Billy the Kid

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Billy the Kid
Billy the Kid corrected.jpg
Enhanced photo of Billy the Kid, c. 1880
Born Henry McCarty
September 17 or November 23, 1859 (disputed)
Manhattan, New York City
Died July 14, 1881 (aged 21)
Fort Sumner, New Mexico
Cause of death Gunshot wound
Resting place Old Fort Sumner Cemetery
34°24′13″N 104°11′37″W / 34.40361°N 104.19361°W / 34.40361; -104.19361 (Billy the Kid's Gravesite)
Other names William H. Bonney, Henry Antrim, Kid Antrim
Occupation
Height 5 ft 7 in (1.70 m) at age 17[1]
Weight 135 lb (61 kg) at age 17[1]
Parent(s)
  • Father: Patrick McCarty
  • Stepfather: William Antrim
  • Mother: Catherine Devine
Relatives Joseph McCarty (brother)

Henry McCarty (1859 – July 14, 1881), also known as William H. Bonney, and known popularly as Billy the Kid, was an American Old West gunfighter who participated in New Mexico's Lincoln County War. He is known to have killed eight men.[2][3]

Before he started using the alias "William Bonney", McCarty's first arrest was for stealing food in late 1875, and within five months he was arrested for stealing clothing and firearms. Two days later, he escaped from jail and fled from New Mexico Territory into the neighboring Arizona Territory, making him both an outlaw and a federal fugitive. After murdering a blacksmith during an altercation in August 1877, Bonney became a wanted man in Arizona Territory and returned to New Mexico, where he joined a group of cattle rustlers. He became a well-known figure in the region when he joined the Regulators and took part in the Lincoln County War. In April 1878, the Regulators killed three men, including Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady and one of his deputies. Bonney and two other Regulators were later charged with killing all three men.

Bonney's notoriety grew in December 1880 when the Las Vegas Gazette in Las Vegas, New Mexico, and The Sun in New York City carried stories about his crimes.[4] Sheriff Pat Garrett captured Bonney later that month. In April 1881, Bonney was tried and convicted of the murder of Brady, and was sentenced to hang in May of that year. He escaped from jail on April 28, 1881, killing two sheriff's deputies in the process and evading capture for more than two months. Garrett shot and killed Bonney—aged 21—in Fort Sumner on July 14, 1881. During the following decades, legends that Bonney had survived that night grew, and a number of men claimed to be him.[5]

Early life[edit]

Henry McCarty was born to Catherine (née Devine) McCarty in New York City. While his birth year has been confirmed to be 1859, the exact date of his birth has been disputed as either September 17 or November 23 of that year. A letter from an official of Saint Peters's Church in Manhattan states it is in possession of records showing McCarty was baptized in that church on September 28, 1859.[a][7][8][9] Census records indicate his younger brother, Joseph McCarty, was born in 1863.[10]

Following the death of her husband Patrick, Catherine McCarty and her sons moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where she met William Henry Harrison Antrim. The McCarty family moved with Antrim to Wichita, Kansas, in 1870.[11] After moving again a few years later, Catherine married Antrim on March 1, 1873, at the First Presbyterian Church in Santa Fe, New Mexico Territory; McCarty and his brother Joseph were witnesses to the ceremony.[12][13] Shortly afterward, the family moved from Santa Fe to Silver City, New Mexico and Joseph McCarty began using the name Joseph Antrim.[10] Catherine McCarty died of tuberculosis on September 16, 1874.[14]

First crimes[edit]

McCarty was 14 years old when his mother died. Sarah Brown, the owner of a boarding house, gave him room and board in exchange for work. On September 16, 1875, McCarty was caught stealing food.[15][16] Ten days later, McCarty and George Schaefer robbed a Chinese laundry, stealing clothing and two pistols. McCarty was charged with theft and was jailed. He escaped two days later and became a fugitive,[15] as reported in the Silver City Herald the next day, the first story published about him. McCarty located his stepfather and stayed with him until Antrim threw him out; McCarty stole clothing and guns from him. It was the last time the two saw each other.[17]

Henry Hooker, one-time employer of Billy the Kid, at his Sierra Bonita Ranch in southeast Arizona

