William S. Sessions
|William S. Sessions|
|4th Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation|
November 2, 1987 – July 19, 1993
George H. W. Bush
|Deputy||Floyd I. Clarke|
|Preceded by||William H. Webster|
|Succeeded by||Louis Freeh|
|Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas|
|Preceded by||Jack Roberts|
|Succeeded by||Lucius Desha Bunton III|
|Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas|
December 20, 1974 – November 1, 1987
|Appointed by||Gerald Ford|
|Preceded by||Ernest Allen Guinn|
|Succeeded by||Emilio M. Garza|
|United States Attorney for the Western District of Texas|
|Appointed by||Richard Nixon|
|Preceded by||Segal Wheatley|
|Succeeded by||Hugh Shovlin|
|Born||William Steele Sessions|
May 27, 1930
Fort Smith, Arkansas
|Education||Baylor University (BA, LLB)|
William Steele Sessions (born May 27, 1930) is an American civil servant who served as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas and Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Sessions served as FBI director from 1987 to 1993, when he was dismissed by President Bill Clinton.
Early life and education
Sessions was born in Fort Smith, Arkansas, the son of Edith A. (née Steele) and Reverend Will Anderson Sessions Jr. He graduated from Northeast High School in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1948, and enlisted in the United States Air Force, receiving his commission October 1952. He served on active duty until October 1955. He attended Baylor University where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1956. He received a Bachelor of Laws in 1958 from Baylor Law School. At Baylor, Sessions became a member of the Delta Chi Fraternity. Sessions is an Eagle Scout and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America.
Sessions was an attorney for the firm of Haley, Fulbright, Winniford, Sessions, and Bice in Waco, Texas from 1963 until 1969. He was then appointed Chief of the Government Operations Section, Criminal Division of the Department of Justice in Washington, D.C., where he served until his appointment as United States Attorney for the Western District of Texas in 1971.
Federal judicial service
Sessions was nominated by President Gerald Ford on December 11, 1974, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas vacated by Judge Ernest Allen Guinn. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 19, 1974, and received his commission on December 20, 1974. He served as Chief Judge from 1980 to 1987. He served as a board member of the Federal Judicial Center from 1980 to 1984. His service terminated on November 1, 1987, due to his resignation.
Sessions was viewed as combining tough direction with fairness and was respected even by the Reagan administration's critics, although he was sometimes ridiculed as straitlaced and dull and lacking hands-on leadership. He worked to raise the image of the FBI in Congress and fought to raise the pay of FBI agents, which had lagged behind other law enforcement agencies.
Despite being a Republican who was appointed by Reagan, Sessions disappointed the administration of President George H. W. Bush for not being partisan, and he was personally disliked by Attorney General Dick Thornburgh. Sessions had an uneasy relationship with Thornburgh's successor William P. Barr. Reflecting the tensions between the Justice Department and the independent Bureau, Sessions announced that the FBI would be looking into whether Justice Department officials illegally misled a federal judge in a politically sensitive bank fraud case involving loans to Iraq before the Persian Gulf War, and 48 hours later Sessions was the subject of an ethics investigation on whether he had abused his office perks.
Sessions enjoyed his strongest support among liberal Democrats in Congress. Sessions was applauded for pursuing a policy of broadening the FBI to include more women and minorities, efforts which upset the "old boys" at the Bureau.
Sessions became associated with the phrase "Winners Don't Use Drugs", which appeared on idle North American-released arcade game screens during demos or after a player finished playing a game. By law it had to be included on all imported arcade games released in North America and continued to appear long after Sessions left office. The quote normally appeared in gold against a blue background between the FBI seal and Sessions' name. It first appeared in 1989, and was used until 2000.
Sessions' major contributions to the US criminal justice community include the encouraging of the FBI Laboratory to develop a DNA program with a strong legal underpinning and the automation of the national fingerprint process. The latter project, known as the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), reduced the turnaround time for fingerprint searches for both criminal arrest cycles and applicants for sensitive positions to include teachers from months to hours.
Sessions was FBI director during the controversial 1992 confrontation at Ruby Ridge, Idaho, at which the unarmed Vicky Weaver was shot dead by an FBI sniper. This incident provoked heavy criticism of the Bureau, as did the deadly assault on the Branch Davidian compound at Waco which lasted from February 28 to April 19, 1993. These incidents were also related to the discovery of severe procedural shortcomings at the FBI's crime laboratory.
