William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley
Earl of Dudley
|4th Governor-General of Australia|
9 September 1908 – 31 July 1911
|Monarch||Edward VII |
|Prime Minister||Alfred Deakin|
|Preceded by||Lord Northcote|
|Succeeded by||Lord Denman|
|Lord Lieutenant of Ireland|
11 August 1902 – 11 December 1905
|Prime Minister||Arthur Balfour|
|Preceded by||Lord Cadogan|
|Succeeded by||Lord Aberdeen|
|Born||25 May 1867|
|Died||29 June 1932 (aged 65)|
Rachel Gurney (m. 1891–1920)
Gertie Millar (m. 1924)
William Humble Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, TD, PC (25 May 1867 – 29 June 1932), was a British aristocrat, politician, and military officer who served as the fourth Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1908 to 1911. He was previously Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1902 to 1905, and also a government minister under Lord Salisbury.
Dudley was the son of William Ward, 1st Earl of Dudley, and succeeded to the earldom at the age of 17. He inherited a substantial fortune and the palatial family seat at Witley Court. Dudley sat with the Conservative Party in the House of Lords, and was Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade from 1895 to 1902. He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland when Arthur Balfour came to power, and was regarded as a competent administrator. His time in Dublin led to his inclusion as a character in James Joyce's Ulysses.
In part due to the urging of King Edward VII, a longtime acquaintance, Dudley was appointed Governor-General of Australia in 1908. His extravagance and pomposity made him unpopular among the general public, and his attempts to interfere in political matters rankled both prime ministers he worked with (Andrew Fisher and Alfred Deakin). Deakin regarded him as doing "nothing really important, nothing thoroughly, nothing consistently [...] very ineffective and not very popular". He was recalled to England after less than three years in office.
Dudley took command of the Queen's Own Worcestershire Hussars in 1913. He had first joined the army as a young man, and during the Second Boer War served with the Imperial Yeomanry. In World War I, Dudley commanded the Hussars for the initial stages of the Gallipoli Campaign, but he returned to England before its conclusion. He was later attached to the headquarters staff of the 40th Division, and retired with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Dudley had seven children with his first wife, and was succeeded in the earldom by his oldest son William.
Background and education
Dudley was born in London, the son of William Ward, 1st Earl of Dudley, and Georgina, daughter of Sir Thomas Moncrieff, 7th Baronet. He was educated at Eton. His father died in 1885 and he inherited nearly 30,000 acres (120 km2) of mineral deposits in Staffordshire and Worcestershire, two hundred coal and iron mines, several iron works (including the Round Oak Steelworks) and a substantial fortune, as well as the Earldom. He visited Australia in 1886–87 as part of a yachting cruise. Dudley became part of the social circle of the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII), who attended his wedding to Rachel Gurney in 1891. From 1895 to 1896 he was Mayor of Dudley.
Dudley became a Major in the Queen's Own Worcestershire Hussars in 1885. After the outbreak of the Second Boer War, he was in early 1900 seconded for service as a Deputy Assistant Adjutant General for the Imperial Yeomanry, and left for South Africa in the SS Scot in late January that year. He was present at operations in the Oranje Free State in February to May 1900. Some of the actions he was involved with were at Poplar Grover, Driefontein, Vet River, and Zand River. From May to June 1900 he was present at operations in the Transvaal. Some of the actions he was involved with were Johannesburg, Pretoria, and Diamond Hill. He then return to the United Kingdom, and in July to November 1900 he was involved with the suppression of the Irish troubles in Belfast.
By 1913, Lord Dudley, who had taken command of the Hussars in November, was convinced that there was going to be another war in Europe and formed a permanent staff of instructors to train the regiment in musketry. When war was declared in 1914, the Worcestershires formed into the 1st South Midland Mounted Brigade, under the commander of Brigadier E. A. Wiggin. The Brigade was ordered to Egypt and was based in Chatby Camp, near Alexandria, by April 1915. The brigade didn't see any action until they were ordered to prepare to fight as infantry in August. It was at this time that the men were sent to Suvla Bay, and took part in the Gallipoli campaign. The regiment were in support of the Anzacs in their attempt to break through the Turkish defenses. This attack obviously failed miserably, and they were evacuated in January 1916. Lord Dudley had already left the area in 1915, and had been posted to East Mudros as Commandant. In 1916, Lord Dudley was then attached to the headquarters staff of the 40th Infantry Division. Leaving the military in 1916, Lord Dudley retired as a lieutenant colonel.
After Arthur Balfour succeeded as Prime Minister, Lord Dudley was on 11 August 1902 sworn a member of the Privy Council, and appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was sworn in and formally installed as such in a ceremony at Dublin Castle on 16 August 1902, and was also appointed Grand Master of the Order of St. Patrick, as was customary for the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Through his years in Ireland, he displayed great extravagance but also some political and administrative ability. The 1903 Irish Land Act and his cooperation with George Wyndham on a devolution scheme to deal with the Home Rule question were among important milestones. He is immortalized in Joyce's description of his Vice-Regal progress through Dublin in Ulysses.
Governor-General of Australia
As a Conservative, Dudley could not have expected preferment from the Liberal government which came to office in 1905, but King Edward VII pressed the Prime Minister, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman to offer Dudley the post of Governor-General of Australia, and Campbell-Bannerman agreed, since there was apparently no suitable Liberal candidate available. Dudley arrived in Sydney on 9 September 1908, and soon established a reputation for pomp, ceremony and extravagance which was unwelcome to many Australians, particularly the Labor Party and the radical press such as The Bulletin. Not long after his arrival, he found himself swearing in a Labor cabinet under Andrew Fisher, so the Labor Party's disapproval of his vice-regal style became an important issue.