After leaving Antrim, McCarty traveled to southeastern Arizona Territory, where he worked as a ranch hand and gambled his wages in nearby gaming houses.[18] In 1876, he was hired as a ranch hand by well-known rancher Henry Hooker.[19][20] During this time, McCarty became acquainted with John R. Mackie, a Scottish-born criminal and former U.S. Cavalry private who, following his discharge, remained near the U.S. Army post at Camp Grant. The two men soon began stealing horses from local soldiers.[21][22] McCarty became known as "Kid Antrim" because of his youth, slight build, clean-shaven appearance, and personality.[23][24]

On August 17, 1877, McCarty was at a saloon in the village of Bonita when he got into an argument with Francis "Windy" Cahill, a blacksmith who reportedly had bullied McCarty and on more than one occasion, called McCarty a "pimp". McCarty in turn called Cahill a "son of a bitch," whereupon Cahill threw McCarty to the floor and the two struggled for McCarty's revolver. McCarty shot and mortally wounded Cahill. A witness said, "[Billy] had no choice; he had to use his equalizer". Cahill died the following day.[25][26] McCarty fled but returned a few days later and was apprehended by Miles Wood, the local Justice of the Peace. McCarty was detained and held in the Camp Grant guardhouse but escaped before law enforcement could arrive.[27]

McCarty stole a horse and fled Arizona Territory for New Mexico Territory,[28] but Apaches took the horse from him, leaving him to walk many miles to the nearest settlement. At Fort Stanton in the Pecos Valley,[29] McCarty—starving and near death—went to the home of friend and Seven Rivers Warriors gang member John Jones, whose mother Barbara nursed McCarty back to health.[30][31] After regaining his health, McCarty went to Apache Tejo, a former army post, where he joined a band of rustlers who raided herds owned by cattle magnate John Chisum in Lincoln County. After McCarty was spotted in Silver City, his involvement with the gang was mentioned in a local newspaper.[32]

At some point in 1877, McCarty began to refer to himself as "William H. Bonney".[31]

Lincoln County War[edit]

John Henry Tunstall (1853–1878), 1872
Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady, 1872
Dick Brewer, c. 1875

Prelude[edit]

After returning to New Mexico, Bonney worked for English businessman and rancher John Henry Tunstall (1853–1878), as a cowboy near the Rio Felix—a tributary of the Rio Grande—in Lincoln County. Tunstall and his business partner and lawyer Alexander McSween were opponents of an alliance formed by Irish-American businessmen Lawrence Murphy, James Dolan, and John Riley. The three men had wielded an economic and political hold over Lincoln County since the early 1870s, due in part to their ownership of a beef contract with nearby Fort Stanton and a well-patronized dry goods store in Lincoln.

In February 1878, McSween owed $8,000 to Dolan, who obtained a court order and asked Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady to attach nearly $40,000 worth of Tunstall's property and livestock. Tunstall put Bonney in charge of nine prime horses and told him to relocate them to his ranch for safekeeping. Meanwhile, Sheriff Brady assembled a large posse to seize Tunstall's cattle.[33][34]

On February 18, 1878, Tunstall learned of the posse's presence on his land and rode out to intervene. During the encounter, one member of the posse shot Tunstall in the chest, knocking him off his horse. Another posse member took Tunstall's gun and killed him with a shot to the back of his head.[34][35] Tunstall's murder ignited the conflict between the two factions that became known as the Lincoln County War.[34][36]

Build-up[edit]

After Tunstall was killed, Bonney and Dick Brewer swore affidavits against Brady and those in his posse, and obtained murder warrants from Lincoln County justice of the peace John B. Wilson.[37] On February 20, 1878, while attempting to arrest Brady, the sheriff and his deputies found and arrested Bonney and two other men riding with him.[38] Deputy U.S. Marshal Robert Widenmann, a friend of Bonney, and a detachment of soldiers captured Sheriff Brady's jail guards, put them behind bars, and released Bonney and Brewer.[39]

Bonney then joined the Lincoln County Regulators; on March 9 they captured Frank Baker and William Morton, both of whom were accused of killing Tunstall. Baker and Morton were killed while trying to escape.[40]

On April 1, the Regulators ambushed Sheriff Brady and his deputies; Bonney was wounded in the thigh during the battle. Sheriff Brady, and Deputy Sheriff George W. Hindman, were killed.[41] On the morning of April 4, 1878, Buckshot Roberts and Dick Brewer were killed during a shootout at Blazer's Mill. [42] Warrants were issued for several participants on both sides, and Bonney and two others were charged with killing the three men.[43]

Battle of Lincoln (1878)[edit]

