William Stanley Jr.
|William Stanley Jr.|
November 28, 1858|
Brooklyn, New York
|Died||May 14, 1916
Great Barrington, Massachusetts
|Alma mater||Yale University|
|Notable awards||IEEE Edison Medal (1912)|
|Spouse||Lila Courtney (Wetmore) Stanley|
William Stanley Jr. (November 28, 1858 – May 14, 1916) was an American physicist born in Brooklyn, New York. In his career, he obtained 129 patents covering a variety of electric devices. In 1913, he also patented an all-steel vacuum bottle, and formed the Stanley Bottle Company.
Stanley was born November 28, 1858 in Brooklyn, NY, the son of William Stanley and Elizabeth A. Parsons Stanley. William Jr. attended Williston Seminary and later graduated from Yale University with the class of 1881.
Stanley was as an electrician working with tele keys and fire alarms of an early manufacturer. In Philadelphia, Stanley designed one of the first electrical installations (at a Fifth Avenue store). Shortly thereafter, George Westinghouse hired Stanley as his chief engineer at his Pittsburgh factory.
In 1885, Stanley built the first practical alternating current device based on Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs' idea. This device was the precursor to the modern transformer. In December, under a new contract with Westinghouse, Stanley moved his operations to Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
In 1886, on March 20, Stanley demonstrated the first complete system of high voltage Alternating Current transmission, consisting of generators, transformers and high-voltage transmission lines. His system allowed the distribution of electrical power over wide areas. He used the system to light offices and stores along the main street of Great Barrington - the location of his West Avenue family home. Stanley's transformer design became the prototype for all future transformers, and his AC distribution system formed the basis of modern electrical power distribution. He was the first person to make an electrical transformer, and his work in the electrification of Great Barrington's Main Street was named an IEEE Milestone.
Agreeing that the AC system had arrived, Westinghouse further tested the system in summer 1886 in Pittsburgh; it transmitted over a distance of 3 miles, and used an alternator designed by Stanley to replace the Siemens model, which regulated voltage poorly. Satisfied with the pilot system, Westinghouse began commercial production and shipped his company's first commercial to Buffalo NY, where a local utility placed it in service. Orders for 25 alternating-current plants followed within months.
In 1890, Stanley founded the Stanley Electric Manufacturing Company in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. In 1903 the General Electric Corporation purchased a controlling interest in the firm. The land on which the company once stood is now the site of the William Stanley Business Park of the Berkshires in Pittsfield.
- U.S. Patent 244,331, Circuit-closer for incandescent lamps
- U.S. Patent 269,132, Electric lamp
- U.S. Patent 316,302, Filament for incandescent electric lamps
- U.S. Patent 322,496, Multiple incandescent electric lamp
- U.S. Patent 323,372, Carbon for incandescent lamps
- U.S. Patent 324,894, Socket for incandescent electric lamp
- U.S. Patent 330,269, Holder for incandescent electric lamp
- U.S. Patent 333,028, Globe for incandescent electric lamp
- U.S. Patent 349,611, Induction coil
- U.S. Patent 349,613, Automatic cut-out for electric-lighting circuits
- U.S. Patent 349,614, Automatic cut-out for electric-lighting circuit
- U.S. Patent 363,559, Incandescent electric lamp 
- U.S. Patent 333,564, System of electric lighting
- U.S. Patent 387,117
- U.S. Patent 428,575
- U.S. Patent 508,188
William married to Lila Courtney (Wetmore) Stanley in 1884. In 1935, their son, Harold Stanley, went on to found the modern day financial firm of Morgan Stanley with J. P. Morgan's grandson, Henry Sturgis Morgan.
- "William Stanley Dies", New York Times, May 15, 1916, pg 9, col 5.
- "William Stanley" (Nov.22, 1858-May 14, 1916), Dictionary of American Biography, Vol XVII, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1935, pg 514.
- "William Stanley", The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol XXIV, James T. White & Co., New York, 1935, pg 394.
- William Stanley (1858–1916) — His Life and Work, Laurence A. Hawkins, The Newcomen Society in North America, New York, 1951.
- Owen, E.L., Rediscovering William Stanley Jr. Part I, Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE, Nov.-Dec. 2003 Volume 9, Issue 6 pg 9- 12 ISSN 1077-2618 INSPEC 7949020 doi:10.1109/MIA.2003.1245790
- "William Stanley Dies". The New York Times. May 15, 1916. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- Thomas Parke Hughes, Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880-1930, p.103-104, (1993)
- "Milestones:Alternating Current Electrification, 1886". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- William Stanley Business Park
- This is the 1886 Stanley-Westinghouse Lamp
- "Harold Stanley, 77, is Dead". The New York Times. May 15, 1963. Retrieved 12 December 2015.