The new Governor-General soon found himself involved in another controversy. It was part of Labor policy to establish an independent Australian navy. The Liberal opposition, on the other hand, supported the campaign for Australia to raise money to build ships for the Royal Navy: the so-called Dreadnought campaign. So when Dudley made a speech in support of the Dreadnought campaign, he was straying into party politics, leading to a tense relationship with Fisher. In 1909 Fisher's minority government resigned, and Dudley refused him an early election. The Liberals returned to office under Alfred Deakin, solving Dudley's immediate problems. But although Fisher was careful not to criticise Dudley in public, the Governor-General had acquired a reputation as "anti-Labor," which made him unpopular with half the Australian electorate.
In April 1910 Labor won a sweeping election victory and Fisher returned to power. Relations between Governor-General and Prime Minister were soon once again frosty. Dudley's insistence on maintaining two very expensive Government Houses, in Sydney and Melbourne, on travelling around the country in vice-regal pomp, and on chartering a steam-yacht to circumnavigate the continent, infuriated Fisher, a frugal Scottish socialist. By October Dudley had recognised the impossibility of his position and asked to be recalled. He left Australia on 31 July 1911, unmarked by any official ceremony. Alfred Deakin wrote of him:
|“||His ambition was high but his interests were short-lived … He did nothing really important, nothing thoroughly, nothing consistently … He remained … a very ineffective and not very popular figurehead.||”|
Marriages and children
Lord Dudley married firstly in 1891 Rachel Anne Gurney (born 8 August 1868) daughter of Charles Henry Gurney (born 5 November 1833) and Alice Prinsep, sister of Laura Gurney, wife of Sir Thomas Herbert Cochrane Troubridge, 4th Baronet Troubridge, and maternal granddaughters of Henry Thoby Prinsep (1793–1878) and wife (m. 1835) Sara Monckton Pattle (Calcutta, 1816–Brighton, 1887). On the outbreak of World War I Rachel established the Australian Voluntary Hospital from doctors and nurse in London. They had seven children:
- Lady Gladys Honor Ward (born 1892, died 5 December 1961)
- William Humble Eric Ward, 3rd Earl of Dudley (born 20 January 1894, died 26 December 1969)
- Lady Morvyth Lillian Ward (born 1896, died 11 March 1959)
- Lt Col Hon Roderick John Ward (born 13 April 1902, died 2 October 1952)
- Lady Alexandra Patrica Ward (born 24 August 1904, died 7 July 1964)
- Gp Capt Hon Edward Frederick Ward (born 20 November 1907, died 1987)
- George Reginald Ward, 1st and last Viscount Ward of Witley (born 20 November 1907, died 15 June 1988)
Lady Dudley drowned on 26 June 1920, aged 51.
Lord Dudley married secondly the actress Gertie Millar, daughter of John Millar, on 30 April 1924.
Dudley died of cancer in London on 29 June 1932 at age 65 and was succeeded by his eldest son, William. Gertie, Countess of Dudley, died in April 1952. The English actress Rachel Ward is his great-granddaughter.
Honours and awards
- Grand Master of The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick, invested as Grand Master on 16 August 1902, on the day he was installed as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and handed over the insignia when he resigned in December 1905 (He was never appointed a knight of the order)
- GCB: Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath
- GCMG: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
- GCVO: Royal Victorian Order, Knight Grand Cross
- Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knight's badge
- Territorial Decoration, with a riband bar
- Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee Medal for Mayors
- King Edward VII Coronation Medal Medal
- King George V Coronation Medal Medal
- Queen's South Africa Medal, 5 clasps (Cape Colony, Johannesburg, Driefontein, Diamond Hill, Belfast)
- Chris Cunneen, 'Dudley, second Earl of (1867–1932)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 8, MUP, 1981, pp 347–348. Additional sources listed by the Australian Dictionary of Biography: Dictionary of National Biography, 1931–40; 'High Court of Justice: Lady Dudley's Separation Allowance', The Times (London), 7 Nov 1918, p 2; 'Death of Lady Dudley', Times (London), 28 June 1920, p 16; 'Obituary: Lord Dudley', Times (London), 30 June 1932, p 16; C. Cunneen, The Role of the Governor-General in Australia 1901–1927 (PhD thesis, Australian National University, 1973); Alfred Deakin papers, MS 1540/19/275 (National Library of Australia).
- "No. 27159". The London Gazette. 30 January 1900. p. 601.
- "No. 27155". The London Gazette. 19 January 1900. p. 362.
- "The War – Embarcation at Southampton". The Times (36051). London. 29 January 1900. p. 10.
- "No. 27464". The London Gazette. 12 August 1902. p. 5173.
- "Mr Balfour´s Ministry - full list of appointments". The Times (36842). London. 9 August 1902. p. 5.
- "No. 27464". The London Gazette. 12 August 1902. p. 5175.
- "Ireland - The swearing-in of Lord Dudley". The Times (36849). London. 18 August 1902. p. 8.
- The Peerage, entry for 2nd Earl of Dudley
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley.|
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Dudley
| Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade
The Earl Cadogan
| Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
The Earl of Aberdeen
The Lord Northcote
| Governor-General of Australia
The Lord Denman
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
| Earl of Dudley
William Humble Eric Ward