On the night of Sunday, July 14, McSween and the Regulators—now a group of fifty or sixty men—went to Lincoln and stationed themselves in the town among several buildings.[44] At the McSween residence were Bonney, Florencio Chavez, Jose Chavez y Chavez, Jim French, Harvey Morris, Tom O'Folliard, and Yginio Salazar, among others. Another group led by Marin Chavez and Doc Scurlock positioned themselves on the roof of a saloon. Henry Newton Brown, Dick Smith and George Coe defended a nearby adobe bunkhouse.[45][46]

On Tuesday, July 16, the newly appointed sheriff George Peppin sent sharpshooters to kill the McSween defenders at the saloon. Peppin's men retreated when one of the snipers, Charles Crawford, was killed by Fernando Herrera. Peppin then sent a request for assistance to Colonel Nathan Dudley, commandant of nearby Fort Stanton. In a reply to Peppin, Dudley refused to intervene but later arrived in Lincoln with troops, turning the battle in favor of the Murphy-Dolan faction.[47][48]

A shooting war broke out on Friday, July 19. McSween's supporters gathered inside his house; when Buck Powell and Deputy Sheriff Jack Long set fire to the building, the occupants began shooting. Bonney and the other men fled the building when all rooms but one were burning. During the confusion, Alexander McSween was shot and killed by Robert W. Beckwith, who was then shot and killed by Bonney.[49][50]

Outlaw[edit]

Bonney and three other survivors of the Battle of Lincoln were near the Mescalero Indian Agency when the agency bookkeeper, Morris Bernstein, was murdered on August 5, 1878. All four were indicted for the murder, despite conflicting evidence that Bernstein had been killed by Constable Atanacio Martinez. All of these indictments except Bonney's were later quashed.[51][52]

New Mexico Territorial Governor Lew Wallace in 1893

On October 5, 1878, U.S. Marshal John Sherman informed newly appointed Territorial Governor and former Army general Lew Wallace that he held warrants for several men, including "William H. Antrim, alias Kid, alias Bonny [sic]" but was unable to execute them "owing to the disturbed condition of affairs in that county, resulting from the acts of a desperate class of men".[53] Wallace issued an amnesty proclamation on November 13, 1878, which pardoned anyone involved in the Lincoln County War since Tunstall's murder. It specifically excluded persons who had been convicted of or indicted for a crime, and therefore excluded Bonney.[54][55]

On February 18, 1879, Bonney and friend Tom O'Folliard were in Lincoln and watched as attorney Huston Chapman was shot and his corpse set on fire. According to eyewitnesses, the pair were innocent bystanders forced at gunpoint by Jesse Evans to witness the murder.[56][57]

Bonney wrote to Governor Wallace on March 13, 1879, with an offer to provide information on the Chapman murder in exchange for amnesty. On March 15, Governor Wallace replied, agreeing to a secret meeting to discussed the case. Bonney met with Wallace in Lincoln on March 17, 1879. During the meeting and in subsequent correspondence, Wallace promised Bonney protection from his enemies and clemency if he would offer his testimony to a grand jury.[58] On March 20, Wallace wrote to Bonney, "to remove all suspicion of understanding, I think it better to put the arresting party in charge of Sheriff Kimbrell [sic] who shall be instructed to see that no violence is used".[59] Bonney responded on the same day, agreeing to testify and confirming Wallace’s proposal for his arrest and detention in a local jail to assure his safety.[60] On March 21, Bonney let himself be captured by a posse led by Sheriff George Kimball of Lincoln County. As agreed, Bonney provided a statement about Chapman's murder and testified in court.[61] However, after Bonney’s testimony, the local district attorney refused to set him free.[62] However, after Bonney’s testimony, the local district attorney refused to set him free.[63] Still in custody several weeks later, Bonney began to suspect Wallace had used subterfuge and would never grant him amnesty. Bonney escaped from the Lincoln County jail on June 17, 1879.[64]

Tom O'Folliard, c. 1875

Bonney avoided further violence until January 10, 1880, when he shot and killed Joe Grant, a newcomer to the area, at Hargrove's Saloon in Fort Sumner, New Mexico.[65] The Santa Fe Weekly New Mexican reported, "Billy Bonney, more extensively known as 'the Kid,' shot and killed Joe Grant. The origin of the difficulty was not learned."[66] According to other contemporary sources, Bonney had been warned Grant intended to kill him. He walked up to Grant, told him he admired his revolver, and asked to examine it. Grant handed it over. Before returning the pistol, which Bonney noticed contained only three cartridges, he positioned the cylinder so the next hammer fall would land on an empty chamber. Grant suddenly pointed his pistol at Bonney's face and pulled the trigger. When it failed to fire, Bonney drew his own weapon and shot Grant in the head. A reporter for the Las Vegas Optic quoted Bonney as saying the encounter "was a game of two and I got there first".[67][68]

