †||396||185||14|
|6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons||Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Muter||396||215||7|
- Glover 1974, p. 203.
- Oman 1913, p. 360: "W. Ponsonby, of the 5th Dragoon guards, succeeded to Le Marchant's brigade ..."
- Oman 1913, p. 372: "From January 25, W. Ponsonby was absent, Lord C. Manners of 3rd dragoons commanding his brigade."
- Romberg 1820, p. 256.
- Barbero 2005, p. 163.
- BTL staff 2008.
- Dalton 1904, p. 56.
- Haythornthwaite 1974, p. 105.
- Barbero, Alessandro (2005), The Battle: a New History of Waterloo, Walker
- BTL staff (2008), Charge of the Union Brigade, Waterloo Battlefield Tours Ltd, archived from the original on 9 February 2012
- Dalton, Charles (1904). The Waterloo roll call. With biographical notes and anecdotes. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode.
- Glover, Michael (1974), The Peninsular War 1807-1814, Penguin
- Haythornthwaite, Philip (1974), Uniforms of Waterloo in color, Hippocrene
- Oman, Charles (1913), Wellington's Army, 1809-1814, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.
- Romberg, J. B. (1820), New picture of Brussels, p. 228
|Parliament of Ireland|
Lodge Evans Morres
| Member of Parliament for Bandonbridge
With: Broderick Chinnery
Robert William O'Callaghan
| Member of Parliament for
Fethard (County Tipperary)
1798 – 1801
With: John Taylor
Parliament of the United Kingdom
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Hon. Charles William Stewart
Lord George Thomas Beresford
| Member of Parliament for Londonderry
1812 – 1815
With: Hon. Charles William Stewart 1812–1814
Alexander Stewart 1814–1815
George Robert Dawson