William Tell Overture
The William Tell Overture is the overture to the opera William Tell (original French title Guillaume Tell), whose music was composed by Gioachino Rossini. William Tell premiered in 1829 and was the last of Rossini's 39 operas, after which he went into semi-retirement, although he continued to compose cantatas, sacred music and secular vocal music. The overture is in four parts, each following without pause.
There has been repeated use (and sometimes parody) of parts of this overture in both classical music and popular media, most famously as the theme music for The Lone Ranger in radio, television and film. It was also used as the theme music for the British television series The Adventures of William Tell.
Franz Liszt prepared a piano transcription of the overture in 1838 (S.552) which became a staple of his concert repertoire. There are also transcriptions by other composers, including versions by Louis Gottschalk for two and four pianos and a duet for piano and violin.
The overture is scored for: a piccolo, a flute, two oboes (first or second oboe doubles a cor anglais), two clarinets in A, two bassoons, four French horns in G and E, two trumpets in E, three trombones, timpani, triangle, bass drum and cymbals, and strings.
The overture, which lasts for approximately 12 minutes, paints a musical picture of life in the Swiss Alps, the setting of the opera. It was described by Berlioz (who usually loathed Rossini's works) as "a symphony in four parts", but unlike a symphony with its discrete movements, the overture's parts transition from one to the next without any break.
The Prelude is a slow passage in E major, scored for five solo cellos accompanied by double basses. It begins in E minor with a solo cello which is in turn 'answered' by the remaining cellos and the double basses. An impending storm is hinted at by two very quiet timpani rolls resembling distant thunder. The section ends with a very high sustained note played by the first cello.
This dynamic section in E minor is played by the full orchestra. It begins with the violins and violas. Their phrases are punctuated by short wind instrument interventions of three notes each, first by the piccolo, flute and oboes, then by the clarinets and bassoons. The storm breaks out in full with the entrance of the French horns, trumpets, trombones, and bass drum. The volume and number of instruments gradually decreases as the storm subsides. The section ends with the flute playing alone.
Ranz des Vaches
This pastorale section in G major signifying the calm after the storm begins with a Ranz des Vaches or "Call to the Cows", featuring the cor anglais (English horn). The horn then plays in alternating phrases with the flute, culminating in a duet with the triangle accompanying them in the background. The melody appears several times in the opera, including the final act, and takes on the character of a leitmotif. This segment is often used in animated cartoons to signify daybreak, most notably in Walt Disney's The Old Mill.
Finale, March Of The Swiss Soldiers
The Finale, often called the "March of the Swiss Soldiers" in English, is in E major like the Prelude, but is an ultra-dynamic galop heralded by trumpets and played by the full orchestra. It alludes to the final act, which recounts the Swiss soldiers' victorious battle to liberate their homeland from Austrian repression. Although there are no horses or cavalry charges in the opera, this segment is often used in popular media to denote galloping horses, a race, or a hero riding to the rescue. Its most famous use in that respect is as the theme music for The Lone Ranger, so famous that the term "intellectual" has been defined as "a man who can listen to the William Tell Overture without thinking of the Lone Ranger." The Finale is also quoted by Dmitri Shostakovich in the first movement of his Symphony No. 15.
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Described by David Wondrich as a "frequent target of plunder by brass bands in the years during which they dominated the American musical landscape", the overture features prominently in Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse cartoon The Band Concert. It has also been used in cartoons parodying classical music (e.g. Bugs Bunny's Overtures to Disaster in which the overture's finale is performed by Daffy Duck and Porky Pig) or Westerns (e.g. Bugs Bunny Rides Again). The finale has also been sung with especially written lyrics by Daffy Duck in Yankee Doodle Daffy and by a quartet of singing policemen (as "Happy Anniversary") in the Flintstones episode "The Hot Piano". It also appears to be a musical counterpart to the popular American folk song, "Turkey in the Straw", as proven in the aforementioned film, The Band Concert, as Donald Duck keeps playing it while Mickey's band plays the William Tell Overture and the two melodies seem to jell.
One of the most frequently used pieces of classical music in American advertising, the overture (especially its finale) appears in numerous ads, with psychologist Joan Meyers-Levy suggesting that it is particularly suitable for those targeting male consumers. It was used in a hip-hop version by DJ Shadow to accompany the 2001 "Defy Convention" advertisement campaign for Reebok athletic shoes and in an electronic version for a 2008 Honda Civic campaign.
Amongst the films which feature the overture prominently is Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange, where the finale is played during the fast motion orgy scene. The less frequently heard introductory portion of the overture is used as somber mood music later in the film. The overture is one of several pieces of classical music in the film's sound track which also includes the overture from Rossini's La gazza ladra, Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance, and Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade.
The overture, especially its finale, also features in several sporting events. It has been used by the Hong Kong Jockey Club for many years. During the third time-out of every second half at Indiana University basketball games, the Indiana pep band and cheerleading squad perform the overture with cheerleaders racing around the court carrying eighteen flags. Indiana public address announcer Chuck Crabb said the tradition began in about 1979 or 1980. Sportscaster Billy Packer called it "the greatest college timeout in the country."
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- The quote has been attributed to Jack Guin writing in the Denver Post in 1962. (Brooklyn Barrister (1962), Volume 14, p. 107). Variations of the quote have also been attributed to Dan Rather (Davis, E. Gene (2007). Get 'Em Laughing, p. 329. Trafford Publishing) and David Frost (BBC News (23 March 2013). "A Point of View: Hi-yo, silver screen").
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- Meyers-Levy, Joan (1993). "Gender Differences in Cortical Organization: Social and Biochemical Antecedents and Advertising Consequences" in Attention, Attitude, and Affect in Response to Advertising (edited by E. Clark, T. Brock, and D. Stewart). Routledge, p. 117. ISBN 0-8058-0756-X
- Hickey, Lisa (2002). Design secrets: 50 real-life projects uncovered. Rockport Publishers, p. 145. ISBN 1-56496-663-1
- Alana Semuels, Alana (October 13, 2008). "New way to tout cars: a musical road". Los Angeles Times
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- McDougal, Stuart Y. (ed.) (2003). Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange, pp. 99, 125. Cambridge University Press
- Anthony, Ted (15 June 1997). "Hong Kong's last colonial race day brings out the bets". Associated Press. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Laskowski, John (2012). Tales from the Indiana Hoosiers Locker Room. Skyhorse Publishing Inc.
- Further reading
- Kirby, Percival R. (1952). "Rossini's Overture to 'William Tell'", Music & Letters, Vol. 33, No. 2 (April 1952), pp. 132–140 (subscription required)
- William Tell. Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project, including Rossini's original score and variations and transcriptions by Louis Niedermeyer, Louis Gottschalk, and Franz Liszt.