In 1880 Bonney formed a friendship with a rancher named Jim Greathouse, who later introduced him to Dave Rudabaugh. On November 29, 1880, Bonney, Rudabaugh and Billy Wilson ran from a posse led by sheriff's deputy James Carlyle. Cornered at Greathouse's ranch, Bonney told the posse they were holding Greathouse as a hostage. Carlyle offered to exchange places with Greathouse, and Bonney accepted the offer. Carlyle later attempted to escape by jumping through a window but he was shot three times and killed. The shoot-out ended in a standoff; the posse withdrew and Bonney, Rudabaugh, and Wilson rode away.[69][70]

A few weeks after the Greathouse incident, Bonney, Rudabaugh, Wilson, Charlie Bowdre, Tom Pickett, and O'Folliard rode into Fort Sumner. Unknown to Bonney and his companions, a posse led by Pat Garrett was waiting for them. The posse opened fire, killing O'Folliard; the rest of the outlaws escaped unharmed.[71][72]

Charlie Bowdre, c. 1880

Capture and escape[edit]

On December 13, 1880, Governor Wallace posted a $500 bounty for Bonney's capture.[73] Pat Garrett continued his search for Bonney; on December 23, following the siege in which Bowdre was killed, Garrett and his posse captured Bonney along with Pickett, Rudabaugh and Wilson at Stinking Springs. The prisoners, including Bonney, were shackled and taken to Fort Sumner, then later to Las Vegas, New Mexico. When they arrived on December 26, they were met by crowds of curious onlookers. The following day, an armed mob gathered at the train depot before the prisoners, who were already on board the train with Garrett, departed for Santa Fe.[74] Deputy Sheriff Romero, backed by the angry group of men, demanded custody of Dave Rudabaugh, who had killed a local jailer. Garrett refused to surrender the prisoner, and a tense confrontation ensued until he agreed to let the sheriff and two other men accompany the party to Santa Fe, where they would petition the governor to release Rudabaugh to them.[75] In a later interview with a reporter, Bonney said he was unafraid during the incident, saying, "if I only had my Winchester I'd lick the whole crowd".[76][77] The Las Vegas (New Mexico) Gazette ran a story from a jailhouse interview following Bonney's capture; when the reporter said Bonney appeared relaxed, he replied, "What's the use of looking on the gloomy side of everything? The laugh's on me this time."[78] During his short career as an outlaw, Bonney was the subject of numerous U.S. newspaper articles, some as far away as New York.[79]

Courthouse and jail, Lincoln, New Mexico

After arriving in Santa Fe, Bonney, seeking clemency, sent Governor Wallace four letters over the next three months. Wallace refused to intervene,[80] and Bonney went to trial in April 1881 in Mesilla, New Mexico.[81] Following two days of testimony, Bonney was found guilty of Sheriff Brady's murder; it was the only conviction secured against any of the combatants in the Lincoln County War. On April 13, Judge Warren Bristol sentenced Bonney to hang, with his execution scheduled for May 13, 1881.[81] According to legend, upon sentencing, the judge told Bonney he was going to hang until he was "dead, dead, dead"; Bonney's response was, "you can go to hell, hell, hell".[82] According to the historical record, he did not speak after the reading of his sentence.[83]

Following his sentencing, Bonney was moved to Lincoln, where he was held under guard on the top floor of the town courthouse. On the evening of April 28, 1881, while Garrett was in White Oaks collecting taxes, Deputy Bob Olinger took five other prisoners across the street for a meal, leaving James Bell, another deputy, alone with Bonney at the jail. Bonney asked to be taken outside to use the outhouse behind the courthouse; on their return to the jail, Bonney—who was walking ahead of Bell up the stairs to his cell—hid around a blind corner, slipped out of his handcuffs, and beat Bell with the loose end of the cuffs. During the ensuing scuffle, Bonney grabbed Bell's revolver and fatally shot him in the back as Bell tried to get away.[84]

