William Stephen Walker
|William Stephen Walker|
Image of Walker from an 1899 group photo
April 13, 1822|
|Died||June 7, 1899
|Allegiance|| United States of America
Confederate States of America
|| United States Army
Confederate States Army
|Years of service||1847–1848 and 1855–1861 (USA)
|Rank|| Captain (USA)
Brigadier General (CSA)
American Civil War
William Stephen Walker (April 13, 1822 – June 7, 1899) was a Confederate States Army brigadier general during the American Civil War (Civil War). He was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania but was raised by an uncle from Mississippi, who was a Secretary of the Treasury and U.S. Senator. Walker served as a first lieutenant in the United States Army during the Mexican-American War from 1847 to 1848. He was discharged in 1848. Walker rejoined the army as captain in the 1st U.S. Cavalry Regiment on March 3, 1855 and served until he resigned on May 1, 1861. Walker was wounded in the left arm and lost his left foot during the Battle of Ware Bottom Church during the Overland Campaign. After the war, he lived at Atlanta, Georgia.
William Stephen Walker was born April 13, 1822 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania but was raised in Mississippi and Washington, D.C. by his uncle, Secretary of the Treasury (under President James K. Polk and Senator Robert J. Walker, who also was originally from Pennsylvania. He attended a private school in Georgetown, D.C..
Walker volunteered for U.S. Army service in the Mexican-American War and was appointed first lieutenant in the infantry on February 27, 1847. On April 9, 1847, he was assigned to the 1st U.S. Regiment of Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen, a light infantry regiment. He was regimental adjutant between May 1, 1847 and June 15, 1847. Walker was appointed a brevet captain for his role in the Battle of Chapultepec, September 13, 1847. With the disbanding of the Voltiguer regiment at the end of the war, Walker was discharged on August 31, 1848.
American Civil War service
William S. Walker resigned from the U.S. Army on May 1, 1861. He had already been appointed a captain in the infantry of the Army of the Confederate States (the regular army of the Confederate States) on March 16, 1861 or, according to other versions, was appointed to this position soon after his resignation from the U.S. Army. He was appointed as from Florida. Early in the war, he served as a mustering officer. Walker served as an aide-de-camp to General Robert E. Lee from November 5, 1861 to December 1861.
Walker served as assistant inspector general, Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida, December 1861 to March 14, 1862. He was promoted to colonel and assistant inspector general on March 22, 1862. On May 29, 1862, Walker was in immediate command of a force which drove off a Union Army force at the First Battle of Pocotaligo, South Carolina as they tried to expand their bridgehead from Port Royal, South Carolina gained at the Battle of Port Royal, on November 7, 1861. Walker was promoted to brigadier general on October 22, 1862. He was alternately twice in charge of the Third Subdistrict and Fourth Subdistrict of the District of South Carolina. He was in command at Kinston, North Carolina, where he had just gone on April 29, 1864, when he was called to help General P.G.T. Beauregard defend Petersburg, Virginia during the Overland Campaign on May 17, 1864. With the sudden injury of Brigadier General Nathan George Evans, Walker would take command of the "Tramp Brigade" which consisted of the 17th, 18th, 22nd, 23rd, and 26th South Carolina Infantry Regiments, the Holcombe Legion Infantry Regiment and the MacBeth South Carolina Artillery.
On May 20, 1864, William Stephen Walker was severely wounded and captured at the Battle of Ware Bottom Church during the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. He was wounded in the left arm and lost his left leg after he led a charge into the Union line and was subjected to a rifle volley after refusing to surrender and then captured. Walker thought he was mortally wounded but was saved by Union surgeon John J. Craven at Fort Monroe, who amputated his leg. He was exchanged on October 29, 1864. Walker served at Weldon, North Carolina from October 29, 1864 to May 1, 1865 and was in command in North Carolina at the end of the war. He was paroled at Greensboro, North Carolina on May 1, 1865.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. p. 551.
- Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 0-8071-0823-5. p. 324.
- Longacre, Edward G. "Walker, William Stephen" in Historical Times Illustrated History of the Civil War, edited by Patricia L. Faust. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. ISBN 978-0-06-273116-6. p. 799.
- Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 0-8160-1055-2. p. 687.
- The March 16, 1861 date may have been a backdated date of rank to give Walker seniority over some others also appointed to the same grade.
- Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: McKay, 1988. ISBN 0-8129-1726-X. First published New York, McKay, 1959. pp. 886–887
- Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: McKay, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8129-1726-0. First published 1959 by McKay.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1.
- Longacre, Edward G. "Walker, William Stephen" in Historical Times Illustrated History of the Civil War, edited by Patricia L. Faust. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. ISBN 978-0-06-273116-6.
- Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4.
- Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9.