Just before Bill Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd President of the United States on January 20, 1993, allegations of ethical improprieties were made against Sessions. A report by outgoing Attorney General William P. Barr presented to the Justice Department that month by the Office of Professional Responsibility included criticisms that he had used an FBI plane to travel to visit his daughter on several occasions, and had a security system installed in his home at government expense. Janet Reno, the 78th Attorney General of the United States, announced that Sessions had exhibited "serious deficiencies in judgment."
Although Sessions denied that he had acted improperly, he was pressured to resign in early July, with some suggesting that President Clinton was giving Sessions the chance to step down in a dignified manner. Sessions refused, saying that he had done nothing wrong, and insisted on staying in office until his successor was confirmed. As a result, President Clinton dismissed Sessions on July 19, 1993. Sessions was five and a half years into a ten-year term as FBI director; however, the holder of this post serves at the pleasure of the President.
Ronald Kessler's book, The FBI: Inside the World's Most Powerful Law Enforcement Agency, led to the dismissal by President Clinton of Sessions as FBI director over his abuses. According to The Washington Post, "A Justice Department official...noted that the original charges against Sessions came not from FBI agents but from a journalist, Ronald Kessler [who uncovered the abuses while writing a book about the FBI, leading to Sessions' dismissal by President Clinton]..." The New York Times said Kessler's FBI book "did indeed trigger bureau and Justice Department investigations into alleged travel and expense abuses [by FBI Director William Sessions, leading to his departure]...
President Clinton nominated Louis Freeh to the FBI directorship on July 20, 1993. Then–FBI Deputy Director Floyd I. Clarke, who Sessions suggested had led a coup to force his removal, served as Acting Director until September 1, 1993, when Freeh was sworn in.
Sessions returned to Texas where on December 7, 1999, he was named the state chair of Texas Exile, a statewide initiative aimed at reducing gun crime.
Later in life
Sessions is a member of the American Bar Association and has served as an officer or on the Board of Directors of the Federal Bar Association of San Antonio, the American Judicature Society, the San Antonio Bar Association, the Waco-McLennan County Bar Association, and the District Judges' Association of the Fifth Circuit. He was appointed by President Reagan as a Commissioner of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday Commission, and was a Delegate for the Americas to the Executive Committee of ICPO-Interpol. He is also a member of the Constitution Project's bipartisan Liberty and Security Committee.
In 2006, Sessions also was present on the American Bar Association task force examining the constitutionality of controversial presidential signing statements, which concluded that the practice "does grave harm to the separation of powers doctrine, and the system of checks and balances that have sustained our democracy for more than two centuries".
- "Sessions", freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com.
- William Steele Sessions (1930–) at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- Atlas, Terry (1992-10-27). "FBI Director's Mistakes Slowly Come To Light". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Johnston, David (1993-01-19). "F.B.I. Chief Plans to Fight for Job". The New York Times.
- "Time's Up for William Sessions". The New York Times. 1993-01-22.
- Ostrow, Ronald J.; Jackson, Robert L. (1993-07-20). "Defiant FBI Chief Is Fired by President : Law enforcement: Alleged ethical abuses by Sessions are cited as reason for dismissal. He refused to resign". Los Angeles Times.
- Washington Post, June 19, 1993, page A1; Washington Post, July 20, 1993, page A1.
- MacKenzie, John (September 12, 1993). "How the G-Men Measure Up Now". New York Times.
- Johnston, David (1993-07-20) "Defiant FBI chief removed from job by the President", New York Times.
- "Constitution Project: Liberty and Security Initiative". Constitutionproject.org. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
- "A trebly dubious death sentence | Reasonable doubt". The Economist. 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2009-01-22.
- "Task Force on Detainee Treatment Launched". The Constitution Project. 2010-12-17. Archived from the original on 2010-12-18.
"Think tank plans study of how US treats detainees". Wall Street Journal. 2010-12-17. Archived from the original on 2010-12-18.
Former FBI Director William Sessions, former Arkansas U.S. Rep. Asa Hutchinson, a retired Army general and a retired appeals court judge in Washington are among 11 people selected for a task force that will meet for the first time in early January, said Virginia Sloan, a lawyer and president of The Constitution Project.
- "Task Force members". The Constitution Project. 2010-12-17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-18.
- William Steele Sessions at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- "Federal Bureau of Investigation: Directors, Then and Now". Retrieved 2017-05-10.
Ernest Allen Guinn
| Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas
Emilio M. Garza
| Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas
Lucius Desha Bunton III
John E. Otto
| Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Floyd I. Clarke