Marker noting the site where Deputy Olinger (spelled here as "Ollinger") was killed by Bonney

Bonney, with his legs still shackled, broke into Garrett's office and took a loaded shotgun left behind by Olinger. Bonney waited at the upstairs window for Olinger to respond to the gunshot that killed Bell and called out to him, "Look up, old boy, and see what you get". When Olinger looked up, Bonney shot and killed him.[84][85] After about an hour, Bonney freed himself from the leg irons with an axe.[86] He obtained a horse and rode out of town; according to some stories he was singing as he left Lincoln.[85]

Capture and demise[edit]

While Bonney was on the run, Governor Wallace placed a new $500 bounty on the fugitive's head.[87][88][89] Almost three months after his escape, Garrett, responding to rumors Bonney was in the vicinity of Fort Sumner, left Lincoln with two deputies on July 14, 1881, to question resident Pete Maxwell, a friend of Bonney's.[90] Maxwell, son of land baron Lucien Maxwell, spoke with Garrett the same day for several hours. Around midnight, the pair sat in Maxwell's darkened bedroom when Bonney unexpectedly entered.[91]

Sheriff Pat Garrett, c. 1903

Accounts vary as to the course of events; according to the canonical version, as he entered the room, Bonney failed to recognize Garrett due to the poor lighting. Drawing his revolver and backing away, Bonney asked "¿Quién es? ¿Quién es?" (Spanish for "Who is it? Who is it?"). Recognizing Bonney's voice, Garrett drew his revolver and fired twice. The first bullet struck Bonney in the chest just above his heart, killing him.[91]

A few hours after the shooting, a local justice of the peace assembled a coroner's jury of six people. The jury members interviewed Maxwell and Garrett, and Bonney's body and the location of the shooting were examined. The jury certified the body as Bonney's, and according to a local newspaper, the jury foreman said, "It was the Kid's' body that we examined".[92] Bonney was given a wake by candlelight; he was buried the next day and his grave was denoted with a wooden marker.[93][94]

Five days after Bonney’s killing, Garrett traveled to Santa Fe, New Mexico, to collect the $500 reward offered by Governor Lew Wallace for his capture, dead or alive. William G. Ritch, the acting New Mexico governor, refused to pay the reward.[95] Over the next few weeks, the residents of Las Vegas, Mesilla, Santa Fe, White Oaks, and other New Mexico cities raised over $7,000 bounty reward money for Garrett. A year and four days after Bonney's death, the New Mexico territorial legislature passed a special act to grant Garrett the $500 bounty reward promised by Governor Wallace.[96]

Because people had begun to claim Garrett unfairly ambushed Bonney, Garrett felt the need to tell his side of the story and called upon his friend, journalist Marshall Upson, to ghostwrite a book for him.[97] The book, The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid,[b] was first published in April 1882. Although only a few copies sold following its release, it eventually became a reference for later historians who wrote about Bonney's life.[97]

Rumors of survival[edit]

Over time, legends claiming Bonney was not killed, and that Garrett staged the incident and death out of friendship so Bonney could evade the law, formed and grew.[99] During the next fifty years, a number of men claimed they were Billy the Kid. Most of these claims were easily disproven but two have remained topics of discussion and debate.

In 1948, a central Texas man Ollie P. Roberts—nicknamed Brushy Bill—began claiming he was Billy the Kid and went before New Mexico Governor Thomas Mabry seeking a pardon. Mabry dismissed Roberts' claims, and Roberts died shortly afterwards.[100] Nevertheless, Hico, Texas, Roberts' town of residence, capitalized on his claim by opening a Billy the Kid museum.[101]

John Miller, an Arizona man, also claimed he was Bonney. This was unsupported by his family until 1938, some time after his death. Miller's body was buried in the state-owned Arizona Pioneers' Home Cemetery in Prescott, Arizona; in May 2005, Miller's teeth and bones[102] were exhumed and examined,[103] without permission from the state.[104] DNA samples from the remains were sent to a laboratory in Dallas and tested to compare Miller's DNA with blood samples obtained from floorboards in the old Lincoln County courthouse and a bench where Bonney's body allegedly was placed after he was shot.[105] According to a July 2015 article in the Washington Post, the lab results were "useless".[102]

In 2004, researchers sought to exhume the remains of Catherine Antrim, Bonney's mother, whose DNA would be tested and compared with that of the body buried in William Bonney's grave.[106] As of 2012, her body had not been exhumed.[105]

