William Stainton Moses
Moses was born in Donington near Lincoln. He was educated at Bedford School, University College School, London and Exeter College, Oxford. He was ordained as a priest of the Church of England by Bishop Samuel Wilberforce in 1870.
Moses attended his first séance with Lottie Fowler in 1872. Charles Williams and Daniel Dunglas Home were the next mediums he visited. Five months after his introduction to spiritualism, he claimed to have experienced levitation. The automatic scripts of Moses began to appear in his books Spirit Teachings and Spirit Identity. The scripts date from 1872 to 1883 and fill 24 notebooks. All but one have been preserved by the London Spiritualist Alliance.
Moses published Psychography. A Treatise on One of the Objective Forms of Psychic or Spiritual Phenomena in 1878. In it, he coins the term "psychography" (from psycho and graphy) for the spiritualist concept of channeling messages from the dead via automatic writing (also known as "independent writing", "direct writing" or "spirit writing").
Moses was one of the first vice-presidents of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR). Other early members included Frederic W. H. Myers, Henry Sidgwick and Edmund Gurney. In 1886 and 1887 in a series of publications the SPR exposed the tricks of the medium William Eglinton. Because of this, some spiritualist members including Moses resigned from the SPR.
Moses endorsed the spirit photography of Édouard Isidore Buguet, however, Buguet was exposed as a fraud. Moses had supported Buguet in an article for Human Nature in May 1875. After Burguet was exposed later in the same year, Moses insisted that Buguet was still a genuine medium and he had been bribed to make a false confession. The case has been cited by researchers as an example of spiritualists willing to believe and refusing to accept evidence of fraud.
Moses died on 5 September 1892.
Moses performed in dark conditions only with a small select circle of friends, he did not allow psychical researchers to attend his séances and refused to be tested. The psychical researcher Frank Podmore wrote:
It seems reasonable to conclude that all the marvels reported at [Moses] seances were, in fact, produced by the medium's own hands: that it was he who tilted the table and produced the raps, that the scents, the seed pearls, and the Parian statuettes were brought into the room in his pockets: and that the spirit lights were, in fact, nothing more than bottles of phosphorised oil. Nor would the feats described have required any special skill on the medium's part.
It was suggested that Moses looked up obituaries, daily newspapers, biographies or The Annual Register to research the history of deceased people. Joseph McCabe described Moses as a "deliberate impostor" and wrote that his apports and all of his feats were the result of trickery. Science historian Sherrie Lynne Lyons wrote that the glowing or light-emitting hands in séances could easily be explained by the rubbing of oil of phosphorus on the hands. Moses was caught twice with a bottle of phosphorus.
The psychologist Théodore Flournoy wrote that before admitting a supernatural explanation for the automatic writings of Moses, "we must first of all be sure that he himself was not capable of elaborating them subconsciously. To my mind, he was quite capable." Many of Moses's statements about ancient history have proven to be false.
Under the pen name "M.A. Oxon", Moses published the following books on spiritualism:
- Spirit Identity (1879)
- Psychography (1882)
- Spirit Teachings (1883)
- Higher Aspects of Spiritualism (1880)
Moses also edited the periodical Light and wrote on spiritualism for Human Nature.
- Rigg 1912.
- Janet Oppenheim. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0521347679 "Moses became one of the first vice-presidents and council members of the SPR"
- Janet Oppenheim. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. pp. 139-140. ISBN 978-0521347679
- Joseph McCabe. (1920). Spiritualism: A Popular History From 1847. Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 151-173
- John Mulholland. (1938). Beware Familiar Spirits. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 150. ISBN 978-1111354879 "Stainton Moses warmly endorsed Buguet in an article printed in May, 1875. In June, 1875, the French government arrested Buguet for fraud. At his trial he made a complete confession, and the police seized and produced his "spirit" doll and the collection of heads that fitted on it."
- Frank Podmore. (1902). Modern Spiritualism: A History and Criticism. Volume 2. London: Methuen & Co. pp. 120-123.
- Simeon Edmunds. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. p. 115. "Stainton Moses even insisted that the prosecution was instigated by the Church, and that Buguet had been forced or bribed into making a false confession."
- Harry Houdini. (2011 edition). Originally published in 1924. A Magician Among the Spirits. Cambridge University Press. pp. 120-124. ISBN 978-1-108-02748-9
- Ronald Pearsall. (1972). The Table-Rappers. Book Club Associates. p. 124. ISBN 978-0750936842
- Milbourne Christopher. (1975). Mediums, Mystics & the Occult. Thomas Y. Crowell. p. 114. ISBN 0-690-00476-1
- Hereward Carrington. (1907). The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism. Herbert B. Turner & Co. p. 14
- Frank Podmore. (1902). Modern Spiritualism: A History and a Criticism. Volume 2. Methuen & Company. pp. 283-287
- Sherrie Lynne Lyons. (2010). Species, Serpents, Spirits, and Skulls: Science at the Margins in the Victorian Age. State University of New York Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-1438427980
- Joseph McCabe. (1920). Is Spiritualism Based On Fraud? The Evidence Given By Sir A. C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined. London Watts & Co. p. 91
- Théodore Flournoy. (1911). Spiritism and Psychology. New York and London, Harper & Brothers. p. 142
- Joseph McCabe. (1920). Is Spiritualism Based On Fraud? The Evidence Given By Sir A. C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined. London Watts & Co. p. 186
- Georgess McHargue. (1972). Facts, Frauds, and Phantasms: A Survey of the Spiritualist Movement. Doubleday. p. 224. ISBN 978-0385053051
- Brian Righi. (2008). Chapter 4: Talking Boards and Ghostly Goo. In Ghosts, Apparitions and Poltergeists. Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 978-0738713632 "An early example of this occurred in 1874 with he medium William Stanton Moses, who communicated with the spirits of two brothers who had recently died in India. Upon investigation, it was discovered that one week prior to the séance, their obituary had appeared in the newspaper. This was of some importance because Moses's communications with the two spirits contained nothing that wasn't already printed in the newspaper."
- Robert Todd Carroll. (2014). "Cryptomnesia". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Rigg, James McMullen (1912). "Moses, William Stainton". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 180.
- The Controls of Stainton Moses by A. W. Trethewy
- Life and Experiences of Edmund Dawson Rogers, Spiritualist and Journalist (autobiography, 1911, new edition by Kessinger Publishing, London, 2004) ISBN 1-4191-7303-0
- Frank Podmore. (1902). Modern Spiritualism: A History and a Criticism. Volume 2. Methuen & Company. Chapter The Mediumship of Stainton Moses. pp. 270–288
- J. M. Rigg; rev. H. C. G. Matthew. "Moses, William Stainton (1839–1892)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19396. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)