In 2007,[107] author and amateur historian Gale Cooper filed a lawsuit against the Lincoln County Sheriff's Office under the state Inspection of Public Records Act to produce records of the results of the 2006 DNA tests and other forensic evidence collected in the Billy the Kid investigations.[108] In April 2012, 133 pages of documents were provided; they offered no conclusive evidence confirming or disproving the generally accepted story of Garret's killing of Bonney, [107] but confirmed the records' existence, and that they could have been produced earlier.[105] In 2014, Cooper was awarded $100,000 in punitive damages but the decision was later overturned by the New Mexico Court of Appeals.[109] The lawsuit ultimately cost Lincoln County nearly $300,000.[107]

In February 2015, historian Robert Stahl petitioned a district court in Fort Sumner asking the state of New Mexico to issue a death certificate for Bonney.[92] In July 2015, Stahl filed suit in the New Mexico Supreme Court. The suit asked the court to order the state's Office of the Medical Investigator to officially certify Bonney's death under New Mexico state law.[110]

Legacy[edit]

Photographs[edit]

As of 2018, only one photograph confirmed to show Bonney is known to exist; others thought to depict him are disputed.[111]

Dedrick ferrotype[edit]

Unretouched original ferrotype of Bonney, c. 1880

One of the few remaining artifacts of Bonney's life is an iconic 2-by-3-inch (5.1-by-7.6-centimeter) ferrotype photograph of Bonney by an unknown portrait photographer in late 1879 or early 1880. The image shows Bonney wearing a vest over a sweater, a slouch cowboy hat, and a bandanna, while holding an 1873 Winchester rifle with its butt resting on the floor. For years, this was the only photograph scholars and historians agreed showed Bonney.[88] The ferrotype survived because Bonney's friend Dan Dedrick kept it after the outlaw's death. It was passed down through Dedrick's family, and was copied several times, appearing in numerous publications during the 20th century. In June 2011, the original plate was bought at auction for $2.3 million by businessman William Koch.[112][113]

The image shows Bonney wearing his holstered Colt revolver on his left side. This led historians to believe he was left-handed, but they did not take into account that the ferrotype process produces reversed images.[114] In 1954, western historians James D. Horan and Paul Sann wrote that Bonney was "right-handed and carried his pistol on his right hip".[115] The opinion was confirmed by Clyde Jeavons, a former curator of the National Film and Television Archive.[116] Several historians have written that Bonney was ambidextrous.[117][118][119][120]

Croquet tintype[edit]

One of the disputed photos is a ferrotype purchased at a memorabilia shop in Fresno, California, in 2010 for $2.00 by Randy Guijarro. In it are what appear to be Bonney and members of the Regulators playing croquet.[121] The photograph, known popularly as the Croquet Tintype, was examined by Old West history and photography experts to confirm its authenticity.[122] Some, including collector Robert G. McCubbin and outlaw historian John Boessenecker, informed the owner as early as 2013 that the photograph does not show Bonney.[123] Whitny Braun, a professor and researcher, located an advertisement for croquet sets sold at Chapman's General Store in Las Vegas, New Mexico, dated to June 1878. Kent Gibson, a forensic video and still image expert, offered the services of his facial recognition software, and stated that Bonney is one of the individuals in the image.[122]

Detail from photograph purported to show Bonney (left) playing croquet in New Mexico in 1878

In August 2015, Lincoln State Monument officials and the New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs said that despite the new research, they could not confirm the Croquet Tintype was a picture of Bonney or others from the Lincoln County War era, according to Monument manager Gary Cozzens. A photograph curator at the Palace of the Governors archives, Daniel Kosharek, said the image is "problematic on a lot of fronts", including the small size of the figures and the lack of resemblance of the background landscape to Lincoln County or the state in general.[122] This skepticism was echoed a few days prior to the October 18, 2015, premiere of television documentary Billy The Kid: New Evidence on the National Geographic Channel,[124][125] when True West Magazine published an article about the photograph's authenticity that said, "no one in our office thinks this photo is of the Kid [and the Regulators]".[123]

In early October 2015, Kagin's, Inc., a numismatic authentication firm, said the image was authentic after a number of experts, including those associated with the National Geographic special, examined it.[126] Kagin's has insured the tintype for $5 million.[127]

Posthumous pardon request[edit]

In 2010, New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson turned down a request for a posthumous pardon of Bonney for the murder of Sheriff William Brady. The pardon considered was to fulfill Governor Lew Wallace's 1879 promise to Bonney. Richardson's decision, citing "historical ambiguity", was announced on December 31, 2010; his last day in office.[128][129]

Grave marker[edit]

Joint grave marker of O'Folliard, Bonney AKA Billy the Kid, and Bowdre, at Fort Sumner, New Mexico

In 1931, Charles W. Foor, an unofficial tour guide at Fort Sumner Cemetery, campaigned to raise funds for a permanent marker for the graves of Bonney, O'Folliard, and Bowdre. As a result of his efforts, a stone memorial marked with the names of the three men and their death dates beneath the word "Pals" was erected in the center of the burial area.[130]

Grave marker for Bonney

In 1940, stone cutter James N. Warner of Salida, Colorado, made and donated to the cemetery a new marker for Bonney's grave.[131] It was stolen on February 8, 1981, but recovered days later in Huntington Beach, California. New Mexico Governor Bruce King arranged for the county sheriff to fly to California to return it to Fort Sumner,[132] where it was reinstalled in May 1981. Although both markers are behind iron fencing, a group of vandals entered the enclosure at night in June 2012 and tipped the stone over.[133]

Selected references in popular culture[edit]

Artwork[edit]

Dick Brewer, Billy the Kid, and the Regulators by Andy Thomas
  • Dick Brewer, Billy the Kid, and the Regulators; a painting by artist Andy Thomas[134]

Literature[edit]

Film[edit]

Music[edit]

Stage[edit]

Television and radio[edit]

Video game[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Letter from Rev. James B. Roberts, Church of St. Peter, New York City, to Jack DeMattos, March 24, 1979.[6]
  2. ^ The full title of the Garrett-Upson book was The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid, the Noted Desperado of the Southwest, Whose Deeds of Daring and Blood Made His Name a Terror in New Mexico, Arizona and Northern Mexico. By Pat. F. Garrett, Sheriff of Lincoln Co., N.M., By Whom He Was Finally Hunted Down and Captured by Killing Him.[98]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Utley 1989, p. 15.
  2. ^ Rasch 1995, pp. 23–35.
  3. ^ Wallis 2007, pp. 244–245.
  4. ^ Utley 1989, pp. 145–146.
  5. ^ "The Old Man Who Claimed to Be Billy the Kid". Atlas Obscura. March 30, 2017. Archived from the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2017. 
  6. ^ DeMattos 1980.
  7. ^ Nolan 2009, pp. 1–6.
  8. ^ Rasch & Mullin 1953, pp. 1–5.
  9. ^ Rasch 1954, pp. 6–11.
  10. ^ a b Nolan 1998, pp. 15, 29.
  11. ^ Wallis 2007, p. 15.
  12. ^ Nolan 1998, pp. 17–19.
  13. ^ Nolan 2009, p. 7.
  14. ^ Nolan 2009, p. 8.
  15. ^ a b "Billy The Kid: Facts, information and articles about Billy The Kid, famous outlaw, and a prominent figure from the Wild West". HistoryNet.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2016. 
  16. ^ Grant County Herald (Silver City, New Mexico), September 26, 1875.
  17. ^ Wallis 2007, pp. 94–95.
  18. ^ Wallis 2007, p. 103.
  19. ^ "Billy the Kid". State of New Mexico. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2016. 
  20. ^ Utley 1989, pp. 10–11.
  21. ^ Wallis 2007, p. 107.
  22. ^ Utley 1989, pp. 11–12.
  23. ^ Wallis 2007, pp. 110–111.
  24. ^ Utley 1989, pp. 16.
  25. ^ Radbourne, Allan; Rasch, Philip J. (August 1985). "The Story of 'Windy' Cahill". Real West (204): 22–27. 
  26. ^ "This Date in History – August 17, 1877 – Billy the Kid kills his first man". History Channel. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016. 
  27. ^ Wroth, William H. "Billy the Kid". New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016. 
  28. ^ Wallis 2007, p. 119.
  29. ^ Nolan 1998, p. 77.
  30. ^ Hays, Chad (March 19, 2013). "Ma'am Jones A stitch in time". True West Magazine. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2016. 
  31. ^ a b Wallis 2007, p. 144.
  32. ^ Wallis 2007, pp. 123–131.
  33. ^ Nolan 2009, pp. 188–190.
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]